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Montecchio Cave, Semproniano, Grosseto Province, Tuscany, Italyi
Regional Level Types
Montecchio CaveCave
SempronianoMunicipality
Grosseto ProvinceProvince
TuscanyRegion
ItalyCountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
42° 42' 16'' North , 11° 30' 25'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Köppen climate type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Capanne101 (2014)3.7km
Semproniano487 (2014)3.9km
Saturnia292 (2014)4.2km
Poggio Murella287 (2014)4.8km
Catabbio203 (2014)4.9km
Other Languages:
Italian:
Grotta di Montecchio, Semproniano, Provincia di Grosseto, Toscana, Italia


Montecchio cave opens at 320 m asl on the south slope of Poggio di Montecchio, in a small outcrop of Jurassic "Calcare Massiccio" (Lower Hettangian), close to the Albegna River. The cave is located in a territory rich in thermal waters, including the famous Saturnia thermal springs (situated 4 km to the south from the cave in the municipal territory of Manciano).

This cave, with a development of over 1700 m, is characterised by the presence of a thermal aquifer (temperature above 30°C and high sulphate content) at a depth of 100 m below the entrance. The cave hosts large gypsum deposits, starting from 40 m below the entrance, originated from the reaction between sulphuric acid and the carbonate hostrock. The lower part of the cave hosts calcite raft deposits over 1 m thick.

Samples of weathering products have been recently analysed (De Waele et al., 2013). Residual minerals (quartz, feldspar), some oxides and hydroxides (hematite, goethite, and böhmite), weathering silicate products (chlorite and illite) have been identified. The products of acid weathering are particularly interesting, like those derived from calcite (gypsum) and from clays (alunite, jarosite, and kaolinite).

Regions containing this locality

Eurasian PlateTectonic Plate
EuropeContinent

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


10 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Alunite
Formula: KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: De Waele, J., Galli, E., Piccini, L., and Rossi, A. (2013) Descrizione morfologica e mineralogica della grotta ipogenica sulfurea di Montecchio (Grosseto, Toscana). In: Cucchi, F., and Gudi, P. (eds.), Atti del XXI Congresso Nazionale di Speleologia “Diffusione delle conoscenze”, Sessione Attività di esplorazione e ricerca. Trieste 2-5 giugno 2011. Edizioni Università di Trieste, Trieste, 380-386; Piccini, L., De Waele, J., Galli, E., Polyak, V.J., Bernasconi, S.M., and Asmeron, Y. (2015) Sulphuric acid speleogenesis and landscape evolution: Montecchio cave, Albegna river valley (Southern Tuscany, Italy). Geomorphology, 229, 134–143; D’Angeli, M.I., De Waele, J., Carbone, C., Parise, M., Madonia, G., and Vattano, M. (2017) Secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. In: Moore, K., White, S. (eds.), Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Speleology, Sidney, NSW, Australia, July 22-28, 2017. Australian Speleological Federation Inc., Sideney, Vol.1, 237-241; D'Angeli, I. M., Carbone, C., Nagostinis, M., Parise, M., Vattano, M., Madonia, G., and De Waele, J. (2018) New insights on secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. International Journal of Speleology, 47, 3, 271-291.
Böhmite
Formula: AlO(OH)
Reference: De Waele, J., Galli, E., Piccini, L., and Rossi, A. (2013) Descrizione morfologica e mineralogica della grotta ipogenica sulfurea di Montecchio (Grosseto, Toscana). In: Cucchi, F., and Gudi, P. (eds.), Atti del XXI Congresso Nazionale di Speleologia “Diffusione delle conoscenze”, Sessione Attività di esplorazione e ricerca. Trieste 2-5 giugno 2011. Edizioni Università di Trieste, Trieste, 380-386; Piccini, L., De Waele, J., Galli, E., Polyak, V.J., Bernasconi, S.M., and Asmeron, Y. (2015) Sulphuric acid speleogenesis and landscape evolution: Montecchio cave, Albegna river valley (Southern Tuscany, Italy). Geomorphology, 229, 134–143; D’Angeli, M.I., De Waele, J., Carbone, C., Parise, M., Madonia, G., and Vattano, M. (2017) Secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. In: Moore, K., White, S. (eds.), Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Speleology, Sidney, NSW, Australia, July 22-28, 2017. Australian Speleological Federation Inc., Sideney, Vol.1, 237-241; D'Angeli, I. M., Carbone, C., Nagostinis, M., Parise, M., Vattano, M., Madonia, G., and De Waele, J. (2018) New insights on secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. International Journal of Speleology, 47, 3, 271-291.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: De Waele, J., Galli, E., Piccini, L., and Rossi, A. (2013) Descrizione morfologica e mineralogica della grotta ipogenica sulfurea di Montecchio (Grosseto, Toscana). In: Cucchi, F., and Gudi, P. (eds.), Atti del XXI Congresso Nazionale di Speleologia “Diffusione delle conoscenze”, Sessione Attività di esplorazione e ricerca. Trieste 2-5 giugno 2011. Edizioni Università di Trieste, Trieste, 380-386; Piccini, L., De Waele, J., Galli, E., Polyak, V.J., Bernasconi, S.M., and Asmeron, Y. (2015) Sulphuric acid speleogenesis and landscape evolution: Montecchio cave, Albegna river valley (Southern Tuscany, Italy). Geomorphology, 229, 134–143; D’Angeli, M.I., De Waele, J., Carbone, C., Parise, M., Madonia, G., and Vattano, M. (2017) Secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. In: Moore, K., White, S. (eds.), Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Speleology, Sidney, NSW, Australia, July 22-28, 2017. Australian Speleological Federation Inc., Sideney, Vol.1, 237-241; D'Angeli, I. M., Carbone, C., Nagostinis, M., Parise, M., Vattano, M., Madonia, G., and De Waele, J. (2018) New insights on secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. International Journal of Speleology, 47, 3, 271-291.
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: De Waele, J., Galli, E., Piccini, L., and Rossi, A. (2013) Descrizione morfologica e mineralogica della grotta ipogenica sulfurea di Montecchio (Grosseto, Toscana). In: Cucchi, F., and Gudi, P. (eds.), Atti del XXI Congresso Nazionale di Speleologia “Diffusione delle conoscenze”, Sessione Attività di esplorazione e ricerca. Trieste 2-5 giugno 2011. Edizioni Università di Trieste, Trieste, 380-386.
'Feldspar Group'
Reference: De Waele, J., Galli, E., Piccini, L., and Rossi, A. (2013) Descrizione morfologica e mineralogica della grotta ipogenica sulfurea di Montecchio (Grosseto, Toscana). In: Cucchi, F., and Gudi, P. (eds.), Atti del XXI Congresso Nazionale di Speleologia “Diffusione delle conoscenze”, Sessione Attività di esplorazione e ricerca. Trieste 2-5 giugno 2011. Edizioni Università di Trieste, Trieste, 380-386.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: De Waele, J., Galli, E., Piccini, L., and Rossi, A. (2013) Descrizione morfologica e mineralogica della grotta ipogenica sulfurea di Montecchio (Grosseto, Toscana). In: Cucchi, F., and Gudi, P. (eds.), Atti del XXI Congresso Nazionale di Speleologia “Diffusione delle conoscenze”, Sessione Attività di esplorazione e ricerca. Trieste 2-5 giugno 2011. Edizioni Università di Trieste, Trieste, 380-386; Piccini, L., De Waele, J., Galli, E., Polyak, V.J., Bernasconi, S.M., and Asmeron, Y. (2015) Sulphuric acid speleogenesis and landscape evolution: Montecchio cave, Albegna river valley (Southern Tuscany, Italy). Geomorphology, 229, 134–143; D’Angeli, M.I., De Waele, J., Carbone, C., Parise, M., Madonia, G., and Vattano, M. (2017) Secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. In: Moore, K., White, S. (eds.), Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Speleology, Sidney, NSW, Australia, July 22-28, 2017. Australian Speleological Federation Inc., Sideney, Vol.1, 237-241; D'Angeli, I. M., Carbone, C., Nagostinis, M., Parise, M., Vattano, M., Madonia, G., and De Waele, J. (2018) New insights on secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. International Journal of Speleology, 47, 3, 271-291.
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: De Waele, J., Galli, E., Piccini, L., and Rossi, A. (2013) Descrizione morfologica e mineralogica della grotta ipogenica sulfurea di Montecchio (Grosseto, Toscana). In: Cucchi, F., and Gudi, P. (eds.), Atti del XXI Congresso Nazionale di Speleologia “Diffusione delle conoscenze”, Sessione Attività di esplorazione e ricerca. Trieste 2-5 giugno 2011. Edizioni Università di Trieste, Trieste, 380-386; Piccini, L., De Waele, J., Galli, E., Polyak, V.J., Bernasconi, S.M., and Asmeron, Y. (2015) Sulphuric acid speleogenesis and landscape evolution: Montecchio cave, Albegna river valley (Southern Tuscany, Italy). Geomorphology, 229, 134–143; D’Angeli, M.I., De Waele, J., Carbone, C., Parise, M., Madonia, G., and Vattano, M. (2017) Secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. In: Moore, K., White, S. (eds.), Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Speleology, Sidney, NSW, Australia, July 22-28, 2017. Australian Speleological Federation Inc., Sideney, Vol.1, 237-241; D'Angeli, I. M., Carbone, C., Nagostinis, M., Parise, M., Vattano, M., Madonia, G., and De Waele, J. (2018) New insights on secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. International Journal of Speleology, 47, 3, 271-291.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: De Waele, J., Galli, E., Piccini, L., and Rossi, A. (2013) Descrizione morfologica e mineralogica della grotta ipogenica sulfurea di Montecchio (Grosseto, Toscana). In: Cucchi, F., and Gudi, P. (eds.), Atti del XXI Congresso Nazionale di Speleologia “Diffusione delle conoscenze”, Sessione Attività di esplorazione e ricerca. Trieste 2-5 giugno 2011. Edizioni Università di Trieste, Trieste, 380-386; Piccini, L., De Waele, J., Galli, E., Polyak, V.J., Bernasconi, S.M., and Asmeron, Y. (2015) Sulphuric acid speleogenesis and landscape evolution: Montecchio cave, Albegna river valley (Southern Tuscany, Italy). Geomorphology, 229, 134–143; D’Angeli, M.I., De Waele, J., Carbone, C., Parise, M., Madonia, G., and Vattano, M. (2017) Secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. In: Moore, K., White, S. (eds.), Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Speleology, Sidney, NSW, Australia, July 22-28, 2017. Australian Speleological Federation Inc., Sideney, Vol.1, 237-241; D'Angeli, I. M., Carbone, C., Nagostinis, M., Parise, M., Vattano, M., Madonia, G., and De Waele, J. (2018) New insights on secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. International Journal of Speleology, 47, 3, 271-291.
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: De Waele, J., Galli, E., Piccini, L., and Rossi, A. (2013) Descrizione morfologica e mineralogica della grotta ipogenica sulfurea di Montecchio (Grosseto, Toscana). In: Cucchi, F., and Gudi, P. (eds.), Atti del XXI Congresso Nazionale di Speleologia “Diffusione delle conoscenze”, Sessione Attività di esplorazione e ricerca. Trieste 2-5 giugno 2011. Edizioni Università di Trieste, Trieste, 380-386; Piccini, L., De Waele, J., Galli, E., Polyak, V.J., Bernasconi, S.M., and Asmeron, Y. (2015) Sulphuric acid speleogenesis and landscape evolution: Montecchio cave, Albegna river valley (Southern Tuscany, Italy). Geomorphology, 229, 134–143; D’Angeli, M.I., De Waele, J., Carbone, C., Parise, M., Madonia, G., and Vattano, M. (2017) Secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. In: Moore, K., White, S. (eds.), Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Speleology, Sidney, NSW, Australia, July 22-28, 2017. Australian Speleological Federation Inc., Sideney, Vol.1, 237-241; D'Angeli, I. M., Carbone, C., Nagostinis, M., Parise, M., Vattano, M., Madonia, G., and De Waele, J. (2018) New insights on secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. International Journal of Speleology, 47, 3, 271-291.
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: De Waele, J., Galli, E., Piccini, L., and Rossi, A. (2013) Descrizione morfologica e mineralogica della grotta ipogenica sulfurea di Montecchio (Grosseto, Toscana). In: Cucchi, F., and Gudi, P. (eds.), Atti del XXI Congresso Nazionale di Speleologia “Diffusione delle conoscenze”, Sessione Attività di esplorazione e ricerca. Trieste 2-5 giugno 2011. Edizioni Università di Trieste, Trieste, 380-386; Piccini, L., De Waele, J., Galli, E., Polyak, V.J., Bernasconi, S.M., and Asmeron, Y. (2015) Sulphuric acid speleogenesis and landscape evolution: Montecchio cave, Albegna river valley (Southern Tuscany, Italy). Geomorphology, 229, 134–143; D’Angeli, M.I., De Waele, J., Carbone, C., Parise, M., Madonia, G., and Vattano, M. (2017) Secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. In: Moore, K., White, S. (eds.), Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Speleology, Sidney, NSW, Australia, July 22-28, 2017. Australian Speleological Federation Inc., Sideney, Vol.1, 237-241; D'Angeli, I. M., Carbone, C., Nagostinis, M., Parise, M., Vattano, M., Madonia, G., and De Waele, J. (2018) New insights on secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. International Journal of Speleology, 47, 3, 271-291.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: De Waele, J., Galli, E., Piccini, L., and Rossi, A. (2013) Descrizione morfologica e mineralogica della grotta ipogenica sulfurea di Montecchio (Grosseto, Toscana). In: Cucchi, F., and Gudi, P. (eds.), Atti del XXI Congresso Nazionale di Speleologia “Diffusione delle conoscenze”, Sessione Attività di esplorazione e ricerca. Trieste 2-5 giugno 2011. Edizioni Università di Trieste, Trieste, 380-386.
Muscovite var: Illite
Formula: K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Reference: De Waele, J., Galli, E., Piccini, L., and Rossi, A. (2013) Descrizione morfologica e mineralogica della grotta ipogenica sulfurea di Montecchio (Grosseto, Toscana). In: Cucchi, F., and Gudi, P. (eds.), Atti del XXI Congresso Nazionale di Speleologia “Diffusione delle conoscenze”, Sessione Attività di esplorazione e ricerca. Trieste 2-5 giugno 2011. Edizioni Università di Trieste, Trieste, 380-386.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: De Waele, J., Galli, E., Piccini, L., and Rossi, A. (2013) Descrizione morfologica e mineralogica della grotta ipogenica sulfurea di Montecchio (Grosseto, Toscana). In: Cucchi, F., and Gudi, P. (eds.), Atti del XXI Congresso Nazionale di Speleologia “Diffusione delle conoscenze”, Sessione Attività di esplorazione e ricerca. Trieste 2-5 giugno 2011. Edizioni Università di Trieste, Trieste, 380-386; Piccini, L., De Waele, J., Galli, E., Polyak, V.J., Bernasconi, S.M., and Asmeron, Y. (2015) Sulphuric acid speleogenesis and landscape evolution: Montecchio cave, Albegna river valley (Southern Tuscany, Italy). Geomorphology, 229, 134–143; D’Angeli, M.I., De Waele, J., Carbone, C., Parise, M., Madonia, G., and Vattano, M. (2017) Secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. In: Moore, K., White, S. (eds.), Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Speleology, Sidney, NSW, Australia, July 22-28, 2017. Australian Speleological Federation Inc., Sideney, Vol.1, 237-241; D'Angeli, I. M., Carbone, C., Nagostinis, M., Parise, M., Vattano, M., Madonia, G., and De Waele, J. (2018) New insights on secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. International Journal of Speleology, 47, 3, 271-291.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Böhmite4.FE.15AlO(OH)
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Alunite7.BC.10KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Jarosite7.BC.10KFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 9 - Silicates
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Illite9.EC.15K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Chlorite Group'-
'Feldspar Group'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Böhmite6.1.2.1AlO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Alunite30.2.4.1KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Jarosite30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Illite71.2.2d.2K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Chlorite Group'-
'Feldspar Group'-
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H BöhmiteAlO(OH)
H AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
OOxygen
O Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
O CalciteCaCO3
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O HematiteFe2O3
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O BöhmiteAlO(OH)
O AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O QuartzSiO2
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Al BöhmiteAlO(OH)
Al AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si QuartzSiO2
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SSulfur
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
KPotassium
K Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
K AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
FeIron
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
De Waele, J., Galli, E., Piccini, L., and Rossi, A. (2013) Descrizione morfologica e mineralogica della grotta ipogenica sulfurea di Montecchio (Grosseto, Toscana). In: Cucchi, F., and Gudi, P. (eds.), Atti del XXI Congresso Nazionale di Speleologia “Diffusione delle conoscenze”, Sessione Attività di esplorazione e ricerca. Trieste 2-5 giugno 2011. Edizioni Università di Trieste, Trieste, 380-386.
Piccini, L., De Waele, J., Galli, E., Polyak, V.J., Bernasconi, S.M., and Asmeron, Y. (2015) Sulphuric acid speleogenesis and landscape evolution: Montecchio cave, Albegna river valley (Southern Tuscany, Italy). Geomorphology, 229, 134–143.
D’Angeli, M.I., De Waele, J., Carbone, C., Parise, M., Madonia, G., and Vattano, M. (2017) Secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. In: Moore, K., White, S. (eds.), Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Speleology, Sidney, NSW, Australia, July 22-28, 2017. Australian Speleological Federation Inc., Sideney, Vol.1, 237-241.
D'Angeli, I. M., Carbone, C., Nagostinis, M., Parise, M., Vattano, M., Madonia, G., and De Waele, J. (2018) New insights on secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. International Journal of Speleology, 47, 3, 271-291.


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