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Afrikanda complex, Murmanskaya Oblast', Northern Region, Russia

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 67° 25' 52'' North , 32° 45' 20'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 67.4313380124, 32.755561161
Area:7.0 km2
Age:~426 to ~344 Ma
Geologic Time:Paleozoic
Dating method:K-Ar on biotite and Rb-Sr mineral isochron.
Reference for age:Kukharenko et al, 1965
Name(s) in local language(s):массив Африканда
Other/historical region names associated with this locality:Murmanskaja Oblast'; Murmansk Oblast
Other regions containing this locality:Kola Peninsula, Murmanskaya Oblast', Northern Region, Russia
Soviet Union (1922-1991)

Ultrabasic alkaline massif just southwest of the Khibiny massif.

Mineral List

56 valid minerals. 4 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals. 6 erroneous literature entries.

Rock Types Recorded

Entries shown in red are rocks recorded for this region.

Note: this is a very new system on and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!


Mineralization age: Devonian : 390 ± 9 Ma to 376 Ma

Important note: This table is based only on rock and mineral ages recorded below and is not necessarily a complete representation of the geochronology, but does give an indication of possible mineralization events relevant to this locality. As more age information is added this table may expand in the future. A break in the table simply indicates a lack of data entered here, not necessarily a break in the geologic sequence. Grey background entries are from different, related, localities.

Geologic TimeRocks, Minerals and Events
   Late Devonian
ⓘ Biotite (youngest age)376 Ma
   Middle Devonian
ⓘ Biotite (oldest age)390 ± 9 Ma

This page contains all mineral locality references listed on This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.


Chakhmouradian A.R., Zaitsev A.N. (1999): Calcite–amphibole–clinopyroxene rock from the Afrikanda complex, Kola Peninsula, Russia: mineralogy and a possible link to carbonatites. I. Oxide minerals. - Canadian Mineralogist, Vol.37,pp. 177-198.

Chakhmouradian A.R., Zaitsev A.N. (2002) Calcite–Amphibole– Clinopyroxene rock from the Afrikanda complex, Kola peninsula, Russia: mineralogy and a possible link to carbonatites. III. Silicate minerals.

Chakhmouradian, A. R. (2004). Crystal chemistry and paragenesis of compositionally unique (Al-, Fe-, Nb-, and Zr-rich) titanite from Afrikanda, Russia. American Mineralogist, 89(11-12), 1752-1762.

Canadian Mineralogist, Vol.40, pp. 1347-1374.

Chakhmouradian, A. R.; McCammon, C. A. (2005): Schorlomite: a discussion of the crystal chemistry, formula, and inter-species boundaries. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 32, 277-289.

Chakhmouradian, A.R., Cooper, M.A., Medici, L., Abdu, Y.A., Shelukhina, Y.S. (2015): Anzaite-(Ce), a new rare-earth mineral and structure type from the Afrikanda silicocarbonatite, Kola Peninsula, Russia. Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 1231-1244.

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