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Tonopah District, San Antonio Mts, Nye Co., Nevada, USAi
Regional Level Types
Tonopah DistrictMining District
San Antonio MtsMountain Range
Nye Co.County
NevadaState
USACountry

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 38° 4' 59'' North , 117° 13' 9'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 38.08306,-117.21917
GeoHash:G#: 9qu8ssg9g
USGS MRDS Record:10310396
Locality type:Mining District
Köppen climate type:BWk : Cold desert climate


A former Ag-Pb-Cu-Au-W-As mining area located in T2 & 3N, R42E, MDM, around the town of Tonopah. Discovered by James L. Butler in 1900 and started production the same year. Operated during the period 1900 to 1947.

Principal mines include the Mizpah, West End Consolidated, Halifax Tonopah, Jim Butler Tonopah, MacNamara, Mizpah Extension, Montana - Tonopah, North Star, Rescue Eula, Tonopah Belmont, Tonopah Extension, and Tonopah Midway Mines. The most productive of the Tonopah mines were centered between Mount Oddie and Mt. Brougher, near the south end of the San Antonio Mountain Range. Some of the more productive mines were on the southwest flanks of Mount Oddie.

Mineral occurrence model information: Model code: 150; USGS model code: 25c; Deposit model name: Epithermal vein, Comstock; Mark3 model number: 16.

Local rocks include: Welded and non-welded silicic ash-flow tuffs, rhyolitic flows and shallow intrusive rocks. Andesite and related rocks of intermediate composition.

The deposits are hosted in volcanic rocks, including the Early Miocene Mizpah Trachyte (Chronological age: 20.4 with an uncertainty of 0.6); Miocene andesite of the Tonopah Formation; the Tertiary West End Rhyolite; rhyolitic
tuff; volcanic breccia (agglomerate); and tuffaceous sedimentary rocks. Associated rocks include Tertiary rhyolite dikes and intrusives; the Miocene Extension Breccia; the Miocene Sandgrass Andesite and rocks of the Late Pliocene-Late Miocene Esmeralda Formation. Complex faulting has affected rocks in the district. Tertiary volcanic host rocks are nearly flat lying.

Controls for ore emplacement: There is strong structural control of all orebodies. Ore bodies are localized by breccia and gouge zones along the Tonopah fault, the N-S-trending Halifax Fault Zone, the Merton fault, and the Monarch-Pittsburg fault.

Local alteration: The dominant alteration types affecting volcanic host rocks are silicification, sericitization, argillization and kaolinization. Andesite has been altered to chlorite and calcite. Rhyolite has been altered to chlorite, calcite, pyrite, quartz, sericite, and siderite.

Regional geologic structures include the Halifax fault zone, the Tonopah fault. The youngest group trend NE, NW, and N-S with a dip to the W. Local structures include the Tonopah fault.

Major workings consist of the 850-foot Midway No.1 shaft, the 1,625-foot Midway No. 2 shaft, the 972-foot Tonopah Extension No 1 shaft, the 1,440 foot Tonopah Extension No.2 shaft, the 2,375-foot Victor shaft, the 1,650-foot McKane shaft, the 1,670-foot Cash Boy shaft, the 1,718 foot Belmont shaft, the Desert Queen shaft, the 1,050 foot Rescue-Eula shaft, the 462 foot Montana-Tonopah shaft, the 1,000-foot Mizpah Extension shaft, the Wandering Boy shaft, the 300 foot Big Tono shaft, the 490 foot Gold Hill shaft, 238 foot Fraction No. 1 shaft, 400-foot Fraction No. 2 shaft, the 1,200-foot deep Halifax shaft, the 1,212 foot West End shaft, the 800 foot Ohio shaft, and the 700-foot McNamara shaft with workings on the 200, 300, and 375-foot levels as well as many additional underground and surface workings.

Total production from the Tonopah district mines was more than five million tons of ore worth more than $150 million in silver and gold predominantly, with lesser amounts of copper and lead production. At today?s market the value of precious metals produced would be in excess of a billion dollars.

Regions containing this locality

North America PlateTectonic Plate

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

72 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Acanthite
Formula: Ag2S
Aguilarite
Formula: Ag4SeS
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Argyrodite ?
Formula: Ag8GeS6
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Autunite
Formula: Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Bismuthinite
Formula: Bi2S3
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Bromargyrite
Formula: AgBr
Buddingtonite
Formula: (NH4)(AlSi3)O8
Cacoxenite
Formula: Fe3+24AlO6(PO4)17(OH)12 · 75H2O
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Chlorargyrite
Formula: AgCl
Chlorargyrite var: Bromian Chlorargyrite
Formula: Ag(Cl,Br)
Cinnabar
Formula: HgS
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Copper
Formula: Cu
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Creedite
Formula: Ca3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
'Electrum'
Formula: (Au, Ag)
Enargite
Formula: Cu3AsS4
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Epsomite
Formula: MgSO4 · 7H2O
'Feldspar Group'
Ferrimolybdite
Formula: Fe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Galena
Formula: PbS
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Galena var: Argentiferous Galena
Formula: PbS
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Gold
Formula: Au
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Hemimorphite
Formula: Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Hübnerite
Formula: MnWO4
Hydroxylapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
Hydroxylapatite var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
Iodargyrite
Formula: AgI
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'K Feldspar'
'K Feldspar var: Adularia'
Formula: KAlSi3O8
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Manganite
Formula: Mn3+O(OH)
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Meta-autunite
Formula: Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6-8H2O
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Mordenite
Formula: (Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Muscovite var: Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Opal
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Opal var: Opal-AN
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Opal var: Wood Opal
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
'Petrified Wood'
Pharmacosiderite
Formula: KFe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Polybasite
Formula: [(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
Powellite
Formula: Ca(MoO4)
Proustite
Formula: Ag3AsS3
Pseudomalachite
Formula: Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
'Psilomelane'
Pyrargyrite
Formula: Ag3SbS3
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Pyrolusite
Formula: Mn4+O2
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Rhodochrosite
Formula: MnCO3
Rhodonite
Formula: Mn2+SiO3
Scheelite
Formula: Ca(WO4)
Selenium
Formula: Se
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Silver
Formula: Ag
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Stephanite
Formula: Ag5SbS4
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Talc
Formula: Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Tetrahedrite
Formula: Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Tremolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
'Turgite'
Turquoise
Formula: Cu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Uraninite
Formula: UO2
Variscite
Formula: AlPO4 · 2H2O
'Wad'
Wavellite
Formula: Al3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
'Wolframite'
Formula: (Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
Wulfenite
Formula: Pb(MoO4)

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Copper1.AA.05Cu
'Electrum'1.AA.05(Au, Ag)
Gold1.AA.05Au
Selenium1.CC.10Se
Silver1.AA.05Ag
Sulphur1.CC.05S8
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Acanthite2.BA.35Ag2S
Aguilarite2.BA.55Ag4SeS
Argyrodite ?2.BA.70Ag8GeS6
Arsenopyrite2.EB.20FeAsS
Bismuthinite2.DB.05Bi2S3
Bornite2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Cinnabar2.CD.15aHgS
Covellite2.CA.05aCuS
Enargite2.KA.05Cu3AsS4
Galena2.CD.10PbS
var: Argentiferous Galena2.CD.10PbS
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Molybdenite2.EA.30MoS2
Polybasite2.GB.15[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
Proustite2.GA.05Ag3AsS3
Pyrargyrite2.GA.05Ag3SbS3
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Stephanite2.GB.10Ag5SbS4
Tetrahedrite2.GB.05Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Group 3 - Halides
Bromargyrite3.AA.15AgBr
Chlorargyrite3.AA.15AgCl
var: Bromian Chlorargyrite3.AA.15Ag(Cl,Br)
Creedite3.CG.15Ca3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Iodargyrite3.AA.10AgI
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Cuprite4.AA.10Cu2O
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Hübnerite4.DB.30MnWO4
Manganite4.FD.15Mn3+O(OH)
Opal4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
var: Opal-AN4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
var: Wood Opal4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
Pyrolusite4.DB.05Mn4+O2
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Uraninite4.DL.05UO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Aragonite5.AB.15CaCO3
Azurite5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Rhodochrosite5.AB.05MnCO3
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Epsomite7.CB.40MgSO4 · 7H2O
Ferrimolybdite7.GB.30Fe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Jarosite7.BC.10KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Powellite7.GA.05Ca(MoO4)
Scheelite7.GA.05Ca(WO4)
Wulfenite7.GA.05Pb(MoO4)
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Autunite8.EB.05Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
Cacoxenite8.DC.40Fe3+24AlO6(PO4)17(OH)12 · 75H2O
Hydroxylapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
Meta-autunite8.EB.10Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6-8H2O
Pharmacosiderite8.DK.10KFe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Pseudomalachite8.BD.05Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Turquoise8.DD.15Cu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Variscite8.CD.10AlPO4 · 2H2O
Wavellite8.DC.50Al3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Buddingtonite9.FA.30(NH4)(AlSi3)O8
Clinochlore9.EC.55Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Hemimorphite9.BD.10Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Mordenite9.GD.35(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Sericite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Rhodonite9.DK.05Mn2+SiO3
Talc9.EC.05Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Tremolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Feldspar Group'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'K Feldspar'-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Petrified Wood'-
'Psilomelane'-
'Turgite'-
'Wad'-
'Wolframite'-(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Silver1.1.1.2Ag
Semi-metals and non-metals
Selenium1.3.4.1Se
Sulphur1.3.5.1S8
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Acanthite2.4.1.1Ag2S
Aguilarite2.4.1.3Ag4SeS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Argyrodite ?2.5.6.1Ag8GeS6
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Cinnabar2.8.14.1HgS
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Bismuthinite2.11.2.3Bi2S3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Molybdenite2.12.10.1MoS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
ø > 4
Polybasite3.1.7.2[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
ø = 4
Enargite3.2.1.1Cu3AsS4
Stephanite3.2.4.1Ag5SbS4
3 <ø < 4
Tetrahedrite3.3.6.1Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
ø = 3
Proustite3.4.1.1Ag3AsS3
Pyrargyrite3.4.1.2Ag3SbS3
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
AX2
Pyrolusite4.4.1.4Mn4+O2
Group 5 - OXIDES CONTAINING URANIUM OR THORIUM
AXO2·xH2O
Uraninite5.1.1.1UO2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Manganite6.1.3.1Mn3+O(OH)
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX
Bromargyrite9.1.4.2AgBr
Chlorargyrite9.1.4.1AgCl
Iodargyrite9.1.5.1AgI
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 12 - COMPOUND HALIDES
Miscellaneous
Creedite12.1.4.1Ca3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Rhodochrosite14.1.1.4MnCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Epsomite29.6.11.1MgSO4 · 7H2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Jarosite30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
AB2(XO4)2·xH2O, containing (UO2)2+
Autunite40.2a.1.1Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
Meta-autunite40.2a.1.2Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6-8H2O
(AB)5(XO4)2·xH2O
Variscite40.4.1.1AlPO4 · 2H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)5(XO4)2Zq
Pseudomalachite41.4.3.1Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
A5(XO4)3Zq
Hydroxylapatite41.8.1.3Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
Group 42 - HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)5(XO4)3Zq·xH2O
Pharmacosiderite42.8.1a.1KFe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
(AB)7(XO4)4Zq·xH2O
Turquoise42.9.3.1Cu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
A3(XO4)2Zq·xH2O
Wavellite42.10.2.1Al3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
Miscellaneous
Cacoxenite42.13.5.1Fe3+24AlO6(PO4)17(OH)12 · 75H2O
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Hübnerite48.1.1.1MnWO4
Powellite48.1.2.2Ca(MoO4)
Scheelite48.1.2.1Ca(WO4)
Wulfenite48.1.3.1Pb(MoO4)
Group 49 - HYDRATED MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
Hydrated Normal Molybdates and Tungstates
Ferrimolybdite49.2.1.1Fe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] coordination
Hemimorphite56.1.2.1Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=5
Rhodonite65.4.1.1Mn2+SiO3
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Tremolite66.1.3a.1☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Talc71.2.1.3Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Clinochlore71.4.1.4Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with H2O and organics
Opal75.2.1.1SiO2 · nH2O
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Buddingtonite76.1.2.1(NH4)(AlSi3)O8
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
Mordenite77.1.6.1(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Aragonite-CaCO3
Chlorargyrite
var: Bromian Chlorargyrite
-Ag(Cl,Br)
'Electrum'-(Au, Ag)
'Feldspar Group'-
Galena
var: Argentiferous Galena
-PbS
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
Hydroxylapatite
var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite
-Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
'K Feldspar'-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Muscovite
var: Sericite
-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Opal
var: Opal-AN
-SiO2 · nH2O
var: Wood Opal-SiO2 · nH2O
'Petrified Wood'-
'Psilomelane'-
'Turgite'-
'Wad'-
'Wolframite'-(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
H TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
H Hydroxylapatite (var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite)Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
H Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H CacoxeniteFe243+AlO6(PO4)17(OH)12 · 75H2O
H Opal (var: Opal-AN)SiO2 · nH2O
H ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
H HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
H Meta-autuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6-8H2O
H Opal (var: Wood Opal)SiO2 · nH2O
H PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
H TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
H Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H WavelliteAl3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
H FerrimolybditeFe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
H CreediteCa3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
H Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
H OpalSiO2 · nH2O
H Buddingtonite(NH4)(AlSi3)O8
H HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H VarisciteAlPO4 · 2H2O
CCarbon
C RhodochrositeMnCO3
C Hydroxylapatite (var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite)Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
C AragoniteCaCO3
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
C CalciteCaCO3
C SideriteFeCO3
NNitrogen
N Buddingtonite(NH4)(AlSi3)O8
OOxygen
O RhodoniteMn2+SiO3
O RhodochrositeMnCO3
O PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
O TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
O Hydroxylapatite (var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite)Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
O PowelliteCa(MoO4)
O QuartzSiO2
O Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
O BaryteBaSO4
O K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O ScheeliteCa(WO4)
O AragoniteCaCO3
O AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O CacoxeniteFe243+AlO6(PO4)17(OH)12 · 75H2O
O CalciteCaCO3
O Opal (var: Opal-AN)SiO2 · nH2O
O ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O CupriteCu2O
O EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O HematiteFe2O3
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
O HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
O HübneriteMnWO4
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
O Meta-autuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6-8H2O
O Opal (var: Wood Opal)SiO2 · nH2O
O PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
O PyrolusiteMn4+O2
O SideriteFeCO3
O TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
O Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O WavelliteAl3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
O WulfenitePb(MoO4)
O FerrimolybditeFe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
O CreediteCa3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
O Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
O OpalSiO2 · nH2O
O UraniniteUO2
O Buddingtonite(NH4)(AlSi3)O8
O HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O VarisciteAlPO4 · 2H2O
FFluorine
F FluoriteCaF2
F WavelliteAl3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
F CreediteCa3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
MgMagnesium
Mg ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Mg EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
Mg TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Mg Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Al K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al CacoxeniteFe243+AlO6(PO4)17(OH)12 · 75H2O
Al ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al WavelliteAl3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
Al CreediteCa3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
Al Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
Al Buddingtonite(NH4)(AlSi3)O8
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al VarisciteAlPO4 · 2H2O
SiSilicon
Si RhodoniteMn2+SiO3
Si QuartzSiO2
Si K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Opal (var: Opal-AN)SiO2 · nH2O
Si ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
Si HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si Opal (var: Wood Opal)SiO2 · nH2O
Si TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Si Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
Si OpalSiO2 · nH2O
Si Buddingtonite(NH4)(AlSi3)O8
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
PPhosphorus
P PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
P TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
P Hydroxylapatite (var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite)Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
P AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
P CacoxeniteFe243+AlO6(PO4)17(OH)12 · 75H2O
P Meta-autuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6-8H2O
P WavelliteAl3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
P HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
P VarisciteAlPO4 · 2H2O
SSulfur
S EnargiteCu3AsS4
S AcanthiteAg2S
S Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
S PyrargyriteAg3SbS3
S SphaleriteZnS
S GalenaPbS
S BaryteBaSO4
S AguilariteAg4SeS
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S BismuthiniteBi2S3
S CovelliteCuS
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S PyriteFeS2
S CinnabarHgS
S EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
S MarcasiteFeS2
S MolybdeniteMoS2
S ProustiteAg3AsS3
S TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
S StephaniteAg5SbS4
S Galena (var: Argentiferous Galena)PbS
S CreediteCa3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
S SulphurS8
S ArgyroditeAg8GeS6
ClChlorine
Cl ChlorargyriteAgCl
Cl Chlorargyrite (var: Bromian Chlorargyrite)Ag(Cl,Br)
KPotassium
K K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
K Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
K PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
K Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca Hydroxylapatite (var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite)Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
Ca PowelliteCa(MoO4)
Ca ScheeliteCa(WO4)
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
Ca AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca Meta-autuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6-8H2O
Ca Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca CreediteCa3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
Ca Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
Ca HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
MnManganese
Mn RhodoniteMn2+SiO3
Mn RhodochrositeMnCO3
Mn Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
Mn HübneriteMnWO4
Mn ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
Mn PyrolusiteMn4+O2
FeIron
Fe TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Fe Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe CacoxeniteFe243+AlO6(PO4)17(OH)12 · 75H2O
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Fe FerrimolybditeFe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
CuCopper
Cu PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Cu TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Cu EnargiteCu3AsS4
Cu Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu CopperCu
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Zn TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
GeGermanium
Ge ArgyroditeAg8GeS6
AsArsenic
As EnargiteCu3AsS4
As Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
As PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
As ProustiteAg3AsS3
SeSelenium
Se AguilariteAg4SeS
Se SeleniumSe
BrBromine
Br BromargyriteAgBr
Br Chlorargyrite (var: Bromian Chlorargyrite)Ag(Cl,Br)
MoMolybdenum
Mo PowelliteCa(MoO4)
Mo MolybdeniteMoS2
Mo WulfenitePb(MoO4)
Mo FerrimolybditeFe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
AgSilver
Ag IodargyriteAgI
Ag AcanthiteAg2S
Ag Electrum(Au, Ag)
Ag Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
Ag PyrargyriteAg3SbS3
Ag SilverAg
Ag ChlorargyriteAgCl
Ag AguilariteAg4SeS
Ag BromargyriteAgBr
Ag Chlorargyrite (var: Bromian Chlorargyrite)Ag(Cl,Br)
Ag ProustiteAg3AsS3
Ag StephaniteAg5SbS4
Ag ArgyroditeAg8GeS6
SbAntimony
Sb Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
Sb PyrargyriteAg3SbS3
Sb TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Sb StephaniteAg5SbS4
IIodine
I IodargyriteAgI
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
WTungsten
W Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
W ScheeliteCa(WO4)
W HübneriteMnWO4
AuGold
Au Electrum(Au, Ag)
Au GoldAu
HgMercury
Hg CinnabarHgS
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb WulfenitePb(MoO4)
Pb Galena (var: Argentiferous Galena)PbS
BiBismuth
Bi BismuthiniteBi2S3
UUranium
U AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
U Meta-autuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6-8H2O
U UraniniteUO2

Geochronology

Mineralization age: Miocene : 17 ± 0.7 Ma to 15.3 ± 0.6 Ma

Important note: This table is based only on rock and mineral ages recorded below and is not necessarily a complete representation of the geochronology, but does give an indication of possible mineralization events relevant to this locality. As more age information is added this table may expand in the future. A break in the table simply indicates a lack of data entered here, not necessarily a break in the geologic sequence. Grey background entries are from different, related, localities.

Geologic TimeRocks, Minerals and Events
Phanerozoic
 Cenozoic
  Neogene
   Miocene
ⓘ Sericite (youngest age)15.3 ± 0.6 Ma
ⓘ Sericite (oldest age)15.7 ± 0.2 Ma
ⓘ Muscovite15.8 ± 0.5 Ma
ⓘ Adularia (youngest age)16.3 ± 0.5 Ma
ⓘ Adularia (oldest age)17 ± 0.7 Ma

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Spurr, J.E. (1903), The Ore Deposits of Tonopah, Nevada, USGS Bulletin 219.
Spurr, J.E. (1904), The Ore Deposits of Tonopah, Nevada, USGS Bulltin 225: 88-110.
Spurr, J.E. (1905), Geology of the Tonopah Mining District, Nevada, USGS Professional Paper 42.
Locke, A. (1912), The Geology of the Tonopah ining District, Bulltin of the A.I.M.E.: 62: 217-226.
Balliet, L.W. (1914), The Geology of Tonopah, Nevada, Mining and Engineering World: 40: 837-841.
Bastin, Edson S. & Francis B. Laney (1917), The Genesis of the Ores at Tonopah, Nevada. USGS Professional Paper 104.
Lincoln, F.C. (1923), Mining Districts and Mineral Resources of Nevada, Reno, Nevada Newsletter: 19: 186.
Nolan, T. B. (1935), The Underground Geology of the Tonopah ining District Nevada, Nevada University Bulletin: 29(5): 13.
Kral, V. E. (1951), Mineral Resources of Nye County, Nevada, Nevada University Bulletin: 45(3), Geology and Mining Service 50: 171.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, 7th. edition, Volume II: 1096.
Page, L. R., Stocking, H. E., Smith, H. B. (1956), Contributions to the geology of uranium and thorium by the United States Geological Survey and Atomic Energy Commission for the United Nations International Conference on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Geneva, Switzerland, 1955. USGS Professional Paper 300: 351-359.
Lemmon, Dwight Moulton and Tweto, O.L. (1962) Tungsten in the United States, exclusive of Alaska and Hawaii. USGS Mineral Investigative Resources Map MR-25.
Koschmann, A.H. and Bergendahl, M.H. (1968), Principal Gold Producing Districts of the U.S., USGS Professional Paper 610: 194.
Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology (1979), Open File Report 79-3.
USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10310396, 60000041 & 60001666.
Lemmon, D.M., Tungsten deposits in the US; Vol. I, unpublished data.
Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, A mineral inventory of the Tonopah Resource Area, Battle Mountain District, Nevada, Bulletin 99B.
University of Nevada Bulletin 23 "The underground geology of the Tonopah Mining District, Nevada."

Localities in this Region
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