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Tonopah District, San Antonio Mts, Nye Co., Nevada, USA

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 38° 4' 59'' North , 117° 13' 9'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 38.08306,-117.21917
GeoHash:G#: 9qu8ssg9g
Locality type:Mining District
Köppen climate type:BWk : Cold desert climate


A former Ag-Pb-Cu-Au-W-As mining area located in T2 & 3N, R42E, MDM, around the town of Tonopah. Discovered by James L. Butler in 1900 and started production the same year. Operated during the period 1900 to 1947.

Principal mines include the Mizpah, West End Consolidated, Halifax Tonopah, Jim Butler Tonopah, MacNamara, Mizpah Extension, Montana - Tonopah, North Star, Rescue Eula, Tonopah Belmont, Tonopah Extension, and Tonopah Midway Mines. The most productive of the Tonopah mines were centered between Mount Oddie and Mt. Brougher, near the south end of the San Antonio Mountain Range. Some of the more productive mines were on the southwest flanks of Mount Oddie.

Mineral occurrence model information: Model code: 150; USGS model code: 25c; Deposit model name: Epithermal vein, Comstock; Mark3 model number: 16.

Local rocks include: Welded and non-welded silicic ash-flow tuffs, rhyolitic flows and shallow intrusive rocks. Andesite and related rocks of intermediate composition.

The deposits are hosted in volcanic rocks, including the Early Miocene Mizpah Trachyte (Chronological age: 20.4 with an uncertainty of 0.6); Miocene andesite of the Tonopah Formation; the Tertiary West End Rhyolite; rhyolitic
tuff; volcanic breccia (agglomerate); and tuffaceous sedimentary rocks. Associated rocks include Tertiary rhyolite dikes and intrusives; the Miocene Extension Breccia; the Miocene Sandgrass Andesite and rocks of the Late Pliocene-Late Miocene Esmeralda Formation. Complex faulting has affected rocks in the district. Tertiary volcanic host rocks are nearly flat lying.

Controls for ore emplacement: There is strong structural control of all orebodies. Ore bodies are localized by breccia and gouge zones along the Tonopah fault, the N-S-trending Halifax Fault Zone, the Merton fault, and the Monarch-Pittsburg fault.

Local alteration: The dominant alteration types affecting volcanic host rocks are silicification, sericitization, argillization and kaolinization. Andesite has been altered to chlorite and calcite. Rhyolite has been altered to chlorite, calcite, pyrite, quartz, sericite, and siderite.

Regional geologic structures include the Halifax fault zone, the Tonopah fault. The youngest group trend NE, NW, and N-S with a dip to the W. Local structures include the Tonopah fault.

Major workings consist of the 850-foot Midway No.1 shaft, the 1,625-foot Midway No. 2 shaft, the 972-foot Tonopah Extension No 1 shaft, the 1,440 foot Tonopah Extension No.2 shaft, the 2,375-foot Victor shaft, the 1,650-foot McKane shaft, the 1,670-foot Cash Boy shaft, the 1,718 foot Belmont shaft, the Desert Queen shaft, the 1,050 foot Rescue-Eula shaft, the 462 foot Montana-Tonopah shaft, the 1,000-foot Mizpah Extension shaft, the Wandering Boy shaft, the 300 foot Big Tono shaft, the 490 foot Gold Hill shaft, 238 foot Fraction No. 1 shaft, 400-foot Fraction No. 2 shaft, the 1,200-foot deep Halifax shaft, the 1,212 foot West End shaft, the 800 foot Ohio shaft, and the 700-foot McNamara shaft with workings on the 200, 300, and 375-foot levels as well as many additional underground and surface workings.

Total production from the Tonopah district mines was more than five million tons of ore worth more than $150 million in silver and gold predominantly, with lesser amounts of copper and lead production. At today?s market the value of precious metals produced would be in excess of a billion dollars.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

72 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Acanthite
Formula: Ag2S
Reference: NBMG Bull 99B Geology and Mineral Resources of Northern Nye County, Nevada
Aguilarite
Formula: Ag4SeS
Reference: NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: NBMG Bull 99B Geology and Mineral Resources of Northern Nye County, Nevada
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
Argyrodite ?
Formula: Ag8GeS6
Reference: NBMG Bull 99B Geology and Mineral Resources of Northern Nye County, Nevada
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Autunite
Formula: Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
Reference: NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada; Page, L. R.; Stocking, H. E.; Smith, H. B. (1956) Contributions to the geology of uranium and thorium by the United States Geological Survey and Atomic Energy Commission for the United Nations International Conference on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Geneva, Switzerland, 1955. USGS Professional Paper 300 pp351-359
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Reference: NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: NBMG Bull 99B Geology and Mineral Resources of Northern Nye County, Nevada; NBMG Open File Report 79-3
Bismuthinite
Formula: Bi2S3
Reference: NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Bromargyrite
Formula: AgBr
Reference: NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
Buddingtonite
Formula: (NH4)(AlSi3)O8
Cacoxenite
Formula: Fe3+24AlO6(PO4)17(OH)12 · 75H2O
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Chlorargyrite
Formula: AgCl
Reference: NBMG Bull 99B Geology and Mineral Resources of Northern Nye County, Nevada
Chlorargyrite var: Bromian Chlorargyrite
Formula: Ag(Cl,Br)
Reference: NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
Cinnabar
Formula: HgS
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
Copper
Formula: Cu
Reference: NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Creedite
Formula: Ca3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
'Electrum'
Formula: (Au, Ag)
Reference: NBMG Bull 99B Geology and Mineral Resources of Northern Nye County, Nevada
Enargite
Formula: Cu3AsS4
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Epsomite
Formula: MgSO4 · 7H2O
'Feldspar Group'
Ferrimolybdite
Formula: Fe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1096.
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Reference: NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: NBMG Bull 99B Geology and Mineral Resources of Northern Nye County, Nevada
Galena var: Argentiferous Galena
Formula: PbS
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Gold
Formula: Au
Reference: NBMG Bull 99B Geology and Mineral Resources of Northern Nye County, Nevada
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada; NBMG Open File Report 79-3
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
Hemimorphite
Formula: Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Hübnerite
Formula: MnWO4
Reference: NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
Hydroxylapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
Hydroxylapatite var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
Iodargyrite
Formula: AgI
Reference: NBMG Open File Report 79-3
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
'K Feldspar'
Reference: NBMG Bull 99B Geology and Mineral Resources of Northern Nye County, Nevada
'K Feldspar var: Adularia'
Formula: KAlSi3O8
Reference: NBMG Bull 99B Geology and Mineral Resources of Northern Nye County, Nevada
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
Manganite
Formula: Mn3+O(OH)
Reference: NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Meta-autunite
Formula: Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6-8H2O
Reference: NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Mordenite
Formula: (Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: NBMG Bull 99B Geology and Mineral Resources of Northern Nye County, Nevada
Muscovite var: Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: NBMG Bull 99B Geology and Mineral Resources of Northern Nye County, Nevada
Opal
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: Page, L. R.; Stocking, H. E.; Smith, H. B. (1956) Contributions to the geology of uranium and thorium by the United States Geological Survey and Atomic Energy Commission for the United Nations International Conference on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Geneva, Switzerland, 1955. USGS Professional Paper 300 pp351-359
Opal var: Opal-AN
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Opal var: Wood Opal
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
'Petrified Wood'
Reference: NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
Pharmacosiderite
Formula: KFe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Polybasite
Formula: [(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
Reference: NBMG Bull 99B Geology and Mineral Resources of Northern Nye County, Nevada
Powellite
Formula: Ca(MoO4)
Proustite
Formula: Ag3AsS3
Pseudomalachite
Formula: Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Reference: NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
'Psilomelane'
Reference: NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
Pyrargyrite
Formula: Ag3SbS3
Reference: NBMG Bull 99B Geology and Mineral Resources of Northern Nye County, Nevada
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Pyrolusite
Formula: Mn4+O2
Reference: NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: NBMG Bull 99B Geology and Mineral Resources of Northern Nye County, Nevada; NBMG Open File Report 79-3
Rhodochrosite
Formula: MnCO3
Reference: NBMG Bull 99B Geology and Mineral Resources of Northern Nye County, Nevada
Rhodonite
Formula: Mn2+SiO3
Reference: NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
Scheelite
Formula: Ca(WO4)
Reference: NBMG Bull 99B Geology and Mineral Resources of Northern Nye County, Nevada
Selenium
Formula: Se
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Silver
Formula: Ag
Reference: NBMG Bull 99B Geology and Mineral Resources of Northern Nye County, Nevada
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: NBMG Bull 99B Geology and Mineral Resources of Northern Nye County, Nevada
Stephanite
Formula: Ag5SbS4
Reference: NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Reference: Edson S. Bastin & Francis B. Laney. 1917. The Genesis of the Ores at Tonopah, Nevada. USGS Professional Paper 104
Talc
Formula: Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Reference: NBMG Spec Pub 31 Minerals of Nevada
Tetrahedrite
Formula: Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Reference: NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
Tremolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: NBMG Spec Pub 31 Minerals of Nevada
'Turgite'
Reference: NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
Turquoise
Formula: Cu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Uraninite
Formula: UO2
Reference: Page, L. R.; Stocking, H. E.; Smith, H. B. (1956) Contributions to the geology of uranium and thorium by the United States Geological Survey and Atomic Energy Commission for the United Nations International Conference on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Geneva, Switzerland, 1955. USGS Professional Paper 300 pp351-359
Variscite
Formula: AlPO4 · 2H2O
'Wad'
Wavellite
Formula: Al3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
Reference: NBMG Spec Pub 31 Minerals of Nevada
'Wolframite'
Formula: (Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
Reference: NBMG Bull 99B Geology and Mineral Resources of Northern Nye County, Nevada
Wulfenite
Formula: Pb(MoO4)
Reference: NBMG Open File Report 79-3

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Copper1.AA.05Cu
Electrum1.AA.05(Au, Ag)
Gold1.AA.05Au
Selenium1.CC.10Se
Silver1.AA.05Ag
Sulphur1.CC.05S8
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
'Acanthite'2.BA.35Ag2S
'Aguilarite'2.BA.55Ag4SeS
Argyrodite ?2.BA.70Ag8GeS6
Arsenopyrite2.EB.20FeAsS
Bismuthinite2.DB.05Bi2S3
Bornite2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Cinnabar2.CD.15aHgS
Covellite2.CA.05aCuS
Enargite2.KA.05Cu3AsS4
Galena2.CD.10PbS
var: Argentiferous Galena2.CD.10PbS
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Molybdenite2.EA.30MoS2
Polybasite2.GB.15[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
Proustite2.GA.05Ag3AsS3
Pyrargyrite2.GA.05Ag3SbS3
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Stephanite2.GB.10Ag5SbS4
Tetrahedrite2.GB.05Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Group 3 - Halides
Bromargyrite3.AA.15AgBr
Chlorargyrite3.AA.15AgCl
var: Bromian Chlorargyrite3.AA.15Ag(Cl,Br)
Creedite3.CG.15Ca3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Iodargyrite3.AA.10AgI
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Cuprite4.AA.10Cu2O
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Hübnerite4.DB.30MnWO4
Manganite4.FD.15Mn3+O(OH)
Opal4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
var: Opal-AN4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
var: Wood Opal4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
Pyrolusite4.DB.05Mn4+O2
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Uraninite4.DL.05UO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
'Aragonite'5.AB.15CaCO3
Azurite5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Rhodochrosite5.AB.05MnCO3
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Epsomite7.CB.40MgSO4 · 7H2O
Ferrimolybdite7.GB.30Fe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Jarosite7.BC.10KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Powellite7.GA.05Ca(MoO4)
Scheelite7.GA.05Ca(WO4)
Wulfenite7.GA.05Pb(MoO4)
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Autunite8.EB.05Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
Cacoxenite8.DC.40Fe3+24AlO6(PO4)17(OH)12 · 75H2O
Hydroxylapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
Meta-autunite8.EB.10Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6-8H2O
Pharmacosiderite8.DK.10KFe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Pseudomalachite8.BD.05Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Turquoise8.DD.15Cu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Variscite8.CD.10AlPO4 · 2H2O
Wavellite8.DC.50Al3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
'Albite'9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Buddingtonite9.FA.30(NH4)(AlSi3)O8
Clinochlore9.EC.55Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Hemimorphite9.BD.10Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Mordenite9.GD.35(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Sericite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Rhodonite9.DK.05Mn2+SiO3
Talc9.EC.05Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Tremolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Feldspar Group-
Garnet Group-X3Z2(SiO4)3
K Feldspar-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
Limonite-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Petrified Wood-
Psilomelane-
Turgite-
Wad-
Wolframite-(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Silver1.1.1.2Ag
Semi-metals and non-metals
Selenium1.3.4.1Se
Sulphur1.3.5.1S8
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Acanthite2.4.1.1Ag2S
Aguilarite2.4.1.3Ag4SeS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Argyrodite ?2.5.6.1Ag8GeS6
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Cinnabar2.8.14.1HgS
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Bismuthinite2.11.2.3Bi2S3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Molybdenite2.12.10.1MoS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
ø > 4
Polybasite3.1.7.2[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
ø = 4
Enargite3.2.1.1Cu3AsS4
Stephanite3.2.4.1Ag5SbS4
3 <ø < 4
Tetrahedrite3.3.6.1Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
ø = 3
Proustite3.4.1.1Ag3AsS3
Pyrargyrite3.4.1.2Ag3SbS3
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
AX2
Pyrolusite4.4.1.4Mn4+O2
Group 5 - OXIDES CONTAINING URANIUM OR THORIUM
AXO2·xH2O
Uraninite5.1.1.1UO2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Manganite6.1.3.1Mn3+O(OH)
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX
Bromargyrite9.1.4.2AgBr
Chlorargyrite9.1.4.1AgCl
Iodargyrite9.1.5.1AgI
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 12 - COMPOUND HALIDES
Miscellaneous
Creedite12.1.4.1Ca3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Rhodochrosite14.1.1.4MnCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Epsomite29.6.11.1MgSO4 · 7H2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Jarosite30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
AB2(XO4)2·xH2O, containing (UO2)2+
Autunite40.2a.1.1Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
Meta-autunite40.2a.1.2Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6-8H2O
(AB)5(XO4)2·xH2O
Variscite40.4.1.1AlPO4 · 2H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)5(XO4)2Zq
Pseudomalachite41.4.3.1Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
A5(XO4)3Zq
Hydroxylapatite41.8.1.3Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
Group 42 - HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)5(XO4)3Zq·xH2O
Pharmacosiderite42.8.1a.1KFe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
(AB)7(XO4)4Zq·xH2O
Turquoise42.9.3.1Cu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
A3(XO4)2Zq·xH2O
Wavellite42.10.2.1Al3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
Miscellaneous
Cacoxenite42.13.5.1Fe3+24AlO6(PO4)17(OH)12 · 75H2O
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Hübnerite48.1.1.1MnWO4
Powellite48.1.2.2Ca(MoO4)
Scheelite48.1.2.1Ca(WO4)
Wulfenite48.1.3.1Pb(MoO4)
Group 49 - HYDRATED MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
Hydrated Normal Molybdates and Tungstates
Ferrimolybdite49.2.1.1Fe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] coordination
Hemimorphite56.1.2.1Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=5
Rhodonite65.4.1.1Mn2+SiO3
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Tremolite66.1.3a.1☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Talc71.2.1.3Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Clinochlore71.4.1.4Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with H2O and organics
Opal75.2.1.1SiO2 · nH2O
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Buddingtonite76.1.2.1(NH4)(AlSi3)O8
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
Mordenite77.1.6.1(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Aragonite-CaCO3
Chlorargyrite
var: Bromian Chlorargyrite
-Ag(Cl,Br)
'Electrum'-(Au, Ag)
'Feldspar Group'-
Galena
var: Argentiferous Galena
-PbS
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
Hydroxylapatite
var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite
-Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
'K Feldspar'-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Muscovite
var: Sericite
-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Opal
var: Opal-AN
-SiO2 · nH2O
var: Wood Opal-SiO2 · nH2O
'Petrified Wood'-
'Psilomelane'-
'Turgite'-
'Wad'-
'Wolframite'-(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H Buddingtonite(NH4)(AlSi3)O8
H CacoxeniteFe243+AlO6(PO4)17(OH)12 · 75H2O
H Hydroxylapatite (var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite)Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
H ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H CreediteCa3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
H FerrimolybditeFe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
H HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
H Meta-autuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6-8H2O
H Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H OpalSiO2 · nH2O
H Opal (var: Opal-AN)SiO2 · nH2O
H PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
H PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
H Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
H Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
H VarisciteAlPO4 · 2H2O
H WavelliteAl3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
H Opal (var: Wood Opal)SiO2 · nH2O
CCarbon
C AragoniteCaCO3
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
C CalciteCaCO3
C Hydroxylapatite (var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite)Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C RhodochrositeMnCO3
C SideriteFeCO3
NNitrogen
N Buddingtonite(NH4)(AlSi3)O8
OOxygen
O K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O AragoniteCaCO3
O AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O BaryteBaSO4
O Buddingtonite(NH4)(AlSi3)O8
O CacoxeniteFe243+AlO6(PO4)17(OH)12 · 75H2O
O CalciteCaCO3
O Hydroxylapatite (var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite)Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
O ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O CreediteCa3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
O CupriteCu2O
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
O FerrimolybditeFe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O HematiteFe2O3
O HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
O HübneriteMnWO4
O HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
O Meta-autuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6-8H2O
O Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O OpalSiO2 · nH2O
O Opal (var: Opal-AN)SiO2 · nH2O
O PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
O PowelliteCa(MoO4)
O PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
O PyrolusiteMn4+O2
O QuartzSiO2
O RhodochrositeMnCO3
O RhodoniteMn2+SiO3
O ScheeliteCa(WO4)
O Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O SideriteFeCO3
O TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
O Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
O UraniniteUO2
O VarisciteAlPO4 · 2H2O
O WavelliteAl3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
O Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
O Opal (var: Wood Opal)SiO2 · nH2O
O WulfenitePb(MoO4)
FFluorine
F CreediteCa3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
F FluoriteCaF2
F WavelliteAl3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
MgMagnesium
Mg ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Mg EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
Mg TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Mg Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al Buddingtonite(NH4)(AlSi3)O8
Al CacoxeniteFe243+AlO6(PO4)17(OH)12 · 75H2O
Al ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Al CreediteCa3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Al VarisciteAlPO4 · 2H2O
Al WavelliteAl3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
SiSilicon
Si K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si Buddingtonite(NH4)(AlSi3)O8
Si ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
Si HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si OpalSiO2 · nH2O
Si Opal (var: Opal-AN)SiO2 · nH2O
Si QuartzSiO2
Si RhodoniteMn2+SiO3
Si Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Si Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si Opal (var: Wood Opal)SiO2 · nH2O
PPhosphorus
P AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
P CacoxeniteFe243+AlO6(PO4)17(OH)12 · 75H2O
P Hydroxylapatite (var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite)Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
P HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
P Meta-autuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6-8H2O
P PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
P TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
P VarisciteAlPO4 · 2H2O
P WavelliteAl3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
SSulfur
S AcanthiteAg2S
S AguilariteAg4SeS
S Galena (var: Argentiferous Galena)PbS
S ArgyroditeAg8GeS6
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S BaryteBaSO4
S BismuthiniteBi2S3
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S CinnabarHgS
S CovelliteCuS
S CreediteCa3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
S EnargiteCu3AsS4
S EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
S GalenaPbS
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
S MarcasiteFeS2
S MolybdeniteMoS2
S Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
S ProustiteAg3AsS3
S PyrargyriteAg3SbS3
S PyriteFeS2
S SphaleriteZnS
S StephaniteAg5SbS4
S SulphurS8
S TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
ClChlorine
Cl Chlorargyrite (var: Bromian Chlorargyrite)Ag(Cl,Br)
Cl ChlorargyriteAgCl
KPotassium
K K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
K Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
K Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
Ca AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Hydroxylapatite (var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite)Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
Ca CreediteCa3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
Ca Meta-autuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6-8H2O
Ca Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
Ca PowelliteCa(MoO4)
Ca ScheeliteCa(WO4)
Ca Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
MnManganese
Mn HübneriteMnWO4
Mn ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
Mn PyrolusiteMn4+O2
Mn RhodochrositeMnCO3
Mn RhodoniteMn2+SiO3
Mn Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
FeIron
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe CacoxeniteFe243+AlO6(PO4)17(OH)12 · 75H2O
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe FerrimolybditeFe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Fe TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Fe Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
CuCopper
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu CopperCu
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu EnargiteCu3AsS4
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
Cu PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Cu TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Cu TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
ZnZinc
Zn HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
GeGermanium
Ge ArgyroditeAg8GeS6
AsArsenic
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
As EnargiteCu3AsS4
As PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
As Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
As ProustiteAg3AsS3
SeSelenium
Se AguilariteAg4SeS
Se SeleniumSe
BrBromine
Br BromargyriteAgBr
Br Chlorargyrite (var: Bromian Chlorargyrite)Ag(Cl,Br)
MoMolybdenum
Mo FerrimolybditeFe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
Mo MolybdeniteMoS2
Mo PowelliteCa(MoO4)
Mo WulfenitePb(MoO4)
AgSilver
Ag AcanthiteAg2S
Ag AguilariteAg4SeS
Ag ArgyroditeAg8GeS6
Ag BromargyriteAgBr
Ag Chlorargyrite (var: Bromian Chlorargyrite)Ag(Cl,Br)
Ag ChlorargyriteAgCl
Ag Electrum(Au, Ag)
Ag IodargyriteAgI
Ag Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
Ag ProustiteAg3AsS3
Ag PyrargyriteAg3SbS3
Ag SilverAg
Ag StephaniteAg5SbS4
SbAntimony
Sb Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
Sb PyrargyriteAg3SbS3
Sb StephaniteAg5SbS4
Sb TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
IIodine
I IodargyriteAgI
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
WTungsten
W HübneriteMnWO4
W ScheeliteCa(WO4)
W Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
AuGold
Au Electrum(Au, Ag)
Au GoldAu
HgMercury
Hg CinnabarHgS
PbLead
Pb Galena (var: Argentiferous Galena)PbS
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb WulfenitePb(MoO4)
BiBismuth
Bi BismuthiniteBi2S3
UUranium
U AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
U Meta-autuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6-8H2O
U UraniniteUO2

Geochronology

Mineralization age: Miocene : 17 ± 0.7 Ma to 15.3 ± 0.6 Ma

Important note: This table is based only on rock and mineral ages recorded below and is not necessarily a complete representation of the geochronology, but does give an indication of possible mineralization events relevant to this locality. As more age information is added this table may expand in the future. A break in the table simply indicates a lack of data entered here, not necessarily a break in the geologic sequence. Grey background entries are from different, related, localities.

Geologic TimeRocks, Minerals and Events
Phanerozoic
 Cenozoic
  Neogene
   Miocene
ⓘ Sericite (youngest age)15.3 ± 0.6 Ma
ⓘ Sericite (oldest age)15.7 ± 0.2 Ma
ⓘ Muscovite15.8 ± 0.5 Ma
ⓘ Adularia (youngest age)16.3 ± 0.5 Ma
ⓘ Adularia (oldest age)17 ± 0.7 Ma

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Spurr, J.E. (1903), The Ore Deposits of Tonopah, Nevada, USGS Bulletin 219.
Spurr, J.E. (1904), The Ore Deposits of Tonopah, Nevada, USGS Bulltin 225: 88-110.
Spurr, J.E. (1905), Geology of the Tonopah Mining District, Nevada, USGS Professional Paper 42.
Locke, A. (1912), The Geology of the Tonopah ining District, Bulltin of the A.I.M.E.: 62: 217-226.
Balliet, L.W. (1914), The Geology of Tonopah, Nevada, Mining and Engineering World: 40: 837-841.
Bastin, Edson S. & Francis B. Laney (1917), The Genesis of the Ores at Tonopah, Nevada. USGS Professional Paper 104.
Lincoln, F.C. (1923), Mining Districts and Mineral Resources of Nevada, Reno, Nevada Newsletter: 19: 186.
Nolan, T. B. (1935), The Underground Geology of the Tonopah ining District Nevada, Nevada University Bulletin: 29(5): 13.
Kral, V. E. (1951), Mineral Resources of Nye County, Nevada, Nevada University Bulletin: 45(3), Geology and Mining Service 50: 171.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, 7th. edition, Volume II: 1096.
Page, L. R., Stocking, H. E., Smith, H. B. (1956), Contributions to the geology of uranium and thorium by the United States Geological Survey and Atomic Energy Commission for the United Nations International Conference on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Geneva, Switzerland, 1955. USGS Professional Paper 300: 351-359.
Lemmon, Dwight Moulton and Tweto, O.L. (1962) Tungsten in the United States, exclusive of Alaska and Hawaii. USGS Mineral Investigative Resources Map MR-25.
Koschmann, A.H. and Bergendahl, M.H. (1968), Principal Gold Producing Districts of the U.S., USGS Professional Paper 610: 194.
Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology (1979), Open File Report 79-3.
USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10310396, 60000041 & 60001666.
Lemmon, D.M., Tungsten deposits in the US; Vol. I, unpublished data.
Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, A mineral inventory of the Tonopah Resource Area, Battle Mountain District, Nevada, Bulletin 99B.
University of Nevada Bulletin 23 "The underground geology of the Tonopah Mining District, Nevada."

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