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Venusi
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VenusPlanet

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A planet in our Solar System, second-closest to the Sun. Information on the composition (atmosphere, surface) is derived from Earth-based, Earth-orbital and spacecraft-based (incl. landers like Venera 9) science ; also based on modelling.

The planet represents an extremely harsh environment, with global mean surface temperature of ca. 740 K and pressure of ca. 95 bar, the surface being extremely dry (ca. 20 ppm of H2O).

The atmosphere is also harsh; the composition of the lower portion is: 96.5% CO2, ~4% N2 (2.5 in the more upper portions), 30-185 ppm SO2, 40-150 ppm H2O, 17-51 ppm CO, 3 ppm H2S, with traces of HDO, HCl, COS, S1-8, SO and HF.

The typical composition of the surface (information from 3 landers) in wt.% is: 45.1-48.7 SiO2, 1.25-1.59 TiO2, 15.8-17.9 Al2O3, 7.7-9.4 FeO, 0.14-0.2 MnO, 8.1-11.5 MgO, 7.1-10.3 CaO, 2-2.4 Na2O, 0.1-4.0 K2O, 0.88-4.7 SO3.

Note on the mineral list: it is based on a normative composition taken from the results of the lander's analyses, taken exclusively from the volcanic plains and rises area; this has limitations, as the composition is based on XRF measurements, that include elements starting from Mg. Thus, this composition does not consider the possible presence of carbonate minerals, and some of the listed minerals may or may not exist in reality. Meanwhile, there are fluvial-like geological features on the planet, and it has been suggested that they may be connected with carbonatite lavas; some other geological formations were also supposed to be due to kimberlitic magmatism. Calcite is predicted to be stable; to be sure, the sulphuric acid rains are supposed to occur, but this concerns the upper atmosphere, and the compound is though to evaporate when in its lower part. Iron sulfides and anhydrite may be present in some of the Venusian regions.

Geological features

- Volcanic plains and rises: ca. 80% of the surface; landforms are usually typical of fluid basaltic lava; the post-accretion heat on Venus is mainly due to radioactivity of U, Th and K; a (single) evidence of high Th content is suggestible of chemical differentiation; the surface is generally low in K, but there are exceptions; the basalts are similar to either MORB and alkaline Earth basalt types in Mg*, FeO/MnO and Ca/Al ratios, and abundance of Ti
- Steep sided domes: scattered, together with "pancakes", among the volcanic plains; likely connected with the activity of more viscous magma
- Long Channels or Canali: meandering features, may be as much as 6800 km long, incised into the plains or tesserae; the liquids responsible of the formation of canalli are basalt, liquid sulfur, carbonatite lavas, carbonate-sulfate lavas, or water
- Venusian Highlands: their low radar reflectance indicate a possible occurrence of "heavy metal frost" in form of metal sulfides (e.g., galena) rather than previously thought elemental tellurium
* Highland Plateaus: ca. 8% of the surface; often deformed by faults -> tessera; some internal parts seem to be resurfaced by basaltic lava flows
* Ishtar Terra: a unique feature resembling typical Earth's continent
* Low-emissivity deposits: concern the highest elevations, like Maxwell Montes around Ishtar Terra.

Coordinates:
Young provides that "[o]n Venus, longitude is measured from 0 to 360 degrees with the prime meridian centered within a small impact crater named Ariadne, located in Sedna Planitia..... Because Venus rotates in a clockwise direction as viewed looking down on the north pole, longitude on Venus increases in numerical value toward the east from the planet's prime meridian."

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Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

14 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

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Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Fegley, B. (Jr.), Treiman, A.H., Sharpton, V.L. (1992): Venus surface mineralogy - Observational and theoretical constraints. Proceedings of Lunar and Planetery Science: 22: 3-19
Anorthite
Formula: Ca(Al2Si2O8)
Reference: Fegley, B. (Jr.), Treiman, A.H., Sharpton, V.L. (1992): Venus surface mineralogy - Observational and theoretical constraints. Proceedings of Lunar and Planetery Science: 22: 3-19
Bismuthinite ?
Formula: Bi2S3
Reference: Schaefer, L., Fegley, B. (Jr.) (2004): Heavy metal frost on Venus. Icarus: 168: 215-219
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'
Reference: Fegley, B. (Jr.), Treiman, A.H., Sharpton, V.L. (1992): Venus surface mineralogy - Observational and theoretical constraints. Proceedings of Lunar and Planetery Science: 22: 3-19
Coloradoite ?
Formula: HgTe
Reference: Gilmore, M., Treiman, A., Helbert, J., & Smrekar, S. (2017). Venus surface composition constrained by observation and experiment. Space Science Reviews, 212(3-4), 1511-1540.
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Reference: Fegley, B. (Jr.), Treiman, A.H., Sharpton, V.L. (1992): Venus surface mineralogy - Observational and theoretical constraints. Proceedings of Lunar and Planetery Science: 22: 3-19
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'
Reference: Fegley, B. (Jr.), Treiman, A.H., Sharpton, V.L. (1992): Venus surface mineralogy - Observational and theoretical constraints. Proceedings of Lunar and Planetery Science: 22: 3-19
Galena ?
Formula: PbS
Reference: Schaefer, L., Fegley, B. (Jr.) (2004): Heavy metal frost on Venus. Icarus: 168: 215-219
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Gilmore, M., Treiman, A., Helbert, J., & Smrekar, S. (2017). Venus surface composition constrained by observation and experiment. Space Science Reviews, 212(3-4), 1511-1540.
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Reference: Fegley, B. (Jr.), Treiman, A.H., Sharpton, V.L. (1992): Venus surface mineralogy - Observational and theoretical constraints. Proceedings of Lunar and Planetery Science: 22: 3-19
Maghemite ?
Formula: Fe3+2O3
Reference: Gilmore, M., Treiman, A., Helbert, J., & Smrekar, S. (2017). Venus surface composition constrained by observation and experiment. Space Science Reviews, 212(3-4), 1511-1540.
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Gilmore, M., Treiman, A., Helbert, J., & Smrekar, S. (2017). Venus surface composition constrained by observation and experiment. Space Science Reviews, 212(3-4), 1511-1540.
Nepheline
Formula: Na3K(Al4Si4O16)
Reference: Fegley, B. (Jr.), Treiman, A.H., Sharpton, V.L. (1992): Venus surface mineralogy - Observational and theoretical constraints. Proceedings of Lunar and Planetery Science: 22: 3-19
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Fegley, B. (Jr.), Treiman, A.H., Sharpton, V.L. (1992): Venus surface mineralogy - Observational and theoretical constraints. Proceedings of Lunar and Planetery Science: 22: 3-19
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'
Reference: Fegley, B. (Jr.), Treiman, A.H., Sharpton, V.L. (1992): Venus surface mineralogy - Observational and theoretical constraints. Proceedings of Lunar and Planetery Science: 22: 3-19
Pyrite ?
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Gilmore, M., Treiman, A., Helbert, J., & Smrekar, S. (2017). Venus surface composition constrained by observation and experiment. Space Science Reviews, 212(3-4), 1511-1540.
Tellurobismuthite ?
Formula: Bi2Te3
Reference: Gilmore, M., Treiman, A., Helbert, J., & Smrekar, S. (2017). Venus surface composition constrained by observation and experiment. Space Science Reviews, 212(3-4), 1511-1540.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Bismuthinite ?2.DB.05Bi2S3
Coloradoite ?2.CB.05aHgTe
Galena ?2.CD.10PbS
Pyrite ?2.EB.05aFeS2
Tellurobismuthite ?2.DC.05Bi2Te3
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Ilmenite4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
Maghemite ?4.BB.15Fe3+2O3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 9 - Silicates
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Anorthite9.FA.35Ca(Al2Si2O8)
Diopside9.DA.15CaMgSi2O6
Nepheline9.FA.05Na3K(Al4Si4O16)
Orthoclase9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Coloradoite ?2.8.2.5HgTe
Galena ?2.8.1.1PbS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Bismuthinite ?2.11.2.3Bi2S3
Tellurobismuthite ?2.11.7.2Bi2Te3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite ?2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
Maghemite ?4.3.7.1Fe3+2O3
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Diopside65.1.3a.1CaMgSi2O6
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Orthoclase76.1.1.1K(AlSi3O8)
Al-Si Framework Feldspathoids and related species
Nepheline76.2.1.2Na3K(Al4Si4O16)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Anorthite-Ca(Al2Si2O8)
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

OOxygen
O DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
O AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
O NephelineNa3K(Al4Si4O16)
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O HematiteFe2O3
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O MaghemiteFe23+O3
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na NephelineNa3K(Al4Si4O16)
MgMagnesium
Mg DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
AlAluminium
Al AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Al NephelineNa3K(Al4Si4O16)
SiSilicon
Si DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Si AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Si NephelineNa3K(Al4Si4O16)
SSulfur
S GalenaPbS
S BismuthiniteBi2S3
S PyriteFeS2
KPotassium
K OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
K NephelineNa3K(Al4Si4O16)
CaCalcium
Ca DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Ca AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
TiTitanium
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
FeIron
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe MaghemiteFe23+O3
Fe PyriteFeS2
TeTellurium
Te TellurobismuthiteBi2Te3
Te ColoradoiteHgTe
HgMercury
Hg ColoradoiteHgTe
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS
BiBismuth
Bi BismuthiniteBi2S3
Bi TellurobismuthiteBi2Te3

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Fegley, Jr., B., Treiman, A.H., Sharpton, V.L. (1992) Venus surface mineralogy - Observational and theoretical constraints. In, Proceedings of Lunar and Planetery Science, 22: 3-19.
Schaefer, L., Fegley, Jr., B. (2004) Heavy metal frost on Venus. Icarus, 168:1, 215-219.
Treiman, A.H. (2006) Geochemistry of Venus’ Surface: Current Limitations as Future Opportunities. Chapter in: Esposito, L.W., Stofan, E.R., Cravens, T.E. (eds.) (2013) Exploring Venus as a Terrestrial Planet, Volume 76, AGU Chapman Conference Book, 7-22.
Marcq, E., Bertaux, J.-L., Montmessin, F., Belyaev, D. (2013) Variations of sulphur dioxide at the cloud top of Venus's dynamic atmosphere. Nature Geoscience, 6(1): 25–28.
Gilmore, M., Treiman, A., Helbert, J., Smrekar, S. (2017) Venus surface composition constrained by observation and experiment. Space Science Reviews, 212(3-4), 1511-1540.
Young, C. (ed.) (1990) The Magellan Venus Explorer's Guide. Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology.

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