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Locality type:Planet


The second Sun-near planet of our Solar System. Information on the composition (atmosphere, surface) is Earth-based, Earth-orbital and spacecraft-based (incl. landers like Venera 9); also based on modelling.

The planet represents an extremely harsh environment, with global mean surface temperature of ca. 740 K and pressure of ca. 95 bar, the surface being extremely dry (ca. 20 ppm of H2O).

The atmosphere is also harsh; the composition of the lower portion is: 96.5% CO2, ~4% N2 (2.5 in the more upper portions), 30-185 ppm SO2, 40-150 ppm H2O, 17-51 ppm CO, 3 ppm H2S, with traces of HDO, HCl, COS, S1-8, SO and HF.

The typical composition of the surface (information from 3 landers) in wt.% is: 45.1-48.7 SiO2, 1.25-1.59 TiO2, 15.8-17.9 Al2O3, 7.7-9.4 FeO, 0.14-0.2 MnO, 8.1-11.5 MgO, 7.1-10.3 CaO, 2-2.4 Na2O, 0.1-4.0 K2O, 0.88-4.7 SO3.

Note on the mineral list: it is based on a normative composition taken from the results of the lander's analyses, taken exclusively from the volcanic plains and rises area; this has limitations, as the composition is based on XRF measurements, that include elements starting from Mg. Thus, this composition does not consider the possible presence of carbonate minerals, and some of the listed minerals may or may not exist in reality. Meanwhile, there are fluvial-like geological features on the planet, and it has been suggested that they may be connected with carbonatite lavas; some other geological formations were also supposed to be due to kimberlitic magmatism. Calcite is predicted to be stable; to be sure, the sulphuric acid rains are supposed to occur, but this concerns the upper atmosphere, and the compound is though to evaporate when in its lower part. Iron sulfides and anhydrite may be present in some of the Venusian regions.

Geological features

- Volcanic plains and rises: ca. 80% of the surface; landforms are usually typical of fluid basaltic lava; the post-accretion heat on Venus is mainly due to radioactivity of U, Th and K; a (single) evidence of high Th content is suggestible of chemical differentiation; the surface is generally low in K, but there are exceptions; the basalts are similar to either MORB and alkaline Earth basalt types in Mg*, FeO/MnO and Ca/Al ratioes, and abundance of Ti
- Steep sided domes: scattered, together with "pancakes", among the volcanic plains; likely connected with the activity of more viscous magma
- Long Channels or Canali: meandering features, may be as much as 6800 km long, incised into the plains or tesserae; the liquids responsible of the formation of canalli are basalt, liquid sulfur, carbonatite lavas, carbonate-sulfate lavas, or water
- Venusian Highlands: their low radar reflectance indicate a possible occurrence of "heavy metal frost" in form of metal sulfides (e.g., galena) rather than previously though elemental tellurium
* Highland Plateaus: ca. 8% of the surface; often deformed by faults -> tessera; some internal parts seem to be resurfaced by basaltic lava flows
* Ishtar Terra: a unique feature resembling typical Earth's continent
* Low-emissivity deposits: concern the highest elevations, like Maxwell Montes around Ishtar Terra

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

6 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Fegley, B. (Jr.), Treiman, A.H., Sharpton, V.L. (1992): Venus surface mineralogy - Observational and theoretical constraints. Proceedings of Lunar and Planetery Science: 22: 3-19
Anorthite
Formula: Ca(Al2Si2O8)
Reference: Fegley, B. (Jr.), Treiman, A.H., Sharpton, V.L. (1992): Venus surface mineralogy - Observational and theoretical constraints. Proceedings of Lunar and Planetery Science: 22: 3-19
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'
Reference: Fegley, B. (Jr.), Treiman, A.H., Sharpton, V.L. (1992): Venus surface mineralogy - Observational and theoretical constraints. Proceedings of Lunar and Planetery Science: 22: 3-19
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Reference: Fegley, B. (Jr.), Treiman, A.H., Sharpton, V.L. (1992): Venus surface mineralogy - Observational and theoretical constraints. Proceedings of Lunar and Planetery Science: 22: 3-19
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'
Reference: Fegley, B. (Jr.), Treiman, A.H., Sharpton, V.L. (1992): Venus surface mineralogy - Observational and theoretical constraints. Proceedings of Lunar and Planetery Science: 22: 3-19
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Reference: Fegley, B. (Jr.), Treiman, A.H., Sharpton, V.L. (1992): Venus surface mineralogy - Observational and theoretical constraints. Proceedings of Lunar and Planetery Science: 22: 3-19
Nepheline
Formula: Na3K(Al4Si4O16)
Reference: Fegley, B. (Jr.), Treiman, A.H., Sharpton, V.L. (1992): Venus surface mineralogy - Observational and theoretical constraints. Proceedings of Lunar and Planetery Science: 22: 3-19
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Fegley, B. (Jr.), Treiman, A.H., Sharpton, V.L. (1992): Venus surface mineralogy - Observational and theoretical constraints. Proceedings of Lunar and Planetery Science: 22: 3-19
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'
Reference: Fegley, B. (Jr.), Treiman, A.H., Sharpton, V.L. (1992): Venus surface mineralogy - Observational and theoretical constraints. Proceedings of Lunar and Planetery Science: 22: 3-19

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Ilmenite'4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
Group 9 - Silicates
'Albite'9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
'Anorthite'9.FA.35Ca(Al2Si2O8)
'Diopside'9.DA.15CaMgSi2O6
'Nepheline'9.FA.05Na3K(Al4Si4O16)
'Orthoclase'9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Diopside65.1.3a.1CaMgSi2O6
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Orthoclase76.1.1.1K(AlSi3O8)
Al-Si Framework Feldspathoids and related species
Nepheline76.2.1.2Na3K(Al4Si4O16)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Anorthite-Ca(Al2Si2O8)
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

OOxygen
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
O DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O NephelineNa3K(Al4Si4O16)
O OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na NephelineNa3K(Al4Si4O16)
MgMagnesium
Mg DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
AlAluminium
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
Al NephelineNa3K(Al4Si4O16)
Al OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
SiSilicon
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
Si DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Si NephelineNa3K(Al4Si4O16)
Si OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
KPotassium
K NephelineNa3K(Al4Si4O16)
K OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
CaCalcium
Ca AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
Ca DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
TiTitanium
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
FeIron
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Fegley, Jr., B., Treiman, A.H., Sharpton, V.L. (1992): Venus surface mineralogy - Observational and theoretical constraints. Proceedings of Lunar and Planetery Science: 22: 3-19
Schaefer, L., Fegley, Jr., B. (2004): Heavy metal frost on Venus. Icarus: 168: 215-219
Treiman, A.H. (2006): Geochemistry of Venus’ Surface: Current Limitations as Future Opportunities. Chapter in: Exploring Venus as a Terrestrial Planet. AGU Chapman Conference Book.
Marcq, E., Bertaux, J.-L., Montmessin, F., Belyaev, D. (2013): Variations of sulphur dioxide at the cloud top of Venus's dynamic atmosphere. Nature Geoscience: 6(1): 25–28.

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