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Venusian Highlands, Venusi
Regional Level Types
Venusian HighlandsHighlands

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Latitude & Longitude:
30° 11' 59'' North , 128° 54' 0'' East (est.)
Estimate based on other nearby localities or region boundaries.
Margin of Error:
Locality type:

The highlands characterize in relatively low radar emissivity, linked to possible heavy metal frost in the form of high dielectric constant compounds condensates (the metal compounds would condense there as the highlands have lower temperatures than other geological features). It is calculated (equilibrium composition of 20 trace metals considering compounds that would condense at the altitude of 2.6 km) that these condensates may not contain elemental tellurium. It is predicted that the stable condensates may include (considering the abundance of metals in supposed Earth-like oceanic crust) chalcocite, acanthite, Pb-Bi sulfosalts, and the ones given in the mineral list.

Note: any listed or mentioned minerals are just proposals; no confirmation is yet possible.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

2 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Bismuthinite ?
Formula: Bi2S3
Reference: Schaefer, L., Fegley, B. (Jr.) (2004): Heavy metal frost on Venus. Icarus: 168: 215-219
Galena ?
Formula: PbS
Reference: Schaefer, L., Fegley, B. (Jr.) (2004): Heavy metal frost on Venus. Icarus: 168: 215-219

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Bismuthinite ?2.DB.05Bi2S3
Galena ?2.CD.10PbS

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena ?
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Bismuthinite ?

List of minerals for each chemical element

S GalenaPbS
S BismuthiniteBi2S3
Pb GalenaPbS
Bi BismuthiniteBi2S3


Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Schaefer, L., Fegley, B. (Jr.) (2004) Heavy metal frost on Venus. Icarus, 168, 215-219.
Schaefer, L., Fegley, L. (March 2003) Metallic Snow in the Venusian Highlands. Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 35, 984.

External Links

This page contains all mineral locality references listed on This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.
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