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Macusani glass, Macusani, Carabaya Province, Puno Department, Peru

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 14° 0' South , 70° 30' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): -14.00000,-70.50000
GeoHash:G#: 6mtb7erkn
Köppen climate type:ET : Tundra

"Macusanite" is a glass ("obsidian") found as loose alluvial pebbles in stream gravel in the Macusani area. Primary source unknown.

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Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

2 valid minerals. 1 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

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Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Formula: ZnAl2O4
Reference: EDS results by ; EDS results by Joel Dyer (Qv:,11,395017,395087#msg-395087 )
Reference: London, D., Hervig, R.L., and Morgan, G.B. VI (1988) Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 99, 360-373; London, D., Morgan, G.B. VI, and Hervig, R.L. (1989) Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 102, 1-17.
Virgilite (TL)
Formula: LiAlSi2O6
Reference: AM 63 (1978), 461; HB2/2 (1995)

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Group 9 - Silicates
'Virgilite' (TL)9.FA.15LiAlSi2O6
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks with silica derivative structures
Virgilite (TL)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.

List of minerals for each chemical element

Li VirgiliteLiAlSi2O6
O GahniteZnAl2O4
O VirgiliteLiAlSi2O6
Al GahniteZnAl2O4
Al VirgiliteLiAlSi2O6
Si VirgiliteLiAlSi2O6
Zn GahniteZnAl2O4

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on

443.8 - 485.4 Ma

ID: 3192909
Paleozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Ordovician (443.8 - 485.4 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License


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Craig, N., Speakman, R.J., Popelka-Filcoff, R.S., Aldenderfer, M., Flores Blanco, L., Brown Vega, M., Glascock, M.D., and Stanish, C. (2010) Macusani obsidian from Southern Peru: A characterization of its elemental composition with a demonstration of its ancient use. Journal of Archeological Science, 37, 569-576.

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