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Mananjary emerald District, Mananjary District, Vatovavy Fitovinany Region, Fianarantsoa Province, Madagascar

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Location is approximate, estimate based on other nearby localities.
 
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 21° South , 48° East (est.)
Margin of Error:~59km
Locality type:District
Köppen climate type:Af : Tropical rainforest climate


An emerald mining district located 30 km SW of the town of Mananjary at the eastern coast of Madagascar. Mining started in this area around the middle of 1970s, first at Ambodibakoly. Several open pit mines were worked in the period 1983 to around 1995, and produced several thousand kgs of emerald of different sizes and quality.

The emeralds were formed cause to metasomatic processes related to the Pan-African tectonometamorphic event. Emerald crystals up to many centimeters long, formed inside the pegmatites at the contact with the hosting basic rocks. They also formed outside the pegmatite in a phlogopitic unit that was derived by the reaction of the basic gneiss with the fluids liberated by the pegmatitic magma during the cooling down phase.

The emerald crystals produced in the area are of superior quality for gem industry. An abundance of emeralds, with crystals weighing up to 1 kg and a total of some 1000 kg, have been mined. The most famous mine is Morafeno. One of the world's largest emerald specimens, a 536-kilogram specimen named "Heaven's Gift Emerald" was mined by the Société Orgaco of France mined the 536-kilogram in 2007.

The mines and emerald deposits can be found in two main areas, roughly divided by the main road RN25. Along RN25 there are two important market villages, Kianjovato and Irondo. In the beginning of the mining period specimens of emerald were brought to the markets and sold to gem dealers at these easily accessible villages. Thus emerald specimens from this area has been labelled as coming from Kianjovato or Irondro.

The emerald mines in the northern area (called "North zone" by Cheilletz, A. et al. 2001) is are mainly located in the Ambalahosy Nord Commune, north of Ikanjovato village (and the Ikanjovato Commune) and the RN25 road, between the Mananjary river and Vohipaky mountain. For more specific information on the different mines, please see the localities listed under the Ambalahosy Commune.

The emerald mines in the southern area (called "South zone" by Cheilletz, A. et al. 2001) is are mainly located in the Andonabe Commune, south of Irondo and the RN25 road, south and east of the Analatsitevena mountain. For more specific information on the different mines, please see the localities listed under the Andonabe Commune.

Emeralds colored by vanadium instead of chromium.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


13 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Actinolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Grundmann, G. (2001): Die Smaragde der Welt. ExtraLapis 21: 26-37 [german version]
'Albite-Anorthite Series'
Reference: Grundmann, G. (2001): Die Smaragde der Welt. ExtraLapis 21: 26-37 [german version]
'Apatite'
Reference: Grundmann, G. (2001): Die Smaragde der Welt. ExtraLapis 21: 26-37 [german version]
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: Grundmann, G. (2001): Die Smaragde der Welt. ExtraLapis 21: 26-37 [german version]
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Grundmann, G. (2001): Die Smaragde der Welt. ExtraLapis 21: 26-37 [german version]
Beryl var: Emerald
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Grundmann, G. (2001): Die Smaragde der Welt. ExtraLapis 21: 26-37 [german version]
'Biotite'
Reference: Grundmann, G. (2001): Die Smaragde der Welt. ExtraLapis 21: 26-37 [german version]
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Grundmann, G. (2001): Die Smaragde der Welt. ExtraLapis 21: 26-37 [german version]
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Reference: Grundmann, G. (2001): Die Smaragde der Welt. ExtraLapis 21: 26-37 [german version]
'commodity:Gemstones'
Reference:  
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Grundmann, G. (2001): Die Smaragde der Welt. ExtraLapis 21: 26-37 [german version]
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Reference: Grundmann, G. (2001): Die Smaragde der Welt. ExtraLapis 21: 26-37 [german version]
'K Feldspar'
Reference: Grundmann, G. (2001): Die Smaragde der Welt. ExtraLapis 21: 26-37 [german version]
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Reference: Grundmann, G. (2001): Die Smaragde der Welt. ExtraLapis 21: 26-37 [german version]
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Grundmann, G. (2001): Die Smaragde der Welt. ExtraLapis 21: 26-37 [german version]
Muscovite var: Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Grundmann, G. (2001): Die Smaragde der Welt. ExtraLapis 21: 26-37 [german version]
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Grundmann, G. (2001): Die Smaragde der Welt. ExtraLapis 21: 26-37 [german version]
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Grundmann, G. (2001): Die Smaragde der Welt. ExtraLapis 21: 26-37 [german version]
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Grundmann, G. (2001): Die Smaragde der Welt. ExtraLapis 21: 26-37 [german version]
Spinel
Formula: MgAl2O4
Reference: Grundmann, G. (2001): Die Smaragde der Welt. ExtraLapis 21: 26-37 [german version]
Talc
Formula: Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Reference: Grundmann, G. (2001): Die Smaragde der Welt. ExtraLapis 21: 26-37 [german version]
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Grundmann, G. (2001): Die Smaragde der Welt. ExtraLapis 21: 26-37 [german version]
'Wolframite'
Formula: (Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
Reference: Grundmann, G. (2001): Die Smaragde der Welt. ExtraLapis 21: 26-37 [german version]

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Molybdenite2.EA.30MoS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Group 3 - Halides
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Ilmenite4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Spinel4.BB.05MgAl2O4
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
'Baryte'7.AD.35BaSO4
Group 9 - Silicates
'Actinolite'9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
'Beryl'9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Emerald9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Sericite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Phlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Talc9.EC.05Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Apatite'-
'Biotite'-
'Chlorite Group'-
K Feldspar-
Tourmaline-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Wolframite-(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Molybdenite2.12.10.1MoS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Spinel7.2.1.1MgAl2O4
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
Beryl61.1.1.1Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Talc71.2.1.3Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Actinolite-☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Apatite'-
Beryl
var: Emerald
-Be3Al2(Si6O18)
'Biotite'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'K Feldspar'-
Muscovite
var: Sericite
-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'Wolframite'-(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
BeBeryllium
Be BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Be Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
BBoron
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
OOxygen
O Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O BaryteBaSO4
O BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
O Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
O HematiteFe2O3
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O QuartzSiO2
O Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O SpinelMgAl2O4
O TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
FFluorine
F FluoriteCaF2
MgMagnesium
Mg Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Mg SpinelMgAl2O4
Mg TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Al Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al SpinelMgAl2O4
SiSilicon
Si Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Si Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
SSulfur
S BaryteBaSO4
S MolybdeniteMoS2
S PyriteFeS2
KPotassium
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca FluoriteCaF2
TiTitanium
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
MnManganese
Mn Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
FeIron
Fe Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
MoMolybdenum
Mo MolybdeniteMoS2
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
WTungsten
W Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Ranorosoa, N. (1993) Etude du gisement d'émeraude de Mananjary (Madagascar). Mémoires de DUG. L'école de gemmologie de Nantes.
Pezzotta, F. (1999). Madagaskar. Das Paradies der Mineralien und Edelsteine. Extra Lapis: 17: 62-64
Grundmann, G. (2001): Die Smaragde der Welt. ExtraLapis 21: 26-37 [german version]
Cheilletz, A. et al. (2001): OS06 : TUpm30 : G5 : Emerald Deposits in Madagascar: Two Differents Types for one Mineralising Event:EUG XI.Symposium OS06 Mineralogy, Ore Geology and Mineral Resources.
Moine, B., Chang Pen, C. & Mercier, A. (2004): Rôle du fluor dans la formation des gisements d'émeraude de Mananjary (Est de Madagascar). Comptes Rendus Geosciences: 336, 513-522. (in French)
Groat, L.A., Giuliani, G., Marshall, D.D., and Turner, D. (2008): Emerald deposits and occurrences: A review. Ore Geology Reviews 34, 87-112.


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