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Ilakaka gem deposit, Ilakaka Commune, Ihosy District, Ihorombe Region, Fianarantsoa Province, Madagascar

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 22° 42' 12'' South , 45° 13' 12'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): -22.70336,45.22001
Köppen climate type:Cfa : Humid subtropical climate
Name(s) in local language(s):Fitrandrahana safiran' Ilakaka, Kaominin' Ilakaka, Distrikan' Ihosy, Faritra Ihorombe, Faritanin'i Fianarantsoa, Madagasikara

An alluvial gem gravel deposit discovered 1998. One of the largest sapphire deposits in the world. It is located Close to the route national 7 going to Tulear, in the Horombe region in the southwestern part of Madagascar.
A large number of new gem deposits of the same character has also been discovered in the area around Ilakaka and further southwest in the Sakaraha area. There is also a third district near Bezaha close to the Onillahy River 118 km southwest of Ilakaka.

NOTE: the name "Ilakaka" in the litterature refers not only to the Ilakaka deposit, but also sometimes to the whole gem deposit area.

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.

Mineral List

10 valid minerals.

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on

0 - 2.588 Ma

ID: 3311842

Age: Pleistocene (0 - 2.588 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary

Reference: Thiéblemont, D. (ed.). New edition of the 1:10,000,000 geological map of Africa. CGMW-BRGM. [190]

145 - 201.3 Ma

ID: 3189234
Mesozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Jurassic (145 - 201.3 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

This page contains all mineral locality references listed on This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.


Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Schmetzer, K.(1999): Rubine und verschiedenfarbige Saphire aus Ilakaka, Madagaskar. Lapis 24(6), 46-47.
Schmetzer, K., Glas, M. & Bernhardt, H-J. (2002): Sterngranate aus Madagaskar. Lapis 27 (2), 20-27
Hogg, Jonny (2007): Madagascar's sapphire rush. BBC News, 17 November 2007.
Giuliani, G., Fallick, A., Rakotondrazafy, M., Ohnenstetter, D., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., Rakotosamizanany, S., Razanatseheno, M., Offant, Y., Garnier, V., Dunaigre, C., Schwarz, D., Mercier, A., Ratrimo, V., and Ralison, B. (2007): Oxygen isotope systematics of gem corundum deposits in Madagascar: relevance for their geological origin. Mineralium Deposita 42, 251-270.

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