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Tsaramanga pegmatite, Mahaiza, Betafo, Vakinankaratra, Madagascari
Regional Level Types
Tsaramanga pegmatitePegmatite
MahaizaCommune
BetafoDistrict
VakinankaratraRegion
MadagascarCountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
19° 56' 34'' South , 46° 49' 6'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Betafo29,785 (2018)12.6km
Antsirabe186,253 (2018)24.0km
Soanindrariny21,000 (2018)43.6km
Other/historical names associated with this locality:
Tongafeno pegmatite (Tongafeni; Itongafeno)
Other Languages:
Malagasy:
Tsaramanga, Kaominin'i Mahaiza, Distrikan'i Betafo, Vakinankaratra, Madagasikara


The Tsaramanga or the “Tongafeno” granite pegmatite is hosted in coarse-grained gabbro stock (Gabbro de l’Itsindro intrusive complex of Ambatofinandrahana). It can be classified after Pezzotta (1999) as an LCT beryl columbite subtype pegmatite. Known for blue beryl (Santamaria-type), rose quartz and good crystals of columbites.
Located 1500 m NW of Itongafeno Mt, near the old village of Tsaramanga.
In July 2009, about 300 kg of dark blue aquamarine were extracted from the pegmatite.

Note to the minerallist:

The columbites from Tsaramanga may be a columbite-(Mn), see the discussion on the messageboard at http://www.mindat.org/forum.php?read,106,298421,298493#msg-298493

Regions containing this locality

Somali Plate (Somalia Plate)Tectonic Plate
Antananarivo Province, MadagascarProvince (Abolished)

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


20 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

'Aeschynite Group'
Formula: AD2O6
Reference: Knut Edvard Larsen collection # M-519
Aeschynite-(Y)
Formula: (Y,Ln,Ca,Th)(Ti,Nb)2(O,OH)6
Colour: yellowish on outside (alteration) and greenbrownish inside.
Description: Descibed as priorite
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
'Almandine-Spessartine Series'
Reference: Knut Edvard Larsen collection
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Gélogique Madagascar. A 1871.
Beryl var: Aquamarine
Formula: Be3Al2Si6O18
Reference: Knut Edvard Larsen collection #M-404
'Biotite'
Formula: K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Reference: Lacroix, A. (1912): Sur un groupe de niobotantalates cubiques, radioactifs, des pegmatites du Vakinankaratra . Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie, Paris 35 , 85-92
Bismite
Formula: Bi2O3
Reference: Behier, J. (1957): Mineraux nouvellement trouves dans les pegmatites de Madagascar. in Commision de Coopération Technique en Afrique au Sud du sahara (C.C.T.A.). Geologie. Comités regionaux Centre, Est et Sud. Conférence de Tananarive Avril 1957. I, 135-138
Bismuth
Formula: Bi
Reference: Collection de Minéralogie, Le Laboratoire Magmas et Volcans (LMV) , l’Université Clermont-Auvergne , item # 22543
Bismuthinite
Formula: Bi2S3
Reference: Collection Musée National de la Geologie at Ampandrianomby in Antananarivo, Madagascar. Inventory # 16523
Bismutite
Formula: (BiO)2CO3
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871; Behier, J. (1957): Mineraux nouvellement trouves dans les pegmatites de Madagascar. in Commision de Coopération Technique en Afrique au Sud du sahara (C.C.T.A.). Geologie. Comités regionaux Centre, Est et Sud. Conférence de Tananarive Avril 1957. I, 135-138
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: JSS collection
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'
Reference: http://www.minsocam.org/MSA/Special/Pig/PIG_articles/Madagascar_txt.pdf
Columbite-(Mn)
Formula: Mn2+Nb2O6
Reference: Rudy Bolona specimen
'Columbite-Tantalite'
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Gélogique Madagascar. A 1871.
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Gélogique Madagascar. A 1871.
Euxenite-(Y)
Formula: (Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Gélogique Madagascar. A 1871.
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Lacroix, A. (1912): Sur un groupe de niobotantalates cubiques, radioactifs, des pegmatites du Vakinankaratra . Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie, Paris 35 , 85-92
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Ungemach, M.H. (1916) Contribution à la Minéralogie de Madagascar. Bulletin de la Société française de minéralogie 39: 5-38; Lacroix, A. (1922): Mineralogie de Madagascar, Tome I. Géologie-Minéralogie descriptive. A.Challamel (Éditeur), Paris. 624p (p 565)
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Gélogique Madagascar. A 1871.
Monazite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce(PO4)
Reference: Rudy Bolona specimen
Pucherite
Formula: Bi(VO4)
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Gélogique Madagascar. A 1871.
'Pyrochlore Supergroup'
Formula: A2-mD2X6-wZ1-n
Reference: http://www.minsocam.org/MSA/Special/Pig/PIG_articles/Madagascar_txt.pdf
'Pyrochlore Supergroup var: Betafite (of Hogarth 1977)'
Formula: A2-mD2X6-wZ1+w
Habit: {111} dominant with {110} and sometimes also {211}
Colour: yellow on outside (alteration) browngreenish inside
Description: Described by Lacroix (1912,1922)as blomstrandite. Crystals to 5 cm
Reference: Lacroix, A. (1912): Sur un groupe de niobotantalates cubiques, radioactifs, des pegmatites du Vakinankaratra . Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie, Paris 35 , 85-92
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Knut Edvard Larsen collection # M-560
Quartz var: Amethyst
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Lacroix, A. (1922): Mineralogie de Madagascar, Tome I. Géologie-Minéralogie descriptive. A. Challamel (Éditeur), Paris, planche 4
Quartz var: Rose Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Lacroix, A. (1922): Mineralogie de Madagascar, Tome I. Géologie-Minéralogie descriptive. A.Challamel (Éditeur), Paris. p 199
Quartz var: Smoky Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 112
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
Rutile var: Ilmenorutile
Formula: Fex(Nb,Ta)2x · 4Ti1-xO2
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Gélogique Madagascar. A 1871.
Rutile var: Strüverite
Formula: (Ti,Ta,Fe)O2
Reference: Lacroix, A. (1922): Mineralogie de Madagascar, Tome I. Géologie-Minéralogie descriptive. A.Challamel (Éditeur), Paris. p 232
Samarskite-(Y)
Formula: YFe3+Nb2O8
Reference: Collection of the British Museum of Natural History #1915-36 (1975)
Spessartine
Formula: Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Gélogique Madagascar. A 1871.
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Lacroix, A. (1922): Mineralogie de Madagascar, Tome I. Géologie-Minéralogie descriptive. A.Challamel (Éditeur), Paris. 624p (p.565)
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Gélogique Madagascar. A 1871.
Zircon var: Cyrtolite
Formula: Zr[(SiO4),(OH)4]
Description: Cyrtolite mentioned as a associated mineral to "blomstrandite" in Lacroix (1912), but described as malacon later in Lacroix 1922
Reference: Lacroix, A. (1912): Sur un groupe de niobotantalates cubiques, radioactifs, des pegmatites du Vakinankaratra . Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie, Paris 35 , 85-92
Zircon var: Malacon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Gélogique Madagascar. A 1871.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Bismuth1.CA.05Bi
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Bismuthinite2.DB.05Bi2S3
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Molybdenite2.EA.30MoS2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Aeschynite Group'4.DL.05AD2O6
Aeschynite-(Y)4.DF.05(Y,Ln,Ca,Th)(Ti,Nb)2(O,OH)6
Bismite4.CB.60Bi2O3
Columbite-(Mn)4.DB.35Mn2+Nb2O6
Euxenite-(Y)4.DG.05(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Amethyst4.DA.05SiO2
var: Rose Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Smoky Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
var: Ilmenorutile4.DB.05Fex(Nb,Ta)2x · 4Ti1-xO2
var: Strüverite4.DB.05(Ti,Ta,Fe)O2
Samarskite-(Y)4.DB.25YFe3+Nb2O8
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Bismutite5.BE.25(BiO)2CO3
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Monazite-(Ce)8.AD.50Ce(PO4)
Pucherite8.AD.40Bi(VO4)
Group 9 - Silicates
Beryl9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Aquamarine9.CJ.05Be3Al2Si6O18
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Microcline9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Spessartine9.AD.25Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
var: Cyrtolite9.AD.30Zr[(SiO4),(OH)4]
var: Malacon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Almandine-Spessartine Series'-
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'-
'Columbite-Tantalite'-
'Pyrochlore Supergroup'-A2-mD2X6-wZ1-n
'var: Betafite (of Hogarth 1977)'-A2-mD2X6-wZ1+w
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Semi-metals and non-metals
Bismuth1.3.1.4Bi
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Bismuthinite2.11.2.3Bi2S3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Molybdenite2.12.10.1MoS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Bismite4.3.10.2Bi2O3
AX2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
var: Ilmenorutile4.4.1.2Fex(Nb,Ta)2x · 4Ti1-xO2
var: Strüverite4.4.1.3(Ti,Ta,Fe)O2
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 8 - MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
ABO4
Samarskite-(Y)8.1.11.1YFe3+Nb2O8
A2B2O6(O,OH,F)
'Pyrochlore Supergroup
var: Betafite (of Hogarth 1977)'
8.2.3.1A2-mD2X6-wZ1+w
AB2O6
Aeschynite-(Y)8.3.6.3(Y,Ln,Ca,Th)(Ti,Nb)2(O,OH)6
Columbite-(Mn)8.3.2.4Mn2+Nb2O6
Euxenite-(Y)8.3.8.2(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Bismutite16a.3.5.1(BiO)2CO3
Group 38 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, AND VANADATES
AXO4
Monazite-(Ce)38.4.3.1Ce(PO4)
Pucherite38.4.6.1Bi(VO4)
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Spessartine51.4.3a.3Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
Beryl61.1.1.1Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Microcline76.1.1.5K(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Aeschynite Group'-AD2O6
'Almandine-Spessartine Series'-
Beryl
var: Aquamarine
-Be3Al2Si6O18
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'-
'Columbite-Tantalite'-
'Pyrochlore Supergroup'-A2-mD2X6-wZ1-n
Quartz
var: Amethyst
-SiO2
var: Rose Quartz-SiO2
var: Smoky Quartz-SiO2
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Zircon
var: Cyrtolite
-Zr[(SiO4),(OH)4]
var: Malacon-Zr(SiO4)

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Aeschynite-(Y)(Y,Ln,Ca,Th)(Ti,Nb)2(O,OH)6
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
H Zircon (var: Cyrtolite)Zr[(SiO4),(OH)4]
BeBeryllium
Be BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Be Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
BBoron
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
CCarbon
C Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
OOxygen
O BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
O Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
O Quartz (var: Rose Quartz)SiO2
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
O PucheriteBi(VO4)
O RutileTiO2
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
O Aeschynite-(Y)(Y,Ln,Ca,Th)(Ti,Nb)2(O,OH)6
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
O Rutile (var: Ilmenorutile)Fex(Nb,Ta)2x · 4Ti1-xO2
O Rutile (var: Strüverite)(Ti,Ta,Fe)O2
O Quartz (var: Amethyst)SiO2
O BismiteBi2O3
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
O Zircon (var: Cyrtolite)Zr[(SiO4),(OH)4]
O Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)
O Columbite-(Mn)Mn2+Nb2O6
O Zircon (var: Malacon)Zr(SiO4)
O Samarskite-(Y)YFe3+Nb2O8
O MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
O QuartzSiO2
O Quartz (var: Smoky Quartz)SiO2
O Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
O Aeschynite GroupAD2O6
FFluorine
F BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
MgMagnesium
Mg BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
AlAluminium
Al BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Al MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Al Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
SiSilicon
Si BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Si Quartz (var: Rose Quartz)SiO2
Si TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si Quartz (var: Amethyst)SiO2
Si BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Si Zircon (var: Cyrtolite)Zr[(SiO4),(OH)4]
Si Zircon (var: Malacon)Zr(SiO4)
Si MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Quartz (var: Smoky Quartz)SiO2
Si Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
PPhosphorus
P Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)
SSulfur
S MolybdeniteMoS2
S BismuthiniteBi2S3
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
KPotassium
K BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
K MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
CaCalcium
Ca Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
Ca Aeschynite-(Y)(Y,Ln,Ca,Th)(Ti,Nb)2(O,OH)6
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
TiTitanium
Ti Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
Ti RutileTiO2
Ti Aeschynite-(Y)(Y,Ln,Ca,Th)(Ti,Nb)2(O,OH)6
Ti Rutile (var: Ilmenorutile)Fex(Nb,Ta)2x · 4Ti1-xO2
Ti Rutile (var: Strüverite)(Ti,Ta,Fe)O2
VVanadium
V PucheriteBi(VO4)
MnManganese
Mn SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Mn Columbite-(Mn)Mn2+Nb2O6
FeIron
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe Rutile (var: Ilmenorutile)Fex(Nb,Ta)2x · 4Ti1-xO2
Fe Rutile (var: Strüverite)(Ti,Ta,Fe)O2
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Fe Samarskite-(Y)YFe3+Nb2O8
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
YYttrium
Y Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
Y Aeschynite-(Y)(Y,Ln,Ca,Th)(Ti,Nb)2(O,OH)6
Y Samarskite-(Y)YFe3+Nb2O8
ZrZirconium
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)
Zr Zircon (var: Cyrtolite)Zr[(SiO4),(OH)4]
Zr Zircon (var: Malacon)Zr(SiO4)
NbNiobium
Nb Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
Nb Aeschynite-(Y)(Y,Ln,Ca,Th)(Ti,Nb)2(O,OH)6
Nb Rutile (var: Ilmenorutile)Fex(Nb,Ta)2x · 4Ti1-xO2
Nb Columbite-(Mn)Mn2+Nb2O6
Nb Samarskite-(Y)YFe3+Nb2O8
MoMolybdenum
Mo MolybdeniteMoS2
CeCerium
Ce Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
Ce Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)
TaTantalum
Ta Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
Ta Rutile (var: Ilmenorutile)Fex(Nb,Ta)2x · 4Ti1-xO2
Ta Rutile (var: Strüverite)(Ti,Ta,Fe)O2
BiBismuth
Bi Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
Bi PucheriteBi(VO4)
Bi BismiteBi2O3
Bi BismuthiniteBi2S3
Bi BismuthBi
ThThorium
Th Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
Th Aeschynite-(Y)(Y,Ln,Ca,Th)(Ti,Nb)2(O,OH)6
UUranium
U Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Lacroix, A. (1912) Sur un groupe de niobotantalates cubiques, radioactifs, des pegmatites du Vakinankaratra. Bulletin de la Société française de minéralogie 35: 85-92 [on "blomstrandite" = betafite].
Ungemach, M.H. (1916) Contribution à la Minéralogie de Madagascar. Bulletin de la Société française de minéralogie 39: 5-38 (on tourmaline and microcline from Tsaramanga).
Behier, J. (1963) Carte minéralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871.
Pezzotta, F. (1999) Madagaskar - Das Paradies der Mineralien und Edelsteine. Extra Lapis 17: 53-54 (German edition).
Rakotoarisoa Nivomalala (2003) Contribution à l'étude monographique des gîtes pegmatitiques de la region de Betafo-Antsirabe. Interprétation structurale d'images Landsat. École Supérieure Polytechnique d'Antananarivo 2003.
Yager, T.R. (2010) The Mineral Industry of Madagascar. USGS 2010 Mineral Yearbook. Madagascar.
Rustemeyer, P. and Pezzotta, F. (2015) Reise zu den Turmalinen von Antsirabé, Madagaskar. Lapis 40 (10): 18-31 + 90.

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