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Ianapera emerald deposit (Sakalava), Ianapera, Benenitra, Atsimo-Andrefana, Madagascari
Regional Level Types
Ianapera emerald deposit (Sakalava)Deposit
IanaperaCommune
BenenitraDistrict
Atsimo-AndrefanaRegion
MadagascarCountry

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Key
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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
23° 35' 5'' South , 45° 8' 47'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Köppen climate type:
Other Languages:
Malagasy:
Karieran' Ianapera (Sakalava), Kaominin' Ianapera, Distrikan'i Benenitra, Faritr' Atsimo Andrefana, Madagasikara


An emerald deposit, situated about 350 km east of the town Toliara (Tulear) in the southern part of Madagascar. The deposit was discovered in 1989.
The emerald occurs in reaction zones developed at a shear zone within lenses of serpentinites and amphibolites belonging to the Vohibory group. Migmatitic gneissic units and calcareous metasedimentary rocks, containing metamorphosed mafic/ultramafic lenses, all intruded by pegmatite veins. Emerald mineralization occurs at the contact of pegmatite veins with mafic/ultramafic units.
Mining started in 1989 and was carried out by Société Delorme at the site now called "Grand Quarry". In 1991 a small local company, COMINAS, dug a shaft of about 10 to 20 m depth, a few hundred meters south of the original discovery site. This shaft is refered to as the "Benato quarry" (Andrianjakavah et al. 2008).


Regions containing this locality

Somali Plate (Somalia Plate)Tectonic Plate
Tuléar Province (Toliara), MadagascarProvince

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


18 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: Andrianjakavah et al.;(2009): Proximal and distal styles of pegmatite-related metasomatic emerald mineralization at Ianapera, southern Madagascar. Mineralium Deposita, 44 : 817-835
'Bastnäsite'
Reference: Andrianjakavah et al.;(2009): Proximal and distal styles of pegmatite-related metasomatic emerald mineralization at Ianapera, southern Madagascar. Mineralium Deposita, 44 : 817-835
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Marchand, P.(1995): Situation géologique des émeraudes de Ianapera, province de Tuléar (Madagascar. Revue de Gemmologie AFG. 124:13–16
Beryl var: Emerald
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Marchand, P.(1995): Situation géologique des émeraudes de Ianapera, province de Tuléar (Madagascar. Revue de Gemmologie AFG. 124:13–16
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Groat, L.A., Giuliani, G., Marshall, D.D., and Turner, D. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 87-112.
Chrysotile
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Vapnik, Y.E., Sabot, B., and Moroz, I. (2003): Fluid Inclusions in Ianapera Emerald, Southern Madagascar. Acta Mineralogica-Petrographica, Abstract Series 2, Szeged, 2003.
Clintonite
Formula: Ca(Mg,Al)3(Al3SiO10)(OH)2
Reference: Nicollet, Christian (1985) Thèse d'Etat. Clermont Fd, 350pp.; Nicollet, Christian (1990) In Granulites and Crustal Differentiation (Vielzeuf, D. and Vidal, P., eds.), Kluwer Academic publishers, in press.; Nicollet, Christian (1990) Occurrences of grandidierite, serendibite and tourmaline near Ihosy, southern Madagascar. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 54, n° 374, pp. 131-133.
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: Vapnik,Ye. et al. (2006) Formation of emeralds at pegmatite-ultramafic contacts based on fluid inclusions in Kianjavato emerald, Mananjary deposits, Madagascar. Mineralogical Magazine, 70 (2): 141-158
Dravite
Formula: Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Reference: Andrianjakavah, P.R., Salvi, S., Béziat, D., Rakotondrazafy, M. and Giuliani, G. (2009) Proximal and distal styles of pegmatite-related metasomatic emerald mineralization at Ianapera, southern Madagascar. Mineralium Deposita, 44: 817-835.
'K Feldspar'
Reference: Andrianjakavah et al.;(2009): Proximal and distal styles of pegmatite-related metasomatic emerald mineralization at Ianapera, southern Madagascar. Mineralium Deposita, 44 : 817-835
Magnesio-hornblende
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Reference: Andrianjakavah, P.R., Salvi, S., Béziat, D., Rakotondrazafy, M. and Giuliani, G. (2009) Proximal and distal styles of pegmatite-related metasomatic emerald mineralization at Ianapera, southern Madagascar. Mineralium Deposita, 44: 817-835.
'Monazite'
Reference: Andrianjakavah et al.;(2009): Proximal and distal styles of pegmatite-related metasomatic emerald mineralization at Ianapera, southern Madagascar. Mineralium Deposita, 44 : 817-835
Nahcolite
Formula: NaHCO3
Reference: Vapnik, Y.E., Sabot, B., and Moroz, I. (2003): Fluid Inclusions in Ianapera Emerald, Southern Madagascar. Acta Mineralogica-Petrographica, Abstract Series 2, Szeged, 2003.
Phenakite
Formula: Be2SiO4
Reference: Andrianjakavah et al.;(2009): Proximal and distal styles of pegmatite-related metasomatic emerald mineralization at Ianapera, southern Madagascar. Mineralium Deposita, 44 : 817-835
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: http://www.the-conference.com/JConfAbs/6/OS06.pdf; Andrianjakavah, P. R. et al. (2009): Mineralium Deposita 44, 817-835.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Andrianjakavah et al.;(2009): Proximal and distal styles of pegmatite-related metasomatic emerald mineralization at Ianapera, southern Madagascar. Mineralium Deposita, 44 : 817-835
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Groat, L.A., Giuliani, G., Marshall, D.D., and Turner, D. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 87-112.; Andrianjakavah, P. R. et al. (2009): Mineralium Deposita 44, 817-835.
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Vapnik,Ye. et al. (2006) Formation of emeralds at pegmatite-ultramafic contacts based on fluid inclusions in Kianjavato emerald, Mananjary deposits, Madagascar. Mineralogical Magazine, 70 (2): 141-158
'Scapolite'
Reference: Andrianjakavah et al.;(2009): Proximal and distal styles of pegmatite-related metasomatic emerald mineralization at Ianapera, southern Madagascar. Mineralium Deposita, 44 : 817-835
Schorl
Formula: Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Reference: Andrianjakavah, P.R., Salvi, S., Béziat, D., Rakotondrazafy, M. and Giuliani, G. (2009) Proximal and distal styles of pegmatite-related metasomatic emerald mineralization at Ianapera, southern Madagascar. Mineralium Deposita, 44: 817-835.
Serendibite
Formula: Ca4[Mg6Al6]O4[Si6B3Al3O36]
Colour: Prussian blue
Description: in a calc-silicate rock associated with clintonite clinopyroxenites
Reference: www.handbookofmineralogy.org/pdfs/Serendibite.PDF; Nicollet, Christian (1985) Thèse d'Etat. Clermont Fd, 350pp.; Nicollet, Christian (1990) In Granulites and Crustal Differentiation (Vielzeuf, D. and Vidal, P., eds.), Kluwer Academic publishers, in press.; Nicollet, C. (1990) Occurrences of grandidierite, serendibite and tourmaline near Ihosy, southern Madagascar. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 54, n° 374, 131-133.
Talc
Formula: Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Reference: Groat, L.A., Giuliani, G., Marshall, D.D., and Turner, D. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 87-112.
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Groat, L.A., Giuliani, G., Marshall, D.D., and Turner, D. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 87-112.
Tremolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Groat, L.A., Giuliani, G., Marshall, D.D., and Turner, D. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 87-112.
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Reference: Andrianjakavah et al.;(2009): Proximal and distal styles of pegmatite-related metasomatic emerald mineralization at Ianapera, southern Madagascar. Mineralium Deposita, 44 : 817-835

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Nahcolite5.AA.15NaHCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Group 9 - Silicates
Beryl9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Emerald9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Chrysotile9.ED.15Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Clintonite9.EC.35Ca(Mg,Al)3(Al3SiO10)(OH)2
Dravite9.CK.05Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Magnesio-hornblende9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Phenakite9.AA.05Be2SiO4
Phlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Schorl9.CK.05Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Serendibite9.DH.40Ca4[Mg6Al6]O4[Si6B3Al3O36]
Talc9.EC.05Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Tremolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Bastnäsite'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'K Feldspar'-
'Monazite'-
'Scapolite'-
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
AX2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 13 - ACID CARBONATES
Miscellaneous
Nahcolite13.1.1.1NaHCO3
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [4] coordination
Phenakite51.1.1.1Be2SiO4
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
Beryl61.1.1.1Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Six-Membered Rings with borate groups
Dravite61.3.1.9Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Schorl61.3.1.10Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Tremolite66.1.3a.1☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Group 69 - INOSILICATES Chains with Side Branches or Loops
Chains with Side Branches or Loops with P>2
Serendibite69.2.1a.6Ca4[Mg6Al6]O4[Si6B3Al3O36]
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Chrysotile71.1.5.1Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Clintonite71.2.2c.2Ca(Mg,Al)3(Al3SiO10)(OH)2
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Talc71.2.1.3Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Bastnäsite'-
Beryl
var: Emerald
-Be3Al2(Si6O18)
'Chlorite Group'-
'K Feldspar'-
Magnesio-hornblende-☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
'Monazite'-
'Scapolite'-
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H ClintoniteCa(Mg,Al)3(Al3SiO10)(OH)2
H ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
H NahcoliteNaHCO3
H Magnesio-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
H SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
BeBeryllium
Be Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Be PhenakiteBe2SiO4
Be BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
BBoron
B SerendibiteCa4[Mg6Al6]O4[Si6B3Al3O36]
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
B SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
CCarbon
C NahcoliteNaHCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
OOxygen
O Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
O SerendibiteCa4[Mg6Al6]O4[Si6B3Al3O36]
O Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O QuartzSiO2
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
O BaryteBaSO4
O PhenakiteBe2SiO4
O BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
O ClintoniteCa(Mg,Al)3(Al3SiO10)(OH)2
O ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
O NahcoliteNaHCO3
O RutileTiO2
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O Magnesio-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
O SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
NaSodium
Na NahcoliteNaHCO3
Na SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Na DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
MgMagnesium
Mg SerendibiteCa4[Mg6Al6]O4[Si6B3Al3O36]
Mg Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Mg ClintoniteCa(Mg,Al)3(Al3SiO10)(OH)2
Mg ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg Magnesio-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Mg DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
AlAluminium
Al Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Al SerendibiteCa4[Mg6Al6]O4[Si6B3Al3O36]
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Al ClintoniteCa(Mg,Al)3(Al3SiO10)(OH)2
Al Magnesio-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Al SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
SiSilicon
Si Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Si SerendibiteCa4[Mg6Al6]O4[Si6B3Al3O36]
Si Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Si QuartzSiO2
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
Si PhenakiteBe2SiO4
Si BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Si ClintoniteCa(Mg,Al)3(Al3SiO10)(OH)2
Si ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si Magnesio-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Si SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
SSulfur
S PyriteFeS2
S BaryteBaSO4
KPotassium
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca SerendibiteCa4[Mg6Al6]O4[Si6B3Al3O36]
Ca Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca ClintoniteCa(Mg,Al)3(Al3SiO10)(OH)2
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca Magnesio-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
TiTitanium
Ti RutileTiO2
FeIron
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
ZrZirconium
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Neoproterozoic - Stenian
541 - 1200 Ma



ID: 3184681
Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Proterozoic (541 - 1200 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Cryogenian
635 - 720 Ma



ID: 3310493

Age: Cryogenian (635 - 720 Ma)

Lithology: Volcanic-sedimentary

Reference: Thiéblemont, D. (ed.). New edition of the 1:10,000,000 geological map of Africa. CGMW-BRGM. [190]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Nicollet, C. (1985) Thèse d'État. Clermont Fd, 350pp.
Nicollet, C. (1990) In Granulites and Crustal Differentiation (Vielzeuf, D. and Vidal, P., eds.), Kluwer Academic publishers, in press.
Nicollet, C. (1990) Occurrences of grandidierite, serendibite and tourmaline near Ihosy, southern Madagascar. Mineralogical Magazine, 54 (374): 131-133.
Marchand, P. (1995) Situation géologique des émeraudes de Ianapera, province de Tuléar (Madagascar. Revue de Gemmologie AFG. 124: 13–16.
Vapnik, Y.E., Sabot, B., and Moroz, I. (2003): Fluid Inclusions in Ianapera Emerald, Southern Madagascar. Acta Mineralogica-Petrographica, Abstract Series 2, Szeged, 2003.
Vapnik, Y.E., Sabot, B., and Moroz, I. (2005) Fluid Inclusions in Ianapera Emerald, Southern Madagascar. International Geology Review, 47 (6): 647-662 (16).
Cheilletz, A., Sabot, B., Marchand, P., De Donato, P., Taylor, B., Archibald, D., and Barres, O. (xxxx) Emerald Deposits in Madagascar: Two Different Types for one Mineralising Event. // EUG XI 2001. Abstracts with program. P. 547.
Vapnik,Ye. et al. (2006) Formation of emeralds at pegmatite-ultramafic contacts based on fluid inclusions in Kianjavato emerald, Mananjary deposits, Madagascar. Mineralogical Magazine, 70 (2): 141-158
Groat, L.A., Giuliani, G., Marshall, D.D., and Turner, D. (2008) Emerald deposits and occurrences: A review. Ore Geology Reviews 34, 87-112.
Andrianjakavah, P.R., Salvi, S., Béziat, D., Rakotondrazafy, M. and Giuliani, G. (2009) Proximal and distal styles of pegmatite-related metasomatic emerald mineralization at Ianapera, southern Madagascar. Mineralium Deposita, 44: 817-835.

External Links



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