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Cascade Canyon, San Gabriel Mts, San Bernardino Co., California, USA

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 34° 12' 46'' North , 117° 39' 47'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 34.21278,-117.66306
GeoHash:G#: 9qh6ds0ru
Locality type:Canyon
Köppen climate type:Csb : Warm-summer Mediterranean climate


An E-W-trending branch of San Antonio Canyon located in the NE¼SE¼ sec. 36, T2N, R8W, SBM.

Approximate elevation of mineralized area is between 4500 and 5000 feet. Geologically, the area consists of metamorphic rock intruded by some granitic masses. Principal stratified layers have an east-west strike and a north dip of about 60 degrees. Beds from north to south consist of quartzite, limestone followed by quartzite, limestone and gneiss. This series is correlated with some Paleozoic limestone in the San Bernardino mountains. Mineralization of the area is probably in part due to the intrusion of the igneous mass.

At least 20 minerals can be collected in the Cascade canyon area, among them lazurite, diopside, corundum, "hydrotroilite" and phlogopite. Lapis lazuli occurs in the limestone in small bands from 1/8 inch to six inches wide, sometimes containing pyrite crystals. Corundum has not been found in the canyon proper, but good specimens have been obtained in San Antonio wash. Crystals are from 1/4 inch to one inch in length and are of a pinkish color.

A large variety of metamorphic rocks occur here

Warning: very steep topography subject to landslides. NOTE: This canyon crosses the county lines into Los Angeles County.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


13 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Alfredo Petrov, field observations.
Corundum
Formula: Al2O3
Colour: Pale rose to deep lilac
Description: Occurs in metamorphosed limestone.
Reference: Louderback, George Davis & Walter C. Blasdale (1910), Ruby corundum from San Bernardino County, California (abstract): Science, new series: 32: 31; […Geological Society of America Bulletin (1910): 21: 793]; Merriam, R. and Laudermilk, J. D. 1936. Two Diopsides from Southern California. The American Mineralogist: 21(11): 715-718; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 161; Eaton, A.L. (1946), Pomona club collects at mineralized Cascade Canyon. The Desert Magazine, Volume 9 Number 10, August. Desert Press, Inc. El Centro, California, p. 31, 40pp.; Shepherd, H. V. (2010, March). Zr-in-rutile Thermometry of a Ruby-bearing Metamorphic Rock, Cascade Canyon, San Bernardino County, CA. In Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, (Vol. 42, No. 1, p. 160).
Corundum var: Ruby
Formula: Al2O3
Habit: hexagonal crystals
Colour: pink, red
Description: crystals in matrix up to 26 mm long
Reference: Widely distributed in numerous collections.
Corundum var: Sapphire
Formula: Al2O3
Reference: Eaton, A. L. 1946. Pomona club collects at mineralized Cascade Canyon. The Desert Magazine, Volume 9 Number 10, August. Desert Press, Inc. El Centro, California, p. 31, 40pp.
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Alfredo Petrov, field observations.
Forsterite
Formula: Mg2SiO4
Reference: Alfredo Petrov, field observations.
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Reference: Alfredo Petrov, field observations.
Glaucophane ?
Formula: ◻[Na2][Mg3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
Reference: Merriam, R. and Laudermilk, J. D. 1936. Two Diopsides from Southern California. The American Mineralogist. 21(11):715-718.
Graphite
Formula: C
Reference: Alfredo Petrov, field observations.
Haüyne
Formula: (Na,K)3(Ca,Na)(Al3Si3O12)(SO4,S,Cl)
Reference: Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
'Hydrotroilite'
Formula: FeS · H2O ?
Reference: Merriam, R. and Laudermilk, J. D. 1936. Two Diopsides from Southern California. The American Mineralogist. 21(11):715-718.
'K Feldspar'
Reference: Shepherd, H. V. (2010, March). Zr-in-rutile Thermometry of a Ruby-bearing Metamorphic Rock, Cascade Canyon, San Bernardino County, CA. In Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, (Vol. 42, No. 1, p. 160).
'Lapis lazuli'
Reference: Eaton, A. L. 1946. Pomona club collects at mineralized Cascade Canyon. The Desert Magazine, Volume 9 Number 10, August. Desert Press, Inc. El Centro, California, p. 31, 40pp.
'Lazurite'
Formula: Na6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,S,S2, S3,Cl,OH)2
Reference: Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
'Monazite'
Reference: Shepherd, H. V. (2010, March). Zr-in-rutile Thermometry of a Ruby-bearing Metamorphic Rock, Cascade Canyon, San Bernardino County, CA. In Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, (Vol. 42, No. 1, p. 160).
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Shepherd, H. V. (2010, March). Zr-in-rutile Thermometry of a Ruby-bearing Metamorphic Rock, Cascade Canyon, San Bernardino County, CA. In Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, (Vol. 42, No. 1, p. 160).
Muscovite var: Fuchsite
Formula: K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
Description: Occurs in schists.
Reference: Merriam, R. and Laudermilk, J. D. 1936. Two Diopsides from Southern California. The American Mineralogist: 21(11): 715-718; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 426.
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Eaton, A. L. 1946. Pomona club collects at mineralized Cascade Canyon. The Desert Magazine, Volume 9 Number 10, August. Desert Press, Inc. El Centro, California, p. 31, 40pp.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Description: small inclusions in corundum
Reference: Alfredo Petrov, field observations.; Shepherd, H. V. (2010, March). Zr-in-rutile Thermometry of a Ruby-bearing Metamorphic Rock, Cascade Canyon, San Bernardino County, CA. In Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, (Vol. 42, No. 1, p. 160).
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Habit: Inclusions in corundum
Colour: dark orange-brown
Reference: Shepherd, H.V., Johnson, E.A. and Logan , M.A.V. (2010) Zr-in-rutile thermometry of a ruby-bearing metamorphic rock, Cascade Canyon, San Bernardino County, CA . Geological Society of America Northeastern Section (45th annual) and Southeastern Section (59th annual) Joint Meeting, 65-24.; Shepherd, H. V. (2010, March). Zr-in-rutile Thermometry of a Ruby-bearing Metamorphic Rock, Cascade Canyon, San Bernardino County, CA. In Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, (Vol. 42, No. 1, p. 160).
Sillimanite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Reference: Shepherd, H. V. (2010, March). Zr-in-rutile Thermometry of a Ruby-bearing Metamorphic Rock, Cascade Canyon, San Bernardino County, CA. In Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, (Vol. 42, No. 1, p. 160).
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Reference: Alfredo Petrov, field observations.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Graphite1.CB.05aC
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Corundum'4.CB.05Al2O3
var: Ruby4.CB.05Al2O3
var: Sapphire4.CB.05Al2O3
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
'Calcite'5.AB.05CaCO3
Group 9 - Silicates
'Epidote'9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
'Forsterite'9.AC.05Mg2SiO4
Glaucophane ?9.DE.25◻[Na2][Mg3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
Haüyne9.FB.10(Na,K)3(Ca,Na)(Al3Si3O12)(SO4,S,Cl)
Lazurite9.FB.10Na6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,S,S2, S3,Cl,OH)2
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Fuchsite9.EC.15K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
Phlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Sillimanite9.AF.05Al2(SiO4)O
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Garnet Group-X3Z2(SiO4)3
Hydrotroilite-FeS · H2O ?
K Feldspar-
Lapis lazuli-
Monazite-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Semi-metals and non-metals
Graphite1.3.6.2C
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Corundum4.3.1.1Al2O3
AX2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with all cations in octahedral [6] coordination
Forsterite51.3.1.2Mg2SiO4
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and >[4] coordination
Sillimanite52.2.2a.1Al2(SiO4)O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Glaucophane ?66.1.3c.1◻[Na2][Mg3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework Feldspathoids and related species
Haüyne76.2.3.3(Na,K)3(Ca,Na)(Al3Si3O12)(SO4,S,Cl)
'Lazurite'76.2.3.4Na6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,S,S2, S3,Cl,OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Corundum
var: Ruby
-Al2O3
var: Sapphire-Al2O3
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Hydrotroilite'-FeS · H2O ?
'K Feldspar'-
'Lapis lazuli'-
'Monazite'-
Muscovite
var: Fuchsite
-K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
H Glaucophane◻[Na2][Mg3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
H HydrotroiliteFeS · H2O ?
H LazuriteNa6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,S,S2, S3,Cl,OH)2
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C GraphiteC
OOxygen
O CalciteCaCO3
O CorundumAl2O3
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O ForsteriteMg2SiO4
O Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
O Glaucophane◻[Na2][Mg3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
O Haüyne(Na,K)3(Ca,Na)(Al3Si3O12)(SO4,S,Cl)
O HydrotroiliteFeS · H2O ?
O LazuriteNa6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,S,S2, S3,Cl,OH)2
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Corundum (var: Ruby)Al2O3
O RutileTiO2
O Corundum (var: Sapphire)Al2O3
O SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)O
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
NaSodium
Na Glaucophane◻[Na2][Mg3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
Na Haüyne(Na,K)3(Ca,Na)(Al3Si3O12)(SO4,S,Cl)
Na LazuriteNa6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,S,S2, S3,Cl,OH)2
MgMagnesium
Mg ForsteriteMg2SiO4
Mg Glaucophane◻[Na2][Mg3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al CorundumAl2O3
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
Al Glaucophane◻[Na2][Mg3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
Al Haüyne(Na,K)3(Ca,Na)(Al3Si3O12)(SO4,S,Cl)
Al LazuriteNa6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,S,S2, S3,Cl,OH)2
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Corundum (var: Ruby)Al2O3
Al Corundum (var: Sapphire)Al2O3
Al SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)O
SiSilicon
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si ForsteriteMg2SiO4
Si Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
Si Glaucophane◻[Na2][Mg3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
Si Haüyne(Na,K)3(Ca,Na)(Al3Si3O12)(SO4,S,Cl)
Si LazuriteNa6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,S,S2, S3,Cl,OH)2
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
SSulfur
S Haüyne(Na,K)3(Ca,Na)(Al3Si3O12)(SO4,S,Cl)
S HydrotroiliteFeS · H2O ?
S LazuriteNa6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,S,S2, S3,Cl,OH)2
S PyriteFeS2
ClChlorine
Cl Haüyne(Na,K)3(Ca,Na)(Al3Si3O12)(SO4,S,Cl)
Cl LazuriteNa6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,S,S2, S3,Cl,OH)2
KPotassium
K Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
K Haüyne(Na,K)3(Ca,Na)(Al3Si3O12)(SO4,S,Cl)
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca Haüyne(Na,K)3(Ca,Na)(Al3Si3O12)(SO4,S,Cl)
Ca LazuriteNa6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,S,S2, S3,Cl,OH)2
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
TiTitanium
Ti RutileTiO2
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
CrChromium
Cr Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
FeIron
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe HydrotroiliteFeS · H2O ?
Fe PyriteFeS2

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Middle Pleistocene - Early Pleistocene
0.126 - 2.588 Ma



ID: 2251049
Very old landslide deposits

Age: Pleistocene (0.126 - 2.588 Ma)

Description: Slope-failure deposits that consist of displaced bedrock blocks and (or) chaotically mixed rubble. Geomorphic form of landslides poorly, or not at all, preserved. Inferred to have accumulated late in main uplift history of Transverse Ranges. In San Bernardino Mountains includes large multiple slides in canyon of City Creek and numerous scattered slides along mountain front within one or 2 km of San Andreas Fault. In San Gabriel Mountains, includes two large, multiple slide masses at Crystal Lake and Alpine Canyon in upper reaches of North Fork of San Gabriel River. Deposits in both slide areas are highly dissected

Reference: Morton, D.M., F.K. Miller . Geologic Map of the San Bernardino and Santa Ana 30' x 60' quadrangles, California. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2006-1217. [42]

Cretaceous
66 - 145 Ma



ID: 3192002
Mesozoic intrusive rocks

Age: Cretaceous (66 - 145 Ma)

Lithology: Intrusive igneous rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Cretaceous - Paleoproterozoic
66 - 2500 Ma



ID: 2933602
pre-Cenozoic metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks undivided

Age: to Cretaceous (66 - 2500 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Kings Sequence; McCoy Mountains Formation; Palm Canyon Complex; Placerita Formation

Description: Undivided pre-Cenozoic metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks of great variety. Mostly slate, quartzite, hornfels, chert, phyllite, mylonite, schist, gneiss, and minor marble.

Comments: Original map source: Saucedo, G.J., Bedford, D.R., Raines, G.L., Miller, R.J., and Wentworth, C.M., 2000, GIS Data for the Geologic Map of California, California Department of Conservation, Division of Mines and Geology, CD-ROM 2000-07, scale 1:750,000.

Lithology: Major:{schist,gneiss}, Minor:{quartzite,argillite}, Incidental:{phyllite, metavolcanic, slate, hornfels, marble, chert, sandstone, mudstone, conglomerate}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Louderback, George Davis & Walter C. Blasdale (1910), Ruby corundum from San Bernardino County, California (abstract): Science, new series: 32: 31; […Geological Society of America Bulletin: 21: 793 (1910)].
Merriam, R. and Laudermilk, J. D. (1936) Two Diopsides from Southern California. The American Mineralogist: 21(11): 715-718.
Eaton, A.L. (1946), Pomona club collects at mineralized Cascade Canyon. The Desert Magazine, Volume 9 Number 10, August. Desert Press, Inc. El Centro, California, 40pp.: 9(10): 31.
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 161.
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 143, 426.
Shepherd, H. V. (2010). Zr-in-rutile Thermometry of a Ruby-bearing Metamorphic Rock, Cascade Canyon, San Bernardino County, California. In Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs: 42(1)(March): 160.


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