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Blackhead Quarry, Dunedin City, Otago Region, South Island, New Zealand

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 45° 55' 37'' South , 170° 25' 49'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): -45.92717,170.43042
GeoHash:G#: pzc4wppwu
Locality type:Quarry
Köppen climate type:Cfb : Temperate oceanic climate


Zeolites.

Blackhead Quarry is an active aggregate quarry approximately 8 kilometres south-east of the Dunedin city centre.

Zeolites have been obtained by local rock clubs, who at times have been given permission to fossick in the quarry. The zeolites occur in vesicles in the upper layer of the quarry, however as this has been largely mined out, specimens have become increasingly difficult to find. Much more of the headland has gone from mining since the 1995 photographs listed on Mindat, although the columnar basalt structures at the edge of the headland are protected under a covenant. While vugs up to 30 cms wide were found in early fossicking, most of the specimens now are micro.

Quarrying started in the 1950's, and since 1986 has been a joint venture between Palmer and Son Limited, and Fulton Hogan Limited. Around 120 000 tonnes of aggregate is produced per annum.

Blackhead was formed around a peripheral volcanic vent, as part of the Miocene Dunedin Volcanic Complex. Rocks show as pale grey basaltic lithic tuff on the north side of the quarry, with pale grey crystal tuff elsewhere. The upper parts of the deposit was highly vesicular (50-75%) within splatter cone material, containing abundant zeolites. Natrolite, phillipsite and calcite are the most common species within vesicular basanite. Chabazite and thomsonite is restricted to the north-east part of the quarry, while gismondine was only found in one small area below the natrolite bearing zone.

Natrolite is found as glassy to colourless to white hemispherical aggregates of prismatic crystals, commonly from a gonnardite centre. The crystals may be coated with montmorillonite as botryoidal aggregates.

Phillipsite in three different habits as 1) glassy short prismatic fourling crystals forming dense aggregates lining basanite, some associated with siderite and clay altered basanite; 2) dense matted tiny crystals or botryoidal aggregates up to 2mms long coating the walls of vesicles; 3) glassy crystalline equant crystals lining basanite.

Calcite is found in variety of habits, however multiple habits are not found in each vesicle. It is often found associated with the zeolites. Calcite crystals range from 0.1 to 2mm long, transparent to colourless, opaque to white. 1) as glassy colourless massive crystalline; 2) glassy colourless nail head crystals on a thin siderite lining 3) colourless glassy complexly twinned rhombohedral crystals associated with emerald green chlorite, as linings on siderite on massive basanite, or within the basaltic tuff; 4) glassy colourless schalenohedral crystals on a crust of tiny phillipsite crystals lining siderite in massive basanite; 5) colourless glassy cloudy and clear zoned simple rhombohedral crystals up to 2mms long.

Olivine as olive green transparent to translucent crystals. Thomsonite as thin glassy colourless to dull silky white well terminated bladed crystals to 1 mm long. Gonnardite as 1) pearly white centres to 10 mms diameter within natrolite aggregates on massive basanite; 2) glassy colourless on phillipsite and natrolite 3) as white hemispherical hollow aggregates or radiating sprays as thin elongated prismatic crystals, with overgrowth of colourless glassy natrolite.

Alternative Label Names

This is a list of additional names that have been recorded for mineral labels associated with this locality in the minID database. This may include previous versions of the locality name hierarchy from mindat.org, data entry errors, and it may also include unconfirmed sublocality names or other names that can only be matched to this level.

Blackhead Quarry
Blackhead Quarry, Otago, New Zealand

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


10 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: J. Thornton in Micro-Scope, November 1995
Chabazite-Ca
Formula: (Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Reference: Graham, I.T. , Pogson, R.E., Colchester, D.M. & Baines, A. (2003) Zeolite crystal habits , composition, and paragenesis; Blackhead Quarry, Dunedin, New Zealand - Mineralogical Magazine, 67, 625-737
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Judy Rowe Collection
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'
Reference: Judy Rowe Collection
Gismondine-Ca
Formula: CaAl2Si2O8 · 4H2O
Reference: Graham, I.T. , Pogson, R.E., Colchester, D.M. & Baines, A. (2003) Zeolite crystal habits , composition, and paragenesis; Blackhead Quarry, Dunedin, New Zealand - Mineralogical Magazine, 67, 625-737
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: -Graham, I.T, Pogson, R.E., Colchester, D.M. & Baines, A. (2003) Zeolite crystal habits , composition, and paragenesis; Blackhead Quarry, Dunedin, New Zealand - Mineralogical Magazine, 67, 625-737
Gonnardite
Formula: (Na,Ca)2(Si,Al)5O10 · 3H2O
Reference: -Graham, I.T, Pogson, R.E., Colchester, D.M. & Baines, A. (2003) Zeolite crystal habits , composition, and paragenesis; Blackhead Quarry, Dunedin, New Zealand - Mineralogical Magazine, 67, 625-737
Natrolite
Formula: Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Reference: -Graham, I.T, Pogson, R.E., Colchester, D.M. & Baines, A. (2003) Zeolite crystal habits , composition, and paragenesis; Blackhead Quarry, Dunedin, New Zealand - Mineralogical Magazine, 67, 625-737
Phillipsite-K
Formula: (K,Na,Ca0.5,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] . 12H2O
Reference: Graham, I.T. , Pogson, R.E., Colchester, D.M. & Baines, A. (2003) Zeolite crystal habits , composition, and paragenesis; Blackhead Quarry, Dunedin, New Zealand - Mineralogical Magazine, 67, 625-737
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: J. Thornton in Micro-Scope, November 1995
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Reference: -Graham, I.T, Pogson, R.E., Colchester, D.M. & Baines, A. (2003) Zeolite crystal habits , composition, and paragenesis; Blackhead Quarry, Dunedin, New Zealand - Mineralogical Magazine, 67, 625-737
Thomsonite-Ca
Formula: NaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
Reference: Graham, I.T. , Pogson, R.E., Colchester, D.M. & Baines, A. (2003) Zeolite crystal habits , composition, and paragenesis; Blackhead Quarry, Dunedin, New Zealand - Mineralogical Magazine, 67, 625-737

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
'Pyrite'2.EB.05aFeS2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Goethite'4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
'Calcite'5.AB.05CaCO3
'Siderite'5.AB.05FeCO3
Group 9 - Silicates
'Chabazite-Ca'9.GD.10(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
'Gismondine-Ca'9.GC.05CaAl2Si2O8 · 4H2O
'Gonnardite'9.GA.05(Na,Ca)2(Si,Al)5O10 · 3H2O
'Natrolite'9.GA.05Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
'Phillipsite-K'9.GC.10(K,Na,Ca0.5,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] . 12H2O
'Thomsonite-Ca'9.GA.10NaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Chlorite Group'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
Chabazite-Ca77.1.2.1(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Gonnardite77.1.5.7(Na,Ca)2(Si,Al)5O10 · 3H2O
Natrolite77.1.5.1Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Chlorite Group'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
Gismondine-Ca-CaAl2Si2O8 · 4H2O
Phillipsite-K-(K,Na,Ca0.5,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] . 12H2O
Thomsonite-Ca-NaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Chabazite-Ca(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
H Gismondine-CaCaAl2Si2O8 · 4H2O
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H Gonnardite(Na,Ca)2(Si,Al)5O10 · 3H2O
H NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
H Phillipsite-K(K,Na,Ca0.5,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] . 12H2O
H Thomsonite-CaNaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C SideriteFeCO3
OOxygen
O CalciteCaCO3
O Chabazite-Ca(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
O Gismondine-CaCaAl2Si2O8 · 4H2O
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O Gonnardite(Na,Ca)2(Si,Al)5O10 · 3H2O
O NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
O Phillipsite-K(K,Na,Ca0.5,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] . 12H2O
O SideriteFeCO3
O Thomsonite-CaNaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
NaSodium
Na Gonnardite(Na,Ca)2(Si,Al)5O10 · 3H2O
Na NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Na Phillipsite-K(K,Na,Ca0.5,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] . 12H2O
Na Thomsonite-CaNaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
AlAluminium
Al Chabazite-Ca(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Al Gismondine-CaCaAl2Si2O8 · 4H2O
Al Gonnardite(Na,Ca)2(Si,Al)5O10 · 3H2O
Al NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Al Phillipsite-K(K,Na,Ca0.5,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] . 12H2O
Al Thomsonite-CaNaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
SiSilicon
Si Chabazite-Ca(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Si Gismondine-CaCaAl2Si2O8 · 4H2O
Si Gonnardite(Na,Ca)2(Si,Al)5O10 · 3H2O
Si NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Si Phillipsite-K(K,Na,Ca0.5,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] . 12H2O
Si Thomsonite-CaNaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
SSulfur
S PyriteFeS2
KPotassium
K Phillipsite-K(K,Na,Ca0.5,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] . 12H2O
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Chabazite-Ca(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Ca Gismondine-CaCaAl2Si2O8 · 4H2O
Ca Gonnardite(Na,Ca)2(Si,Al)5O10 · 3H2O
Ca Phillipsite-K(K,Na,Ca0.5,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] . 12H2O
Ca Thomsonite-CaNaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
FeIron
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe SideriteFeCO3
BaBarium
Ba Phillipsite-K(K,Na,Ca0.5,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] . 12H2O

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Miocene
5.333 - 23.03 Ma



ID: 3186884
Cenozoic volcanic rocks

Age: Miocene (5.333 - 23.03 Ma)

Lithology: Flow(s); mafic-intermediate volcanic rocks; basalt

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Late Miocene - Middle Miocene
5.333 - 15.97 Ma



ID: 1313504
Dunedin Volcanic Group basaltic rocks

Age: Miocene (5.333 - 15.97 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Dunedin Volcanic Group

Description: Basaltic flows, pyroclastic deposits and subvolcanic intrusives.

Comments: Zealandia Megasequence Extrusive and Intrusive Rocks (Neogene)

Lithology: Basalt, pyroclastic material

Reference: Edbrooke, S.W., Heron, D.W., Forsyth, P.J., Jongens, R. (compilers). Geology Map of New Zealand 1:1 000 000. GNS Science Geological Map 2. [12]

Serravallian - Aquitanian
11.62 - 23.03 Ma



ID: 1363742
Undifferentiated Otakou Group sandstone

Age: Miocene (11.62 - 23.03 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Otakou Group

Description: Calcareous sandstone, sandy limestone and minor tuff.

Comments: Neogene sedimentary rocks. Age based on biostratigraphy

Lithology: Major:: {sandstone},Minor:: {limestone, tuff}

Reference: Heron, D.W. . Geology Map of New Zealand 1:250 000. GNS Science Geological Map 1. [13]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Graham, I.T., Pogson, R.E., Colchester, D.M., Baines, A. (2003) Zeolite crystal habits, compositions, and paragenesis; Blackhead Quarry, Dunedin, New Zealand. Mineralogical Magazine 67(4), 625-637.

External Links



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