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Northwest Africa Meteoritesi
Regional Level Types
Northwest Africa MeteoritesGroup of Meteorite Fall Locations

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Key
Largest Settlements:
PlacePopulation
Casablanca3,144,909 (2016)
Algiers1,977,663 (2017)
Rabat1,655,753 (2016)
Fès964,891 (2016)
Sale903,485 (2016)
Marrakesh839,296 (2016)
Museums in region:
Other/historical names associated with this locality:
NWA Meteorites


A broad region, mostly desert, of northwestern Africa associated with meteorite finds. Meteorites are frequently found in the desert and sold at markets in Morocco, etc, without it being clear exactly where within the region they came from, so these finds generally should only be allocated to this region rather than a specific country unless the exact fall location is known with some confidence.

Note: some meteorites have been incorrectly entered with the location of purchase rather than the fall location. These should be moved here.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Gallery Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded from this region.


Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

591 valid minerals. 33 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals. 1 erroneous literature entry.

Meteorite/Rock Types Recorded

Note: data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Meteorite/Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Acapulcoite meteorite

'Adamellite'

'Aiounite'

Analcime-basanite

Analcime-tephrite

Analcimite

Andesite

Angrite meteorite

'Ankaramite'

'Ankaratrite'

'Anomalous EH7 chondrite meteorite'

Anorthosite

Anorthositic Lunar meteorite

'Aplite'

'Argillaceous limestone'

Aubrite meteorite

Banded iron formation

Basalt

Basanite

'Basanitoid'

Benmoreite

Biotitite

Black shale

Breccia

CH3 chondrite meteorite

'CO3-melt breccia chondrite meteorite'

CR2 chondrite meteorite

CR6 chondrite meteorite

'CR7 chondrite meteorite'

CV3 chondrite meteorite

Caliche

Camptonite

Carbonaceous chondrite meteorite

Carbonatite

'Charnockitic granite'

Chassignite meteorite

Chert

Clay

Clinopyroxenite

Comenditic rhyolite

Conglomerate

'Cumulate'

Dacite

'Diopside-sanidine-phlogopite lamproite'

Diorite

'Ditroite'

'Dolerite'

Dolomite-carbonatite

Dolostone

'Dunitic diogenite meteorite'

'EL-melt rock chondrite meteorite'

'EL7 chondrite meteorite'

'Essexite'

Eucrite meteorite

'Eucrite polymict breccia meteorite'

'Fasinite'

Feldspathic breccia

Feldspathic breccia Lunar meteorite

Fenite

Ferrocarbonatite

Foidite

'Foyaite'

'Fulgurite'

Gabbro

Gneiss

Grainstone

Granite

Granodiorite

Granulite

Greenschist

'Greywacke'

'H3-5 chondrite meteorite'

'H3.9 chondrite meteorite'

H4 chondrite meteorite

H5 chondrite meteorite

'H5-melt breccia chondrite meteorite'

H6 chondrite meteorite

Hawaiite

Hornfels

'Hyalo-enstatite-phlogopite lamproite'

IAB complex iron meteorite

IAB-sHL iron meteorite

IIAB iron meteorite

'Ignimbritic tuff'

Ijolite

Ironstone

K4 chondrite meteorite

'L/LL3.10 chondrite meteorite'

L3 chondrite meteorite

'L3-6 chondrite meteorite'

'L3.1 chondrite meteorite'

L4 chondrite meteorite

L5 chondrite meteorite

L6 chondrite meteorite

LL3 chondrite meteorite

'LL3.2 chondrite meteorite'

LL5 chondrite meteorite

'LL5/6 chondrite meteorite'

LL6 chondrite meteorite

Lamproite

Lamprophyre

'Leucocratic nephelinolite'

'Leucogranite'

Lherzolite

'Limburgite'

Limestone

Lodranite meteorite

Lunar achondrite meteorite

Lunar regolith

'Malignite'

Marble

'Marl'

'Melanocratic nephelinite'

'Melanocratic nephelinolite'

'Menilite'

Mesosiderite meteorite

Mesosiderite-B1 meteorite

Metagreywacke

Metamudstone

Miaskite

'Microgranite'

'Microsyenite'

Migmatite

Minette

Monchiquite

Monzodiorite

Monzonite

Mudstone

Mugearite

Nakhlite meteorite

'Nepheline syenite pegmatite'

Nepheline-syenite

Nephelinite

'Nordmarkite'

Norite

Noritic Lunar meteorite

'Olivine basalt'

'Olivine nephelinite'

'Ophiolite'

Orthopyroxenite

Pantelleritic rhyolite

'Pegmatite'

'Peralkaline alkali-feldspar-granite'

'Peralkaline rhyolite'

'Peralkaline-alkali-feldspar nepheline-syenite'

Peridotite

Phonolite

Phonolitic-tephrite

Picrobasalt

'Porphyry'

Pyroxenite

Quartz-diorite

Quartz-syenite

Quartz-trachyte

Quartzite

'R3-6 chondrite meteorite'

'R3.8-5 chondrite meteorite'

Regolith breccia

Rhyolite

'Rhyolitic tuff'

Sand

Sandstone

Schist

Shale

Shergottite meteorite

Shonkinite

Siltstone

Sinter

Skarn

Slag

Syenite

Syenogranite

Søvite

Tephrite

'Tinguaite'

Trachyandesite

Trachybasalt

Trachyte

Troctolite

Tuff

'Unbrecciated eucrite meteorite'

'Ungrouped Achondrite meteorite'

'Ungrouped C1/2 chondrite meteorite'

'Ungrouped C2 chondrite meteorite'

'Ungrouped iron meteorite'

Ureilite meteorite

Volcaniclastic rock

Winonaite meteorite

Detailed Mineral List:

Acanthite
Formula: Ag2S
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Tuduri, Johann & Chauvet, Alain & Barbanson, Luc & Bourdier, Jean-Louis & Labriki, Mohamed & Ennaciri, A & Badra, Lakhlifi & Dubois, Michel & Ennaciri-Leloix, Christelle & Sizaret, Stanislas & Maacha, L. (2018). The Jbel Saghro Au(-Ag, Cu) and Ag-Hg Metallogenetic Province: Product of a Long-Lived Ediacaran Tectono-Magmatic Evolution in the Moroccan Anti-Atlas. Minerals. 8. 592. 10.3390/min8120592.
Actinolite
Formula: ◻Ca2(Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5)Si8O22OH2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Azzouni‐Sekkal, A., & Boissonnas, J. (1987). Geochemistry of the Tioueine Pan‐African granite complex (Hoggar, Algeria). In: Thirteenth Colloquium of African Geology, St Andrews. Occasional Publication, International Centre for Training and Exchanges in the Geosciences, 1985/3, 140-141.
Adamite
Formula: Zn2(AsO4)(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Adamite var. Aluminium-bearing Adamite
Formula: (Zn,Al)2AsO4(OH)
Colour: sky-blue
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Adamite var. Copper-bearing Adamite
Formula: (Zn,Cu)2AsO4OH
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Addibischoffite (TL)
Formula: Ca2Al6Al6O20
Type Locality:
Reference: Ma, C. and Krot, A.N. (2015) Addibischoffite, IMA 2015-001. CNMNC Newsletter No. 25, June 2015, page 532; Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 529-535;Ma, C., Krot, A.N., Nagashima, K. (2017): Addibischoffite, Ca2Al6Al6O20, a new calcium aluminate mineral from the Acfer 214 CH carbonaceous chondrite: A new refractory phase from the solar nebula. American Mineralogist: 102: 1556-1560.
Adelite ?
Formula: CaMg(AsO4)(OH)
Reference: Byramjee R.and Meindre M.(1956): Le gisement de manganèse de Guettara. Symposium du manganèse XX congrès international de géologie,
Aegirine
Formula: NaFe3+Si2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 19 localities in this region.
Reference: Bessoles, B. (1977). GEOLOGIE DE L'AFRIQUE. LE CRATON OUEST AFRICAIN. Memoires du Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres, 88. Cahen, L., Snelling, N. J., Delhal, J., Vail, J. R., Bonhomme, M., & Ledent, D. (1984). The geochronology and evolution of Africa. Clarendon Press, Oxford. Nations Unies 1974. Carte geologique de la dorsale regueibat. et de ses bordures sedimentaires (Partie orientale). Republique Islamique de Mauritanie. Nations Unies, MAU-69-504, 1:500000.
Aegirine-augite
Formula: (NaaCabFe2+cMgd)(Fe3+eAlfFe2+gMgh)Si2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Reference: JÉRÉMINE, E. (1955). L'ANKARATRITE A HAUYNE DU JEBEL TOURGUEJID. Notes et mémoires du Service géologique, (123-125), 59-75.
Aenigmatite
Formula: Na4[Fe2+10Ti2]O4[Si12O36]
Reference: Ba, H., Black, R., Benziane, B., Diombana, D., Hascoet-Fender, J., Bonin, B., ... & Liégeois, J. P. (1985). La province des complexes annulaires alcalins sursaturés de l'Adrar des Iforas, Mali. Journal of African Earth Sciences (1983), 3(1-2), 123-142. doi.org/10.1016/0899-5362(85)90031-4 Black, R., Ba, H., Ball, E., Bertrand, J. M., Boullier, A. M., Caby, R., ... & Wright, L. I. (1979). Outline of the Pan-African geology of adrar des Iforas (Republic of Mali). Geologische Rundschau, 68(2), 543-564. doi.org/10.1007/BF01820806 Liégeois, J. P., & Black, R. (1984). Pétrographie et géochronologie Rb-Sr de la transition calco-alcaline-alcaline fini-Panafricaine dans l'Adrar des Iforas (Mali): accrétion crustale au Précambrien supérieur. In Géologie africaine (pp. 115-145).
Aerinite
Formula: (Ca5.1Na0.5)(Fe3+,Al,Fe2+,Mg)4(Al,Mg)6[HSi12O36(OH)12][(CO3)1.2(H2O)12]
Reference: Handbook of Mineralogy
Agardite-(Ce)
Formula: CeCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
Reference: T. Witzke, U. Kolitsch, W. Krause, A. Wiechowski, O. Medenbach, A. R. Kampf, I. M. Steele and G. Favreau (2006): Guanacoite, Cu2Mg2(Mg0.5Cu0.5)(OH)4(H2O)4(AsO4)2, a new arsenate mineral species from the El Guanaco Mine, near Taltal, Chile: Description and crystal structure. Eur. J. Mineral. (in press).
Agardite-(Y) (TL)
Formula: YCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
Habit: needles
Colour: yellowish green, green, blue-green
Reference: Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 4, 2000; American Mineralogist 55:1448
Ahrensite (TL)
Formula: SiFe2O4
Type Locality:
Reference: Ma, C., Tschauner, O., Liu, Y. and Sinogeikin, S. (2013) Ahrensite, IMA 2013-028. CNMNC Newsletter No. 16, August 2013, page 2707; Mineralogical Magazine, 77, 2695-2709. ; Miyahara, M., Ohtani, E., El Goresy, A., Ozawa, S., & Gillet, P. (2016). Phase transition processes of olivine in the shocked Martian meteorite Tissint: Clues to origin of ringwoodite-, bridgmanite-and magnesiowüstite-bearing assemblages. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 259, 18-28.
Aikinite
Formula: PbCuBiS3
Reference: Bouabdellah, Mohammed & Chekroun, F & Alansari, Abdelkhalek & Margoum, Daoud. (2016) The Granitoid-Related Tiouit Gold Deposit, Saghro Inlier, Eastern Anti-Atlas (Morocco): Neoproterozoic Mineralization by a Polyphase Late-Magmatic to Hydrothermal System. 10.1007/978-3-319-31733-5_16.
'Aikinite-Bismuthinite Series'
Reference: Tuduri, Johann & Chauvet, Alain & Barbanson, Luc & Bourdier, Jean-Louis & Labriki, Mohamed & Ennaciri, A & Badra, Lakhlifi & Dubois, Michel & Ennaciri-Leloix, Christelle & Sizaret, Stanislas & Maacha, L. (2018). The Jbel Saghro Au(-Ag, Cu) and Ag-Hg Metallogenetic Province: Product of a Long-Lived Ediacaran Tectono-Magmatic Evolution in the Moroccan Anti-Atlas. Minerals. 8. 592. 10.3390/min8120592.
Akimotoite
Formula: (Mg,Fe2+)SiO3
Reference: Baziotis, I. P., Liu, Y., DeCarli, P. S., Melosh, H. J., McSween, H. Y., Bodnar, R. J., & Taylor, L. A. (2013). The Tissint Martian meteorite as evidence for the largest impact excavation. Nature Communications, 4, 1404.
Alabandite
Formula: MnS
Reference: Patzer, A., Hill, D. H., & Boynton, W. V. (2001). Itqiy: A metal‐rich enstatite meteorite with achondritic texture. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 36(11), 1495-1505.
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 36 localities in this region.
Reference: Blanc, P. & Pomerol, C. 1973. Presence de filons de roches carbonatees a analcime dans la depression de Tin Jouker, Richat, Adrar de Mauritainie. Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, Paris, 265D, 2409-2411. Dietz, R. S., Fudali, R., & Cassidy, W. (1969). Richât and Semsiyat domes (Mauritania): not astroblemes. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 80(7), 1367-1372. doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1969)80[1367:RASDMN]2.0.CO;2 NETTO, A.M, FABRE, J., POUPEAU, G. & CHAMPENOIS, M. (1992). Datation par traces de fission (TF) de la structure circulaire des Richat (Mauritanie centrale). Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, Paris, 314 (Serie II), 1179-1186. Trompette, R. 1973. Pétrographie des Richât. A - Les delérites de l'Adrar de Mauritanie et le probléme des analcimolites des Richât (Sahara occidentale). Sciences de la Terre. Mémoires, Nancy, 28, 83-95. Woolley, A. R., Rankin, A. H., Elliott, C. J., Bishot, A. C., & Niblett, D. (1984). Carbonatite dykes from the Richat dome. Mauritania, and the genesis of the dome: Indian Mineralogist, 189-207.
Albite var. Andesine
Formula: (Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Reference: Eur. J. Mineral. , 1996, 8, pp. 625-638.
Albite var. Anorthoclase
Formula: (Na,K)AlSi3O8
Reference: M. Girod, Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéral. Crist. , 1963, LXXXVI, pp. 121-125.
Albite var. Oligoclase
Formula: (Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Reference: Blanc, P. & Pomerol, C. 1973. Presence de filons de roches carbonatees a analcime dans la depression de Tin Jouker, Richat, Adrar de Mauritainie. Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, Paris, 265D, 2409-2411. Dietz, R. S., Fudali, R., & Cassidy, W. (1969). Richât and Semsiyat domes (Mauritania): not astroblemes. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 80(7), 1367-1372. doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1969)80[1367:RASDMN]2.0.CO;2 NETTO, A.M, FABRE, J., POUPEAU, G. & CHAMPENOIS, M. (1992). Datation par traces de fission (TF) de la structure circulaire des Richat (Mauritanie centrale). Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, Paris, 314 (Serie II), 1179-1186. Trompette, R. 1973. Pétrographie des Richât. A - Les delérites de l'Adrar de Mauritanie et le probléme des analcimolites des Richât (Sahara occidentale). Sciences de la Terre. Mémoires, Nancy, 28, 83-95. Woolley, A. R., Rankin, A. H., Elliott, C. J., Bishot, A. C., & Niblett, D. (1984). Carbonatite dykes from the Richat dome. Mauritania, and the genesis of the dome: Indian Mineralogist, 189-207.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'
Localities: Reported from at least 50 localities in this region.
Reference: José Zendrera inspection
'Alkali Feldspar'
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Azzouni‐Sekkal, A., & Boissonnas, J. (1987). Geochemistry of the Tioueine Pan‐African granite complex (Hoggar, Algeria). In: Thirteenth Colloquium of African Geology, St Andrews. Occasional Publication, International Centre for Training and Exchanges in the Geosciences, 1985/3, 140-141.
'Alkali pyroxene'
Reference: Berrahma, M., & Delaloye, M. (1989). Données géochronologiques nouvelles sur le massif volcanique du Siroua (Anti-Atlas, Maroc). Journal of African Earth Sciences (and the Middle East), 9(3-4), 651-656. doi.org/10.1016/0899-5362(89)90049-3 BERRAHMA, M. H., & Hernandez, J. (1985). Nouvelles donnees sur le volcanisme trachytique hyperalcalin du volcan du Siroua (Anti-Atlas, Maroc). Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences. Série 2, Mécanique, Physique, Chimie, Sciences de l'univers, Sciences de la Terre, 300(17), 863-868. Choubert, G., Charlot, R., Faure-Muret, A., Hottinger, L., Marçais, J., Tisserant, D. & Vidal, P. 1968. Note préliminaire sur le volcanisme messinien (pontien) au Maroc. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, Paris, 266D, 197-199. Wagner, C., Parodi, G. C., Semet, M., Robert, J. L., Berrahma, M., & Velde, D. (1991). Crystal chemistry of narsarsukite. European Journal of Mineralogy, 3(3), 575-586.
Allanite-(Ce)
Formula: {CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Hadj-Kaddour, Z., Liegeois, J. P., Demaiffe, D., & Caby, R. (1998). The alkaline–peralkaline granitic post-collisional Tin Zebane dyke swarm (Pan-African Tuareg shield, Algeria): prevalent mantle signature and late agpaitic differentiation. Lithos, 45(1), 223-243.
'Allanite Group'
Formula: {A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Bessoles, B. (1977). GEOLOGIE DE L'AFRIQUE. LE CRATON OUEST AFRICAIN. Memoires du Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres, 88. Cahen, L., Snelling, N. J., Delhal, J., Vail, J. R., Bonhomme, M., & Ledent, D. (1984). The geochronology and evolution of Africa. Clarendon Press, Oxford. Nations Unies 1974. Carte geologique de la dorsale regueibat. et de ses bordures sedimentaires (Partie orientale). Republique Islamique de Mauritanie. Nations Unies, MAU-69-504, 1:500000.
Alloclasite
Formula: Co1-xFexAsS
Habit: elongated prisms
Colour: gray
Description: EDX analysis Vincent Bourgoin & Jean-Claude Boulliard, Association Jean wyart - Paris
Reference: Georges Favreau collection
Alluaudite
Formula: (Na,Ca)Mn2+(Fe3+,Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)2(PO4)3
Reference: Fontan, F. (1978) : Etude minéralogique et essais expérimentaux sur les phosphates de fer et de manganèse des pegmatites des Jebilet (Maroc) et des Pyrénées (France), PhD thesis, Toulouse, 272 p.
'Alluaudite-Na□'
Formula: 4Na4Mn2+4Fe3+8(PO4)12
Reference: Van King
Almandine
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Eur. J. Mineral. , 1996, 8, pp. 625-638.
'Almandine-Pyrope Series'
Reference: M. Guiraud, J.R. Kienast, A. Rahmani : "Petrological study of high-temperature granulites from In Ouzal, Algeria : some implications on the phase relationships in the FMASTOCr system", Eur. J. Mineral. , 1996, 8, 1375-1390.
Alunite
Formula: KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Rachid Hakkou, Mostafa Benzaazoua and Bruno Bussière (2008): Acid Mine Drainage at the Abandoned Kettara Mine (Morocco): 1. Environmental Characterization. Mine Water and the Environment, 27, 145-159.; Rachid Hakkou, Mostafa Benzaazoua and Bruno Bussière (2008): Acid Mine Drainage at the Abandoned Kettara Mine (Morocco): 1. Environmental Characterization. Mine Water and the Environment, 27, 145-159.
'Amphibole Supergroup'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Localities: Reported from at least 17 localities in this region.
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Analcime
Formula: Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Reference: Blanc, P. & Pomerol, C. 1973. Presence de filons de roches carbonatees a analcime dans la depression de Tin Jouker, Richat, Adrar de Mauritainie. Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, Paris, 265D, 2409-2411. Dietz, R. S., Fudali, R., & Cassidy, W. (1969). Richât and Semsiyat domes (Mauritania): not astroblemes. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 80(7), 1367-1372. doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1969)80[1367:RASDMN]2.0.CO;2 NETTO, A.M, FABRE, J., POUPEAU, G. & CHAMPENOIS, M. (1992). Datation par traces de fission (TF) de la structure circulaire des Richat (Mauritanie centrale). Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, Paris, 314 (Serie II), 1179-1186. Trompette, R. 1973. Pétrographie des Richât. A - Les delérites de l'Adrar de Mauritanie et le probléme des analcimolites des Richât (Sahara occidentale). Sciences de la Terre. Mémoires, Nancy, 28, 83-95. Woolley, A. R., Rankin, A. H., Elliott, C. J., Bishot, A. C., & Niblett, D. (1984). Carbonatite dykes from the Richat dome. Mauritania, and the genesis of the dome: Indian Mineralogist, 189-207.
Anatase
Formula: TiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Ba, H., Black, R., Benziane, B., Diombana, D., Hascoet-Fender, J., Bonin, B., ... & Liégeois, J. P. (1985). La province des complexes annulaires alcalins sursaturés de l'Adrar des Iforas, Mali. Journal of African Earth Sciences (1983), 3(1-2), 123-142. doi.org/10.1016/0899-5362(85)90031-4 Black, R., Ba, H., Ball, E., Bertrand, J. M., Boullier, A. M., Caby, R., ... & Wright, L. I. (1979). Outline of the Pan-African geology of adrar des Iforas (Republic of Mali). Geologische Rundschau, 68(2), 543-564. doi.org/10.1007/BF01820806 Liégeois, J. P., & Black, R. (1984). Pétrographie et géochronologie Rb-Sr de la transition calco-alcaline-alcaline fini-Panafricaine dans l'Adrar des Iforas (Mali): accrétion crustale au Précambrien supérieur. In Géologie africaine (pp. 115-145).
Ancylite-(Ce)
Formula: CeSr(CO3)2(OH) · H2O
Reference: KHADEM ALLAH, B., FONTAN, F., KADAR, M., MONCHOUX, P. & SØRENSEN, H. (1998): Reactions between agpaitic nepheline syenitic melts and sedimentary carbonate rocks, exemplified by the Tamazeght complex, Morocco. Geokhimiya 7, 643-655.
Andalusite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Description: Zone between granite and metapelites.
Reference: D. Blamart et al. , Eur. Journ. Mineral. , 1992, 4, pp. 355-368.
Andradite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Reference: Bea, F., Montero, P., Haissen, F., & El Archi, A. (2013). 2.46 Ga kalsilite and nepheline syenites from the Awsard pluton, Reguibat Rise of the West African Craton, Morocco. Generation of extremely K-rich magmas at the Archean–Proterozoic transition. Precambrian Research, 224, 242-254.
Andradite var. Melanite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Reference: Bea, F., Montero, P., Haissen, F., & El Archi, A. (2013). 2.46 Ga kalsilite and nepheline syenites from the Awsard pluton, Reguibat Rise of the West African Craton, Morocco. Generation of extremely K-rich magmas at the Archean–Proterozoic transition. Precambrian Research, 224, 242-254.
Andradite var. Stanniferous Andradite
Formula: Ca3(Fe3+,Sn)2(SiO4)3
Reference: Econ Geol (1989) 84:575-590
Andradite var. Titanoan Andradite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Reference: Jordi Fabre
Andreyivanovite
Formula: FeCrP
Description: Andreyivanovite is found in a single 10 µm x3 µm grain adjacent to magnetite
Reference: Greshake, A. (2014) A strongly hydrated microclast in the Rumuruti chondrite NWA 6828: Implications for the distribution of hydrous material in the solar system. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 49 (5): 824-841. (May 2014)
Angarfite (TL)
Formula: NaFe3+5(PO4)4(OH)4 · 4H2O
Type Locality:
Habit: needles
Colour: brownish yellow
Reference: Kampf, A.R., Mills, S.J., Housley, R.M., Favreau, G., Boulliard, J-C, and Bourgoin, V. (2012) Angarfite, a new mineral species from the Angarf-sud pegmatite, Morocco : description and crystal structure. The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 50, pages 781-791. DOI 10.3749/canmin.50.4.781
Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Anhydrite
Formula: CaSO4
Reference: Jébrak, M., Marcoux, E., Nasloubi, M., Zaharaoui, M. (1998): From sandstone- to carbonate-hosted stratabound deposits: an isotope study of galena in the Upper-Moulouya District (Morocco). Mineralium Deposita 33(4), 406-415.
Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Localities: Reported from at least 15 localities in this region.
Reference: Blanc, P. & Pomerol, C. 1973. Presence de filons de roches carbonatees a analcime dans la depression de Tin Jouker, Richat, Adrar de Mauritainie. Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, Paris, 265D, 2409-2411. Dietz, R. S., Fudali, R., & Cassidy, W. (1969). Richât and Semsiyat domes (Mauritania): not astroblemes. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 80(7), 1367-1372. doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1969)80[1367:RASDMN]2.0.CO;2 NETTO, A.M, FABRE, J., POUPEAU, G. & CHAMPENOIS, M. (1992). Datation par traces de fission (TF) de la structure circulaire des Richat (Mauritanie centrale). Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, Paris, 314 (Serie II), 1179-1186. Trompette, R. 1973. Pétrographie des Richât. A - Les delérites de l'Adrar de Mauritanie et le probléme des analcimolites des Richât (Sahara occidentale). Sciences de la Terre. Mémoires, Nancy, 28, 83-95. Woolley, A. R., Rankin, A. H., Elliott, C. J., Bishot, A. C., & Niblett, D. (1984). Carbonatite dykes from the Richat dome. Mauritania, and the genesis of the dome: Indian Mineralogist, 189-207.
Annabergite
Formula: Ni3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Annabergite var. Magnesium-bearing Annabergite
Formula: (Ni,Mg)3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
'Annabergite-Erythrite Series'
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Anorthite
Formula: Ca(Al2Si2O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 26 localities in this region.
Reference: Ivanova, M. A. et al (2002): Meteorit.Planet. Sci. 37, 1337-1444.
Anorthite var. Bytownite
Formula: (Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si2O8]
Reference: Eur. J. Mineral. , 1996, 8, pp. 625-638.
Anorthite var. Labradorite
Formula: (Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si2O8]
Reference: Eur. J. Mineral. , 1996, 8, pp. 625-638.
'Apatite'
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 51 localities in this region.
Reference: Blanc, P. & Pomerol, C. 1973. Presence de filons de roches carbonatees a analcime dans la depression de Tin Jouker, Richat, Adrar de Mauritainie. Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, Paris, 265D, 2409-2411. Dietz, R. S., Fudali, R., & Cassidy, W. (1969). Richât and Semsiyat domes (Mauritania): not astroblemes. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 80(7), 1367-1372. doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1969)80[1367:RASDMN]2.0.CO;2 NETTO, A.M, FABRE, J., POUPEAU, G. & CHAMPENOIS, M. (1992). Datation par traces de fission (TF) de la structure circulaire des Richat (Mauritanie centrale). Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, Paris, 314 (Serie II), 1179-1186. Trompette, R. 1973. Pétrographie des Richât. A - Les delérites de l'Adrar de Mauritanie et le probléme des analcimolites des Richât (Sahara occidentale). Sciences de la Terre. Mémoires, Nancy, 28, 83-95. Woolley, A. R., Rankin, A. H., Elliott, C. J., Bishot, A. C., & Niblett, D. (1984). Carbonatite dykes from the Richat dome. Mauritania, and the genesis of the dome: Indian Mineralogist, 189-207.
'Apophyllite'
Reference: Econ Geol (1989) 84:575-590
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 22 localities in this region.
Reference: Jahn, S., Medenbach, O., Lyckberg, P., Lierl, H. J., Bode, R. & Brandstätter, G. (2003): Marokko - Land der schönen Mineralien und Fossilien. Bode Verlag, Haltern, Germany, 543 pp. (p. 354-357)
Aragonite var. Lead-bearing Aragonite
Formula: (Ca,Pb)CO3
Reference: various added photos
Arfvedsonite
Formula: [Na][Na2][Fe2+4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 14 localities in this region.
Reference: Cahen, L., Snelling, N. J., Delhal, J., Vail, J. R., Bonhomme, M., & Ledent, D. (1984). The geochronology and evolution of Africa. Clarendon Press, Oxford. Bonin, B., & Lameyre, J. (1978). Relexions sur la position et l'origine des complexes magmatiques anorogeniques. Bulletin de la Société géologique de France, 7(1), 45-59. doi.org/10.2113/gssgfbull.S7-XX.1.45 Lameyre, J., & Lasserre, M. (1967). Etude géochronologique des syénites alcalines et néphéliniques du massif annulaire de Hassi-El-Fogra, Mauritanie du Nord. CR Acad. Sci. Paris, 265, 733-736.
Argentopyrite ?
Formula: AgFe2S3
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Arhbarite (TL)
Formula: Cu2Mg(AsO4)(OH)3
Type Locality:
Description: only three specimens are known
Reference: Schmetzer, K., Tremmel, G. and Medenbach, O. (1982): Arhbarit, Cu2[OH|AsO4]•6H2O, ein neues Mineral von Bou-Azzer, Marokko. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte 1982, 529-533; Krause, W., H.-J. Bernhardt, H. Effenberger, U. Kolitsch and C. Lengauer (2003): Redefinition of arhbarite, Cu2Mg(AsO4)(OH)3. Mineralogical Magazine: 67, 1099-1107.
Arrojadite-(KFe)
Formula: (KNa)(Fe2+◻)Ca(Na2◻)Fe2+13Al(PO4)11(PO3OH)(OH)2
Reference: Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data
Arseniosiderite
Formula: Ca2Fe3+3(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Arsenolite
Formula: As2O3
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Localities: Reported from at least 27 localities in this region.
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Aspidolite
Formula: NaMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 74, 223-233
Astrophyllite
Formula: K2NaFe2+7Ti2Si8O26(OH)4F
Reference: Bessoles, B. (1977). GEOLOGIE DE L'AFRIQUE. LE CRATON OUEST AFRICAIN. Memoires du Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres, 88. Cahen, L., Snelling, N. J., Delhal, J., Vail, J. R., Bonhomme, M., & Ledent, D. (1984). The geochronology and evolution of Africa. Clarendon Press, Oxford. Nations Unies 1974. Carte geologique de la dorsale regueibat. et de ses bordures sedimentaires (Partie orientale). Republique Islamique de Mauritanie. Nations Unies, MAU-69-504, 1:500000.
Atacamite
Formula: Cu2(OH)3Cl
Reference: Georges FAVREAU collection
Augite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 49 localities in this region.
Reference: Azzouni‐Sekkal, A., & Boissonnas, J. (1987). Geochemistry of the Tioueine Pan‐African granite complex (Hoggar, Algeria). In: Thirteenth Colloquium of African Geology, St Andrews. Occasional Publication, International Centre for Training and Exchanges in the Geosciences, 1985/3, 140-141.
Augite var. Fassaite
Formula: (Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Description: Fassaite - Common at triple junctions.
Reference: http:www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor/metbull.php?code=60869; Agee, C. B., Miley, H. M., Ziegler, K. & Spilde, M. N. (2015) Northwest Africa 8535: Unique Dunitic Angrite. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XLVI, LPI Contribution No. 1832, pdf.2681. (Mar 2015).
Augite var. Ferrohedenbergite
Reference: Azzouni‐Sekkal, A., & Boissonnas, J. (1987). Geochemistry of the Tioueine Pan‐African granite complex (Hoggar, Algeria). In: Thirteenth Colloquium of African Geology, St Andrews. Occasional Publication, International Centre for Training and Exchanges in the Geosciences, 1985/3, 140-141.
Augite var. Titanian Augite
Formula: (Ca,Na)(Mg,Ti, Fe,Al,)(Si,Al)2O6
Reference: Cherotzky, G. 1969. Sur la composition chimique de la talzastite. Notes et Memoires du Service Geologique Maroc, 213, 97-100. Gentil, L. 1916. Note sur les regions volcaniques du Maroc central. Bulletin de la Societe Geologique de France, Ser. 4, 16, 186-218. Termier, H. 1936. Etudes geologiques sur le Maroc central et le Moyen Atlas Septentrional. Service des Mines et de la Carte Geologique Notes et Memoires, Rabat, 33 (III), 1503-1547. Harmand, C., & Cantagrel, J. M. (1984). Le volcanisme alcalin Tertiaire et Quaternaire du Moyen Atlas (Maroc): chronologie K/Ar et cadre géodynamique. Journal of African Earth Sciences (1983), 2(1), 51-55. doi.org/10.1016/0899-5362(84)90019-8 Termier, H., Termier, G., & Jouravsky, G. (1948). Une roche volcanique à gros grain de la famille des ijolites: la Talzastite. Notes Serv. géol. Maroc, 1(71), 81-120.
Aurichalcite
Formula: (Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Austinite
Formula: CaZn(AsO4)(OH)
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Austinite var. Cobalt-bearing Austinite
Formula: Ca(Zn,Co)AsO4(OH)
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Austinite var. Copper-bearing Austinite
Formula: Ca(Zn,Cu)(AsO4)(OH)
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Autunite
Formula: Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 10-12H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. (2012): Deux pegmatites à phosphates de Sidi Bou Othmane (Maroc). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2012, 71-109
Awaruite
Formula: Ni3Fe
Reference: Moggi-Cecchi, V., Pratesi, G., Salvadori, A., Franchi, I.A., and Greenwood, R.C. (2007) Textural and minerochemical features of NWA 1807 and 2180, two new CV3 chondrites from Northwest Africa. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVIII pdf #2338.
Axinite-(Fe)
Formula: Ca2Fe2+Al2BSi4O15OH
Reference: Econ Geol (1989) 84:575-590
'Axinite Group'
Reference: De Ascenção Guedes, R., Lebocey, J. & Bayle (2010): Sainte-Marie-aux-Mines 24-27 juin 2010. Le Règne Minéral. 94, 41-58[p. 54]
Axinite-(Mn)
Formula: Ca2Mn2+Al2BSi4O15(OH)
Reference: Econ Geol (1989) 84:575-590
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 29 localities in this region.
Habit: prisms as sparys, parallel growth
Reference: American Mineralogist 55:1448
Baddeleyite
Formula: ZrO2
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Ferrière, L., Meier, M.M.M., Assis Fernandes, V., Fritz, J., Greshake, A., Barrat, J.-A., Böttger, U., Bouvier, A., Brandstätter, F., Busemann, H., Korotev, R.L., Maden, C., Magna, T., Schmitt-Kopplin, P., Schrader, D.L., Wadhwa, M. (2017): The unique crowdfunded Oued Awlitis 001 lunar meteorite – A consortium overview. 48th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 2017, 1621.pdf [https://www.hou.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2017/pdf/1621.pdf]
Barbosalite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2
Reference: Favreau, G. (2012): Deux pegmatites à phosphates de Sidi Bou Othmane (Maroc). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2012, 71-109
Bariopharmacosiderite
Formula: Ba0.5Fe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 5H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. & Barral, J.-P. (2019): Bou Azzer 2007-2019 - Mineas et minéraux du district de Bou Azzer. Cahier des Micromonteurs, 145, 3-129.; Analyses for Jordi Fabre
'Barkevikite'
Reference: Agard, J. (1960). Les carbonatites et les roches a'silicates et carbonates associe¤ s du massif de roches alcalines du Tamazeght (Haut Atlas de Midelt, Maroc) et les proble'mes de leur gene'se. In Proceedings of the 21st International Geological Congress, Norden, Norway (Vol. 13, pp. 293-303). Aghchmi, E. M. (1984). Les carbonatites filoniennes de l'Oued Tamazeght et leurs relations avec les métasyénites (Haut Atlas de Midelt Maroc). Bernard-Griffiths, J., Fourcade, S., & Dupuy, C. (1991). Isotopic study (Sr, Nd, O and C) of lamprophyres and associated dykes from Tamazert (Morroco): crustal contamination processes and source characteristics. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 103(1-4), 190-199. doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(91)90160-J Bouabdli, A., Dupuy, C., & Dostal, J. (1988). Geochemistry of Mesozoic alkaline lamprophyres and related rocks from the Tamazert massif, High Atlas (Morocco). Lithos, 22(1), 43-58. doi.org/10.1016/0024-4937(88)90028-X Jeremine, E. (1949). Étude pétrographique des roches éruptives et métamorphiques du massif de Bou Agrao. Notes. Serv. Geol. Maroc., 74, 119-147. Jeremine, E., & Dubar, G. (1947). * MINERALOGIE-NOTE SUR LES SYENITES NEPHELINIQUES A EUDIALYTE DU MASSIF ERUPTIF DU BOU AGRAO (HAUT-ATLAS, MAROC). COMPTES RENDUS HEBDOMADAIRES DES SEANCES DE L ACADEMIE DES SCIENCES, 224(13), 1022-1023. Mourtada, S. (1997). Pétrogenèse des carbonatites et contribution à l'étude des minéralisations (NB, Tr, Ba et Sr) associées: exemple du complexe alcalin de Tamazert (Haut-Atlas marocain) (Doctoral dissertation, Clermont-Ferrand 2). Mourtada, S., Le Bas, M. J., & Pin, C. (1997). Pétrogenèse des magnésio-carbonatites du complexe de Tamazert (Haut Atlas marocain). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences-Series IIA-Earth and Planetary Science, 325(8), 559-564. doi.org/10.1016/S1251-8050(97)89455-4 Salvi, S., Fontan, F., Monchoux, P., Williams-Jones, A. E., & Moine, B. (2000). Hydrothermal mobilization of high field strength elements in alkaline igneous systems: evidence from the Tamazeght Complex (Morocco). Economic Geology, 95(3), 559-576. doi.org/10.2113/gsecongeo.95.3.559 Tisserant, D. (1976). DONNEES GEOCHRONOLOGIQUES SUR LE COMPLEXE DE ROCHES ALCALINES DU TAMAZEGHT (HAUT-ATLAS. DE MIDELT), MAROC. Bulletin du Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres, II, 3, 279-283.
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Localities: Reported from at least 53 localities in this region.
Reference: Blanc, P. & Pomerol, C. 1973. Presence de filons de roches carbonatees a analcime dans la depression de Tin Jouker, Richat, Adrar de Mauritainie. Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, Paris, 265D, 2409-2411. Dietz, R. S., Fudali, R., & Cassidy, W. (1969). Richât and Semsiyat domes (Mauritania): not astroblemes. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 80(7), 1367-1372. doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1969)80[1367:RASDMN]2.0.CO;2 NETTO, A.M, FABRE, J., POUPEAU, G. & CHAMPENOIS, M. (1992). Datation par traces de fission (TF) de la structure circulaire des Richat (Mauritanie centrale). Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, Paris, 314 (Serie II), 1179-1186. Trompette, R. 1973. Pétrographie des Richât. A - Les delérites de l'Adrar de Mauritanie et le probléme des analcimolites des Richât (Sahara occidentale). Sciences de la Terre. Mémoires, Nancy, 28, 83-95. Woolley, A. R., Rankin, A. H., Elliott, C. J., Bishot, A. C., & Niblett, D. (1984). Carbonatite dykes from the Richat dome. Mauritania, and the genesis of the dome: Indian Mineralogist, 189-207.
Bastnäsite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce(CO3)F
Reference: Benaouda, R., Kraemer, D., Sitnikova, M., Goldmann, S., Schwarz-Schampera, U., Errami, A., Mouttaqi, A., Bau, M. (2020): Discovery of high-grade REE-Nb-Fe mineralization associated with calciocarbonatite in south Morocco. Ore Geology Reviews, 109, (in press); http://forum.amiminerals.it/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=16432
Bayldonite
Formula: PbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
Habit: small crude crystals and balls
Colour: green
Reference: Georges Favreau collection
Bayleyite
Formula: Mg2(UO2)(CO3)3 · 18H2O
Reference: J. Geffroy, J.A. Sarcia & J. Chervet (1960): "Les minéraux uranifères français et leurs gisements" p231
Bederite
Formula: Ca2(Mn2+)4(Fe3+)2(PO4)6 · 2H2O
Reference: Kampf, A.R., Mills, S.J., Housley, R.M., Favreau, G., Boulliard, J-C, and Bourgoin, V. (2012) Angarfite, a new mineral species from the Angarf-sud pegmatite, Morocco : description and crystal structure. The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 50, pages 781-791. DOI 10.3749/canmin.50.4.781
Bendadaite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
Reference: U. Kolitsch, D. Atencio, N. V. Chukanov, N. V. Zubkova, L. A. D. Menezes Filho, J. M. V. Coutinho, W. D. Birch, J. Schlüter, D. Pohl, A. R. Kampf, I. M. Steele, G. Favreau, L. Nasdala, S. Möckel, G. Giester and D. Yu. Pushcharovsky (2010): Bendadaite, a new iron arsenate mineral of the arthurite group. Mineralogical Magazine 74, 469-486.
Benyacarite
Formula: (H2O,K)2(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(Fe3+,Ti)2Ti(PO4)4(O,F)2 · 14H2O
Habit: small square plates
Colour: pale yellow
Description: EDS analysis A. Kasatkin 11/2013
Reference: Georges FAVREAU collection
Beraunite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. (2012): Deux pegmatites à phosphates de Sidi Bou Othmane (Maroc). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2012, 71-109
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Habit: hexagonal prisms
Colour: very pale green, reddish
Reference: MORIN, P. (1952) Mica et béryl. in : Géologie des Gîtes Minéraux Marocains. XIXe Congrès Géologique International, Alger. Monographies régionales, 3e série, Maroc, 337-346
β-Roselite
Formula: Ca2Co(AsO4)2 · 2H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Reference: http://www.spiriferminerals.com/70,IV-2010---Morocco-part-II.html
Beudantite
Formula: PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Beudantite var. Copper-bearing Beudantite
Formula: PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
'Biotite'
Formula: K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]2Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3AlSi3O10(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 31 localities in this region.
Reference: Bessoles, B. (1977). GEOLOGIE DE L'AFRIQUE. LE CRATON OUEST AFRICAIN. Memoires du Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres, 88. Cahen, L., Snelling, N. J., Delhal, J., Vail, J. R., Bonhomme, M., & Ledent, D. (1984). The geochronology and evolution of Africa. Clarendon Press, Oxford. Nations Unies 1974. Carte geologique de la dorsale regueibat. et de ses bordures sedimentaires (Partie orientale). Republique Islamique de Mauritanie. Nations Unies, MAU-69-504, 1:500000.
'Biotite var. Titanian Biotite'
Reference: Eur. J. Mineral. , 1996, 8, pp. 625-638.
Bismuth
Formula: Bi
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Belkabir, A., Gibson, H.L., Marcoux, E., Lentz, D., and Rziki, S. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 280-306.
Bismuthinite
Formula: Bi2S3
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: Ibouh, H., Hibti, M., Saidi, A., & Touil, A. (2011) Azegour, gîte métasomatique à Cu, Mo, W (Haut Atlas occidental) /Azegour Cu-Mo-W Metasomatic Deposit (Western High Atlas) pp 229-233
Bismutite
Formula: (BiO)2CO3
Reference: Ilmen, S., Alansari, A., Bajddi, A., & Maacha, L. (2015). Cu–Au vein mineralization related to the Talat n’Imjjad shear zone (western High Atlas, Morocco): geological setting, ore mineralogy, and geochemical evolution. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 8(7), 5039-5056.
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Habit: distinct crystals in quartz cavities
Reference: Dietrich, J.E. & Favreau, G. (2005) Bou Skour (Maroc) : au pays des wulfenites bleues, Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 89, pp 106-114
Bouazzerite (TL)
Formula: Bi6(Mg,Co)11Fe3+14(AsO4)18(OH)4O12 · 86H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Brugger, J., N. Meissier, S. Krivovichev, T.Armbruster, G. Favreau (2007): "Mineralogy and crystal structure of bouazzerite from Bou azzer, Anti-Atlas, Morocco: Bi-As-Fe nanoclusters containing Fe3+ in trigonal prismatic coordination", Am. Min. 92, 1630-1639.
Boulangerite
Formula: Pb5Sb4S11
Reference: Barral, J.-P., Favreau, G. and Lheur, C. (2009): Imiter, der größte Silberbergbau Marokkos: Geologie, Bergbaugeschichte und Mineralien. Lapis 34 (12), 15-43; 62 (in German).
Bowieite ?
Formula: (Rh,Ir,Pt)2S3
Reference: El Ghorfi, M., Melcher, F., Oberthür, T., Boukhari, A. E., Maacha, L., Maddi, A., & Mhaili, M. (2008). Platinum group minerals in podiform chromitites of the Bou Azzer ophiolite, Anti Atlas, Central Morocco. Mineralogy and Petrology, 92(1-2), 59-80.
Brannerite
Formula: UTi2O6
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Braunite
Formula: Mn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8
Reference: FAVREAU G. & DIETRICH J.E. (2006) Tachgagalt (Maroc), Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 93, 37-71. (in French)
'Braunite-II'
Formula: CaMn3+14(SiO4)O20
Habit: elongates striated dipyramidal xls, thick tabular xls
Colour: dark gray
Reference: FAVREAU G. & DIETRICH J.E. (2006) Tachgagalt (Maroc), Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 93, 37-71.
Brezinaite
Formula: Cr3S4
Reference: Bunch, T.E., Irving, A.J., Wittke, J.H., Kuehner, S.M. (2008) Zincian Brezinaite and Other Rare Minerals in Two Cumulate-textured Aubrites from Northwest Africa. 71st Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society, July 28-August 1, 2008, Matsue, Japan. Meteoritics and Planetary Science Supplement: 43: paper id. 5309.
Bridgmanite
Formula: (Mg,Fe)SiO3
Reference: Miyahara, M., Ohtani, E., El Goresy, A., Ozawa, S., & Gillet, P. (2016). Phase transition processes of olivine in the shocked Martian meteorite Tissint: Clues to origin of ringwoodite-, bridgmanite-and magnesiowüstite-bearing assemblages. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 259, 18-28.
Britholite-(Ce)
Formula: (Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH
Reference: Khadem Allah, B. (1993)
'Britholite Group'
Formula: (REE, Ca)5[(Si,P)O4]3X
Reference: Allègre, C. J., & Caby, R. (1972). Chronologie absolue du Précambrien de l'Ahaggar occidental. CR Acad. Sci. Paris, 275(D), 2095-2098. Bernard-Griffiths, J., Peucat, J. J., Fourcade, S., Kienast, J. R., & Ouzegane, K. (1988). Origin and evolution of 2 Ga old carbonatite complex (Ihouhaouene, Ahaggar, Algeria): Nd and Sr isotopic evidence. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 100(3), 339-348. doi.org/ 10.1007/BF00379743 Carpena, J., Kienast, J. R., Ouzegane, K., & Jehanno, C. (1988). Evidence of the contrasted fission-track clock behavior of the apatites from In Ouzzal carbonatites (northwest Hoggar): The low-temperature thermal history of an Archean basement. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 100(8), 1237-1243. doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1988)100<1237:EOTCFT>2.3.CO;2 Fourcade, S., KIENAST, J. R., & Ouzegane, K. (1996). Metasomatic effects related to channelled fluid streaming through deep crust: fenites and associated carbonatites (In Ouzzal Proterozoic granulites, Hoggar, Algeria). Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 14(6), 763-781. doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-1314.1996.00055.x Ouzegane, K., Fourcade, S., Kienast, J. R., & Javoy, M. (1988). New carbonatite complexes in the Archaean In'Ouzzal nucleus (Ahaggar, Algeria): mineralogical and geochemical data. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 98(3), 277-292. doi.org/10.1007/BF00375179
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Georges FAVREAU collection
Bromargyrite
Formula: AgBr
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Brucite
Formula: Mg(OH)2
Reference: FAVREAU G. & DIETRICH J.E. (2006) Tachgagalt (Maroc), Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 93, 37-71. (in French)
Brushite
Formula: Ca(PO3OH) · 2H2O
Reference: WALENTA (1981) Grüner Helvin von Azegour, Der Aufschluß, 32, 443-449
Burtite (TL)
Formula: Ca[Sn(OH)6]
Reference: Ph. M. Sonnet : "Burtite, Calcium Hexahydrostannate, a New Mineral from El Hamman, Central Morocco", Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 19, 1981, pp. 397-401.
Bustamite
Formula: CaMn2+(Si2O6)
Reference: Byramjee R.and Meindre M.(1956): Le gisement de manganèse de Guettara. Symposium du manganèse XX congrès international de géologie,
Butlerite
Formula: Fe3+(SO4)(OH) · 2H2O
Reference: Rachid Hakkou, Mostafa Benzaazoua and Bruno Bussière (2008): Acid Mine Drainage at the Abandoned Kettara Mine (Morocco): 1. Environmental Characterization. Mine Water and the Environment, 27, 145-159.
Cabalzarite
Formula: CaMg2(AsO4)2 · 2H2O
Reference: Meisser, N.; Brugger, J.; Krivovichev, S.; Armbruster, T.; Favreau, G. (2012): Description and crystal structure of maghrebite, MgAl2(AsO4)2(OH)2•8H2O, from Aghbar, Anti-Atlas, Morocco: first arsenate in the laueite mineral group. European Journal of Mineralogy 24, 717-726.
Cacoxenite
Formula: Fe3+24AlO6(PO4)17(OH)12 · 75H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. (2012): Deux pegmatites à phosphates de Sidi Bou Othmane (Maroc). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2012, 71-109.
'Calamine'
Reference: Flavien Choulet, Nicolas Charles, Luc Barbanson, Yannick Branquet, Stanislas Sizaret, Aomar Ennaciri, Lakhlifi Badra, Yan Chen (2014): Non-sulfide zinc deposits of the Moroccan High Atlas: Multi-scale characterization and origin. Ore Geology Reviews, 56, 115-140.
'Calcic plagioclase'
Reference: https://www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor/metbull.php?code=55627
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 90 localities in this region.
Reference: Karel Bal Collection
Calcite var. Cobalt-bearing Calcite
Formula: (Ca,Co)CO3
Reference: Tomasz Praszkier (2010) Lapis, 35, #11, 29-31.
Calcite var. Iceland Spar
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Anthony Geneyton Collection
Calcite var. Strontium-rich Calcite
Formula: (Ca,Sr)CO3
Description: In sövite.
Reference: Journal of Petrology, Vol. 44, Number 5, 2003, pp. 937-965.
Caledonite
Formula: Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Reference: Georges FAVREAU collection
Cancrinite
Formula: (Na,Ca,◻)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Cahen, L., Snelling, N. J., Delhal, J., Vail, J. R., Bonhomme, M., & Ledent, D. (1984). The geochronology and evolution of Africa. Clarendon Press, Oxford. Bonin, B., & Lameyre, J. (1978). Relexions sur la position et l'origine des complexes magmatiques anorogeniques. Bulletin de la Société géologique de France, 7(1), 45-59. doi.org/10.2113/gssgfbull.S7-XX.1.45 Lameyre, J., & Lasserre, M. (1967). Etude géochronologique des syénites alcalines et néphéliniques du massif annulaire de Hassi-El-Fogra, Mauritanie du Nord. CR Acad. Sci. Paris, 265, 733-736.
Carminite
Formula: PbFe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2
Description: collected by JE Dietrich in the 1960's
Reference: Georges FAVREAU collection
Carnotite
Formula: K2(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 3H2O
Reference: Eberhardt William Heinrich (1958) Mineralogy and geology of radioactive raw materials p478
Carrollite
Formula: CuCo2S4
Reference: Asladay, Barodi, Cha, L. M., & Zinbi, Y. (2012) Les minéralisations cuprifères. Chron Rech min 531-532:29-44
Cassiterite
Formula: SnO2
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Description: In pegmatitic/hydrothermal veins.
Reference: D. Blamart et al. , Eur. Journ. Mineral. , 1992, 4, pp. 355-368.
Caswellsilverite
Formula: NaCrS2
Reference: Bunch, T.E., Irving, A.J., Wittke, J.H., Kuehner, S.M. (2008) Zincian Brezinaite and Other Rare Minerals in Two Cumulate-textured Aubrites from Northwest Africa. 71st Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society, July 28-August 1, 2008, Matsue, Japan. Meteoritics and Planetary Science Supplement: 43: paper id. 5309.
Catapleiite
Formula: Na2Zr(Si3O9) · 2H2O
Reference: Economic Geology May 2000 v. 95 no. 3 p. 559-576 ; Salvi, S., Fontan, F., Monchoux, P., Williams-Jones, A. E., & Moine, B. (2000). Hydrothermal mobilization of high field strength elements in alkaline igneous systems: evidence from the Tamazeght Complex (Morocco). Economic Geology, 95(3), 559-576.
Cattierite
Formula: CoS2
Reference: Barral, J.-P., Favreau, G. and Lheur, C. (2008). La mine d'argent d'Imiter (Maroc) - Géologie, histoire exploitation et description des espèces minérales. Le Cahier des Micromonteurs 3/2008, 1-110. (in French)
Celadonite
Formula: K(Mg,Fe2+)Fe3+(Si4O10)(OH)2
Reference: Pršek, J., Dumańska-Słowik, M., Powolny, T., Natkaniec-Nowak, L., Toboła, T., Zych, D., & Skrepnicka, D. (2020) Agates from Western Atlas (Morocco)—Constraints from Mineralogical and Microtextural Characteristics. Minerals, 10(2), 198.
Celestine
Formula: SrSO4
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Agard, J. (1960). Les carbonatites et les roches a'silicates et carbonates associe¤ s du massif de roches alcalines du Tamazeght (Haut Atlas de Midelt, Maroc) et les proble'mes de leur gene'se. In Proceedings of the 21st International Geological Congress, Norden, Norway (Vol. 13, pp. 293-303). Aghchmi, E. M. (1984). Les carbonatites filoniennes de l'Oued Tamazeght et leurs relations avec les métasyénites (Haut Atlas de Midelt Maroc). Bernard-Griffiths, J., Fourcade, S., & Dupuy, C. (1991). Isotopic study (Sr, Nd, O and C) of lamprophyres and associated dykes from Tamazert (Morroco): crustal contamination processes and source characteristics. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 103(1-4), 190-199. doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(91)90160-J Bouabdli, A., Dupuy, C., & Dostal, J. (1988). Geochemistry of Mesozoic alkaline lamprophyres and related rocks from the Tamazert massif, High Atlas (Morocco). Lithos, 22(1), 43-58. doi.org/10.1016/0024-4937(88)90028-X Jeremine, E. (1949). Étude pétrographique des roches éruptives et métamorphiques du massif de Bou Agrao. Notes. Serv. Geol. Maroc., 74, 119-147. Jeremine, E., & Dubar, G. (1947). * MINERALOGIE-NOTE SUR LES SYENITES NEPHELINIQUES A EUDIALYTE DU MASSIF ERUPTIF DU BOU AGRAO (HAUT-ATLAS, MAROC). COMPTES RENDUS HEBDOMADAIRES DES SEANCES DE L ACADEMIE DES SCIENCES, 224(13), 1022-1023. Mourtada, S. (1997). Pétrogenèse des carbonatites et contribution à l'étude des minéralisations (NB, Tr, Ba et Sr) associées: exemple du complexe alcalin de Tamazert (Haut-Atlas marocain) (Doctoral dissertation, Clermont-Ferrand 2). Mourtada, S., Le Bas, M. J., & Pin, C. (1997). Pétrogenèse des magnésio-carbonatites du complexe de Tamazert (Haut Atlas marocain). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences-Series IIA-Earth and Planetary Science, 325(8), 559-564. doi.org/10.1016/S1251-8050(97)89455-4 Salvi, S., Fontan, F., Monchoux, P., Williams-Jones, A. E., & Moine, B. (2000). Hydrothermal mobilization of high field strength elements in alkaline igneous systems: evidence from the Tamazeght Complex (Morocco). Economic Geology, 95(3), 559-576. doi.org/10.2113/gsecongeo.95.3.559 Tisserant, D. (1976). DONNEES GEOCHRONOLOGIQUES SUR LE COMPLEXE DE ROCHES ALCALINES DU TAMAZEGHT (HAUT-ATLAS. DE MIDELT), MAROC. Bulletin du Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres, II, 3, 279-283.
Celsian
Formula: Ba(Al2Si2O8)
Reference: Bea, F., Montero, P., Haissen, F., & El Archi, A. (2013). 2.46 Ga kalsilite and nepheline syenites from the Awsard pluton, Reguibat Rise of the West African Craton, Morocco. Generation of extremely K-rich magmas at the Archean–Proterozoic transition. Precambrian Research, 224, 242-254.
'Cerite'
Reference: Bea, F., Montero, P., Haissen, F., & El Archi, A. (2013). 2.46 Ga kalsilite and nepheline syenites from the Awsard pluton, Reguibat Rise of the West African Craton, Morocco. Generation of extremely K-rich magmas at the Archean–Proterozoic transition. Precambrian Research, 224, 242-254.
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 22 localities in this region.
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Cervantite
Formula: Sb3+Sb5+O4
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 18:42.
'Chabazite'
Reference: Jahn, S., Medenbach, O., Lyckberg, P., Lierl, H. J., Bode, R. & Brandstätter, G. (2003): Marokko - Land der schönen Mineralien und Fossilien. Bode Verlag, Haltern, Germany, 543 pp (p.186)
Chabazite-Ca
Formula: (Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Reference: Jordi Fabre specimens
Chalcanthite
Formula: CuSO4 · 5H2O
Reference: Tristan Mantoy's collection
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Localities: Reported from at least 21 localities in this region.
Habit: small shiny striated prisms in dolomite
Colour: steel gray
Reference: Dietrich, J.E. & Favreau, G. (2005) Bou Skour (Maroc) : au pays des wulfenites bleues, Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 89, pp 106-114
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Localities: Reported from at least 64 localities in this region.
Reference: Ba, H., Black, R., Benziane, B., Diombana, D., Hascoet-Fender, J., Bonin, B., ... & Liégeois, J. P. (1985). La province des complexes annulaires alcalins sursaturés de l'Adrar des Iforas, Mali. Journal of African Earth Sciences (1983), 3(1-2), 123-142. doi.org/10.1016/0899-5362(85)90031-4 Black, R., Ba, H., Ball, E., Bertrand, J. M., Boullier, A. M., Caby, R., ... & Wright, L. I. (1979). Outline of the Pan-African geology of adrar des Iforas (Republic of Mali). Geologische Rundschau, 68(2), 543-564. doi.org/10.1007/BF01820806 Liégeois, J. P., & Black, R. (1984). Pétrographie et géochronologie Rb-Sr de la transition calco-alcaline-alcaline fini-Panafricaine dans l'Adrar des Iforas (Mali): accrétion crustale au Précambrien supérieur. In Géologie africaine (pp. 115-145).
Chamosite
Formula: (Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Reference: http://www.portergeo.com.au/database/mineinfo.asp?mineid=mn1027
Chamosite var. Bavalite
Formula: (Fe,Mg,Al)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8
Reference: http://www.portergeo.com.au/database/mineinfo.asp?mineid=mn1027
'Chamosite-Clinochlore Series'
Reference: Jordi Fabre photo
Chenmingite (TL)
Formula: FeCr2O4
Type Locality:
Reference: Ma, C. and Tschauner, O. (2017) Chenmingite, IMA 2017-036. CNMNC Newsletter No. 38, August 2017, page 1037; Mineralogical Magazine: 81: 1033–1038.
Cheralite
Formula: CaTh(PO4)2
Reference: Bea, F., Montero, P., Haissen, F., & El Archi, A. (2013). 2.46 Ga kalsilite and nepheline syenites from the Awsard pluton, Reguibat Rise of the West African Craton, Morocco. Generation of extremely K-rich magmas at the Archean–Proterozoic transition. Precambrian Research, 224, 242-254.
'Chevkinite Group'
Reference: Ba, H., Black, R., Benziane, B., Diombana, D., Hascoet-Fender, J., Bonin, B., ... & Liégeois, J. P. (1985). La province des complexes annulaires alcalins sursaturés de l'Adrar des Iforas, Mali. Journal of African Earth Sciences (1983), 3(1-2), 123-142. doi.org/10.1016/0899-5362(85)90031-4 Javoy, M., & Weis, D. (1987). Oxygen isotopic composition of alkaline anorogenic granites as a clue to their origin: the problem of crustal oxygen. Earth and planetary science letters, 84(4), 415-422. doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(87)90006-9 Liégeois, J. P., & Black, R. (1984). Pétrographie et géochronologie Rb-Sr de la transition calco-alcaline-alcaline fini-Panafricaine dans l'Adrar des Iforas (Mali): accrétion crustale au Précambrien supérieur. In Géologie africaine (pp. 115-145). Weis, D., Liégeois, J. P., & Javoy, M. (1986). The Timedjealen alkaline ring-complex and related N/1bS dyke swarms (Adrar des Iforas, Mali)—A Pb/1bSr/1bO isotopic study. Chemical geology, 57(1-2), 201-215. doi.org/10.1016/0009-2541(86)90103-8
Chlorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3Cl
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Reference: Handbook of Mineralogy
Chlorargyrite
Formula: AgCl
Reference: Oummouch, A., Essaifi, A., Zayane, R., Maddi, O., Zouhair, M., & Maacha, L. (2017). Geology and metallogenesis of the sediment-hosted Cu-Ag deposit of Tizert (Igherm inlier, Anti-Atlas Copperbelt, Morocco). Geofluids, 2017.; Poot, J.; Verhaert, M.; Dekoninck, A.; Oummouch, A.; El Basbas, A.; Maacha, L.; Yans, J. Characterization of Weathering Processes of the Giant Copper Deposit of Tizert (Igherm Inlier, Anti-Atlas, Morocco). Minerals 2020, 10, 620.
'Chlorite Group'
Localities: Reported from at least 32 localities in this region.
Reference: El Ghorfi, M., Oberthür, T., Melcher, F., Lüders, V., El Boukhari, A., Maacha, L., Ziadi, R., and Baoutoul, H. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41, 549-564.
Chloritoid
Formula: (Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Reference: D. Blamart et al. , Eur. Journ. Mineral. , 1992, 4, pp. 355-368.
Chlormayenite
Formula: Ca12Al14O32[◻4Cl2]
Reference: Ma, C., Kampf, A.R., Connolly, H.C. Jr., Beckett, J.R., Rossman, G.R., Sweeney Smith, A.A., Schrader, D.L. (2011) Krotite: a new refractory mineral from the NWA 1934 meteorite. American Mineralogist, 96, 709-715; Ma, C., Connolly, Jr., H.C., Beckett, J.R., Rossman, G.R., Kampf, A.R., Zega, T.J., Tschauner, O., Sweeney Smith, S.A. and Schrader, D.L. (2010) Brearleyite, IMA 2010-062. CNMNC Newsletter No. 7, February 2010, page 31; Mineralogical Magazine, 75, 27-31. [as brearleyite, later discredited]
'Chrome-Spinel (of Dana)'
Reference: Agard, J. (1960). Les carbonatites et les roches a'silicates et carbonates associe¤ s du massif de roches alcalines du Tamazeght (Haut Atlas de Midelt, Maroc) et les proble'mes de leur gene'se. In Proceedings of the 21st International Geological Congress, Norden, Norway (Vol. 13, pp. 293-303). Aghchmi, E. M. (1984). Les carbonatites filoniennes de l'Oued Tamazeght et leurs relations avec les métasyénites (Haut Atlas de Midelt Maroc). Bernard-Griffiths, J., Fourcade, S., & Dupuy, C. (1991). Isotopic study (Sr, Nd, O and C) of lamprophyres and associated dykes from Tamazert (Morroco): crustal contamination processes and source characteristics. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 103(1-4), 190-199. doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(91)90160-J Bouabdli, A., Dupuy, C., & Dostal, J. (1988). Geochemistry of Mesozoic alkaline lamprophyres and related rocks from the Tamazert massif, High Atlas (Morocco). Lithos, 22(1), 43-58. doi.org/10.1016/0024-4937(88)90028-X Jeremine, E. (1949). Étude pétrographique des roches éruptives et métamorphiques du massif de Bou Agrao. Notes. Serv. Geol. Maroc., 74, 119-147. Jeremine, E., & Dubar, G. (1947). * MINERALOGIE-NOTE SUR LES SYENITES NEPHELINIQUES A EUDIALYTE DU MASSIF ERUPTIF DU BOU AGRAO (HAUT-ATLAS, MAROC). COMPTES RENDUS HEBDOMADAIRES DES SEANCES DE L ACADEMIE DES SCIENCES, 224(13), 1022-1023. Mourtada, S. (1997). Pétrogenèse des carbonatites et contribution à l'étude des minéralisations (NB, Tr, Ba et Sr) associées: exemple du complexe alcalin de Tamazert (Haut-Atlas marocain) (Doctoral dissertation, Clermont-Ferrand 2). Mourtada, S., Le Bas, M. J., & Pin, C. (1997). Pétrogenèse des magnésio-carbonatites du complexe de Tamazert (Haut Atlas marocain). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences-Series IIA-Earth and Planetary Science, 325(8), 559-564. doi.org/10.1016/S1251-8050(97)89455-4 Salvi, S., Fontan, F., Monchoux, P., Williams-Jones, A. E., & Moine, B. (2000). Hydrothermal mobilization of high field strength elements in alkaline igneous systems: evidence from the Tamazeght Complex (Morocco). Economic Geology, 95(3), 559-576. doi.org/10.2113/gsecongeo.95.3.559 Tisserant, D. (1976). DONNEES GEOCHRONOLOGIQUES SUR LE COMPLEXE DE ROCHES ALCALINES DU TAMAZEGHT (HAUT-ATLAS. DE MIDELT), MAROC. Bulletin du Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres, II, 3, 279-283.
Chromite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Localities: Reported from at least 51 localities in this region.
Reference: Woolley, A (2000) Alkaline Rocks and Carbonatites of the World, Part 3: Africa
Chromite var. Titaniferous Chromite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Reference: The Meteoritical Bulletin, n.94 - http://www.meteoriticalsociety.org/simple_template.cfm?code=pub_bulletin
Chrysoberyl
Formula: BeAl2O4
Reference: G. Tchimichkian, Bull. Soc. Fr. Minéral. Cristallo. , 1974, 97, pp. 87-88.
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O, x < 1
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Chudobaite
Formula: (Mg,Zn)5(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 10H2O
Reference: "Le Cahier des Micromounteurs, AFM No. 145, Bou Azzer 2007, G. Favreau, J.P. Barral.
Cinnabar
Formula: HgS
Reference: Barral, J.-P., Favreau, G. and Lheur, C. (2008). La mine d'argent d'Imiter (Maroc) - Géologie, histoire exploitation et description des espèces minérales. Le Cahier des Micromonteurs 3/2008, 1-110. (in French); Levresse, Gilles & Bouabdellah, Mohammed & Cheilletz, Alain & Gasquet, Dominique & Maacha, L & Tritlla, Jordi & Banks, D & Rachid Azizi-Samir, Moulay. (2016). Degassing as the main ore-forming process at the giant Imiter Ag-Hg vein deposit in the Anti-Atlas system, Morocco..
Claudetite
Formula: As2O3
Reference: Jean-Pierre Barral specimens
Clausthalite
Formula: PbSe
Reference: El Ghorfi, M., Oberthür, T., Melcher, F., Lüders, V., El Boukhari, A., Maacha, L., Ziadi, R., and Baoutoul, H. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41, 549-564.
'Clays'
Reference: Econ Geol (1986) 81:65-79
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: Lotfi, F., Belkabir, A., Brunet, S., Brown, A. C., & Marcoux, E. (2010). Lithogeochemical, mineralogical analyses and oxygen–hydrogen isotopes of the Hercynian Koudiat Aïcha massive sulphide deposit, Morocco. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 56(4), 150-166.
Clinochlore var. Pyknochlorite
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: Tuduri, Johann & Chauvet, Alain & Barbanson, Luc & Bourdier, Jean-Louis & Labriki, Mohamed & Ennaciri, A & Badra, Lakhlifi & Dubois, Michel & Ennaciri-Leloix, Christelle & Sizaret, Stanislas & Maacha, L. (2018). The Jbel Saghro Au(-Ag, Cu) and Ag-Hg Metallogenetic Province: Product of a Long-Lived Ediacaran Tectono-Magmatic Evolution in the Moroccan Anti-Atlas. Minerals. 8. 592. 10.3390/min8120592.
Clinochlore var. Ripidolite
Formula: (Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8
Reference: Lotfi, F., Belkabir, A., Brunet, S., Brown, A. C., & Marcoux, E. (2010). Lithogeochemical, mineralogical analyses and oxygen–hydrogen isotopes of the Hercynian Koudiat Aïcha massive sulphide deposit, Morocco. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 56(4), 150-166.
Clinoclase
Formula: Cu3(AsO4)(OH)3
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Clinoenstatite
Formula: MgSiO3
Reference: Rubin, A.E., Breen, J.P., Isa, J. & Tutorow, S. (2016) New Kind of Chondrite: A Clast with Carbonaceous, Ordinary, and Unique Characteristics in the Northwest Africa 10214 LL3 Breccia: Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XLVII. LPI Contribution No. 1903, pdf.1048. (March 2016).; Rubin, A.E., Breen, J.P., Isa, J. & Tutorow, S. (2017) NWA 10214 - An LL3 chondrite breccia with an assortment of metamorphosed, shocked, and unique chondrite clasts: Meteoritics & Planetary Science 52(2): 372-390. (Feb 2017).
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'
Localities: Reported from at least 25 localities in this region.
Reference: Michael K. Weisberg & 7 others (2009). The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 95. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 44(3): 429-462. (March 2009).
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup var. Subcalcic augite'
Reference: Irving, A.J., Kuehner, S.M., Rumble, D., III., Carlson, R.W., Hupé, A.C., and Hupé, G.M. (2002) Petrology and isotopic composition of orthopyroxene-bearing nakhlite NWA 998.
Clinosafflorite
Formula: CoAs2
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Clinozoisite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: El Ghorfi, M., Oberthür, T., Melcher, F., Lüders, V., El Boukhari, A., Maacha, L., Ziadi, R., and Baoutoul, H. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41, 549-564.
Cobaltarthurite
Formula: (Co,Mg)Fe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
Reference: A.R. Kampf : "Cobaltarthurite from the Bou Azzer district, Morocco", 5th International Conference "Mineralogy & Museums", Paris, Sept. 5-8th 2004, Bull. de Liaison de la Soc. Franç. de Minéralogie et Cristallographie, 2004, Vol 16, N°2.
Cobaltaustinite
Formula: CaCo(AsO4)(OH)
Reference: Tomasz Praszkier (2010) Lapis, 35, #11, 29-31.
Cobaltaustinite var. Copper-bearing Cobaltaustinite
Formula: Ca(Co,Cu)AsO4(OH)
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
'Cobalt-bearing Calcite-Spherocobaltite'
Reference: Van King
Cobaltite
Formula: CoAsS
Reference: Belkabir, A., Gibson, H.L., Marcoux, E., Lentz, D., and Rziki, S. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 280-306.
Cobaltkoritnigite
Formula: (Co,Zn)(HAsO4) · H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Cobaltlotharmeyerite
Formula: CaCo2(AsO4)2 · 2H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Cobaltlotharmeyerite var. Manganese-bearing Cobaltlotharmeyerite
Formula: Ca(Co,Mn2+)2[AsO4]2 · 2H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Coesite
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Hu, S., Li, Y., Gu, L., Tang, Xu, Zhang, T., Yamaguchi, A., Lin, Y., Changela, H. (2020): Discovery of coesite from the martian shergottite Northwest Africa 8657. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 286, 404-417. https://www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor/metbull.php?code=61221; Hu, S., Li, Y., Gu, L., Tang, Xu, Zhang, T., Yamaguchi, A., Lin, Y., Changela, H. (2020): Discovery of coesite from the martian shergottite Northwest Africa 8657. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 286, 404-417. https://www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor/metbull.php?code=61221; Hu, S., Li, Y., Gu, L., Tang, Xu, Zhang, T., Yamaguchi, A., Lin, Y., Changela, H. (2020): Discovery of coesite from the martian shergottite Northwest Africa 8657. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 286, 404-417. https://www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor/metbull.php?code=61221
Collinsite
Formula: Ca2Mg(PO4)2 · 2H2O
Habit: sprays of sharp thick needles
Colour: colorless
Reference: Favreau, G. (2012): Deux pegmatites à phosphates de Sidi Bou Othmane (Maroc). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2012, 71-109
Columbite-(Fe)
Formula: Fe2+Nb2O6
Reference: Favreau, G. (2012): Deux pegmatites à phosphates de Sidi Bou Othmane (Maroc). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2012, 71-109
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'
Reference: Kesraoui, M., & Nedjari, S. (2002). Contrasting evolution of low-P rare metal granites from two different terranes in the Hoggar area, Algeria. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 34(3), 247-257.; Kesraoui Mokrane; Marignac Christian; Verkaeren Jean, 2000: Late magmatic evolution of rare earth granites; example of the Tin-Amzi Cupola Ahaggar, Algeria. Bulletin du Service Geologique de l'Algerie 11(2): 195-216
Conichalcite
Formula: CaCu(AsO4)(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Connellite
Formula: Cu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Copiapite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Reference: Rachid Hakkou, Mostafa Benzaazoua and Bruno Bussière (2008): Acid Mine Drainage at the Abandoned Kettara Mine (Morocco): 1. Environmental Characterization. Mine Water and the Environment, 27, 145-159.
Copper
Formula: Cu
Localities: Reported from at least 18 localities in this region.
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Coquimbite
Formula: AlFe3(SO4)6(H2O)12 · 6H2O
Reference: Rachid Hakkou, Mostafa Benzaazoua and Bruno Bussière (2008): Acid Mine Drainage at the Abandoned Kettara Mine (Morocco): 1. Environmental Characterization. Mine Water and the Environment, 27, 145-159.
Cordierite
Formula: (Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Description: Zone between granite and metapelites.
Reference: D. Blamart et al. , Eur. Journ. Mineral. , 1992, 4, pp. 355-368.
Cornetite
Formula: Cu3(PO4)(OH)3
Habit: elongated tetragonal prisms with flat termination
Colour: bright blue
Description: EDS Association Jean Wyart, Paris
Reference: Georges FAVREAU collection
Cornubite
Formula: Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Cornwallite
Formula: Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Coronadite
Formula: Pb(Mn4+6Mn3+2)O16
Reference: Jahn, S., Medenbach, O., Lyckberg, P., Lierl, H. J., Bode, R. & Brandstätter, G. (2003): Marokko - Land der schönen Mineralien und Fossilien. Bode Verlag, Haltern, Germany, 543 pp (p.336)2)
Corundum
Formula: Al2O3
Reference: van Bergen, M.J. (1980): Grandidierite from aluminous metasedimentary xenoliths within acid volcanics, a first record in Italy. Mineralogical Magazine: 43: 651-658
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Habit: scales, platy crystals
Colour: dark blue
Reference: Rocks & Minerals 81:296-300
Crednerite
Formula: CuMnO2
Reference: FAVREAU G. & DIETRICH J.E. (2006) Tachgagalt (Maroc), Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 93, 37-71. (in French)
Cristobalite
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Ferrière, L., Meier, M.M.M., Assis Fernandes, V., Fritz, J., Greshake, A., Barrat, J.-A., Böttger, U., Bouvier, A., Brandstätter, F., Busemann, H., Korotev, R.L., Maden, C., Magna, T., Schmitt-Kopplin, P., Schrader, D.L., Wadhwa, M. (2017): The unique crowdfunded Oued Awlitis 001 lunar meteorite – A consortium overview. 48th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 2017, 1621.pdf [https://www.hou.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2017/pdf/1621.pdf]
Cronstedtite
Formula: Fe2+2Fe3+((Si,Fe3+)2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Jordi Fabre (referring to the cronstedtite specimens attributed to the Hammam mines, 2017); PXRD by Alfredo Petrov, July 2016.
Cryolite
Formula: Na2NaAlF6
Reference: Ba, H., Black, R., Benziane, B., Diombana, D., Hascoet-Fender, J., Bonin, B., ... & Liégeois, J. P. (1985). La province des complexes annulaires alcalins sursaturés de l'Adrar des Iforas, Mali. Journal of African Earth Sciences (1983), 3(1-2), 123-142. doi.org/10.1016/0899-5362(85)90031-4 Javoy, M., & Weis, D. (1987). Oxygen isotopic composition of alkaline anorogenic granites as a clue to their origin: the problem of crustal oxygen. Earth and planetary science letters, 84(4), 415-422. doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(87)90006-9 Liégeois, J. P., & Black, R. (1984). Pétrographie et géochronologie Rb-Sr de la transition calco-alcaline-alcaline fini-Panafricaine dans l'Adrar des Iforas (Mali): accrétion crustale au Précambrien supérieur. In Géologie africaine (pp. 115-145). Weis, D., Liégeois, J. P., & Javoy, M. (1986). The Timedjealen alkaline ring-complex and related N/1bS dyke swarms (Adrar des Iforas, Mali)—A Pb/1bSr/1bO isotopic study. Chemical geology, 57(1-2), 201-215. doi.org/10.1016/0009-2541(86)90103-8
Cryptomelane
Formula: K(Mn4+7Mn3+)O16
Reference: Favreau & Dietrich (2006)
Cubanite
Formula: CuFe2S3
Reference: Barral, J.-P., Favreau, G. and Lheur, C. (2009): Imiter, der größte Silberbergbau Marokkos: Geologie, Bergbaugeschichte und Mineralien. Lapis 34 (12), 15-43; 62 (in German).
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Cuprite var. Chalcotrichite
Formula: Cu2O
Habit: needles, elongated rectangular section "prisms"
Colour: dark red
Reference: Dietrich J.E., Gaudefroy C., Kosakevitch A. (1966) Description provisoire ou sommaire des espèces minérales du Maroc - 14 : Barytine du gîte de pyrophyllite d'AzrouMelloul; Vanadinite fibreuse de Mibladen ; Chalcotrichite de Bou-Skour ; Hausmannite de Tachgagalt ; Vésuvianite (idocrase) de Tachgagalt ; Anatase de Tachgagalt. Série «Notes du Service Géologique du Maroc» -TOME 26, N°°188 pp. 145-148
Cyanotrichite
Formula: Cu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Datolite
Formula: CaB(SiO4)(OH)
Reference: Econ Geol (1989) 84:575-590
Daubréelite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2S4
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Patzer, A., Hill, D. H., & Boynton, W. V. (2001). Itqiy: A metal‐rich enstatite meteorite with achondritic texture. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 36(11), 1495-1505.
Descloizite ?
Formula: PbZn(VO4)(OH)
Reference: Collection Elmar Lackner
'Desert Rose'
Reference: António Manuel Ináçio Martins.
Despujolsite (TL)
Formula: Ca3Mn4+(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Bull.Soc.fr.Min.Crist.(1968) 91, 43-50
Devilline
Formula: CaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Habit: scales as post-mining product in the dumps
Colour: pale blue
Reference: Georges Favreau collection
Diamond
Formula: C
Reference: Russell, S. S., Arden, J.W. & Pillinger, C.T. (1992) Adrar 003: an Unequilibrated Ordinary Chondrite Rich in Pristine Interstellar Grains. (Mar 1992).; Russell, S.S., Arden, J.W. & Pillinger, C.T. (1996) A carbon and nitrogen isotope study of diamond from primitive chondrites: Meteoritics & Planetary Science 31(3):343-355. (May 1996).
Diaspore
Formula: AlO(OH)
Reference: Lecolle, Michel; Derre, Colette; Rjimati, Ech Cherki; Fonteilles, Michel; Azza, Addi; Benanni, Abdelhak (1993): A silicated and phosphated peraluminous hydrothermal alteration with associated rutile in the Upper Proterozoic of the Saghro (Anti-​Atlas, Morocco)​. Genesis and metallogenic consequences. Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, Serie II: Mecanique, Physique, Chimie, Sciences de la Terre et de l'Univers 316, 123-130.
Dickite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Barral, J.-P., Favreau, G. and Lheur, C. (2008). La mine d'argent d'Imiter (Maroc) - Géologie, histoire exploitation et description des espèces minérales. Le Cahier des Micromonteurs 3/2008, 1-110. (in French)
Digenite
Formula: Cu9S5
Reference: http://www.onhym.com/ONHYM/pdf/ANG/promotion%20sheets/Azougar%20N%27tilili%2002-09_English.pdf
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 33 localities in this region.
Reference: Ivanova, M. A. et al (2002): Meteorit.Planet. Sci. 37, 1337-1444.
Diopside var. Chromium-bearing Diopside
Formula: Ca(Mg,Cr)Si2O6
Reference: Agard, J. (1950). Sur l'âge et le mode de gisement des aïounites et mestigmérites du Maroc oriental. Notes et Mém. Serv. géol. Maroc, 76, 189-196. Charlot, R., Choubert, G., Faure-Muret, A., & Hamel, C. (1964). Age des aıounites du Maroc Nord-Oriental. Comptes Rendus Sommaire de la Socie¤ te¤ Ge¤ ologique de France, 9, 401-402. Cherotzky, G. 1967. À propos de la composition chimique des mestigmerites et aïounites. Mines et Géologie. Royaume du Maroc, Ministere du Commerce, de l'Artisanat, de l'Industrie et des Mines, Rabat, 25, 51-56. Jeremine, E. (1948). Sur quelques roches provenant du Maroc oriental: aıounites et mestigmérites. Notes Service Géologique du Maroc, 71, 67-71. Mokhtari, A., & Velde, D. (1988). Xenocrysts in Eocene camptonites from Taourirt, northern Morocco. Mineralogical Magazine, 52(368), 587-601. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Abdelkader_Mokhtari/publication/249849715_Xenocrysts_in_Eocene_Camptonites_from_Taourirt_Northern_Morocco/links/53fb9ae30cf2dca8fffe804e/Xenocrysts-in-Eocene-Camptonites-from-Taourirt-Northern-Morocco.pdf Mokhtari, A., Wagner, C., & Velde, D. (1996). Découverte d'une enclave de carbonatite dans une camptonite de la région de Taourirt (Nord-Est du Maroc). Conséquences géologiques. Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences. Série 2. Sciences de la terre et des planètes, 323(6), 467-474. Wagner, C., Mokhtari, A., & Velde, D. (1993). Xenocrystic richterite in an olivine-nephelinite: destabilisation and diffusion phenomena. Mineralogical Magazine, 57(388), 515-525. doi.org/10.1180/minmag.1993.057.388.12
Diopside var. Salite
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Cheilletz, A., & Giuliani, G. (1988). Epigenesis versus syngenesis: a contribution to the debate based on the stratiform tungsten skarn, nnineralizations of Djebel Aouam, central Morocco. Seventh Quadrennial IAGOD Symposium
Diopside var. Ti Salite
Reference: Allègre, C. J., Dupré, B., Lambret, B., & Richard, P. (1981). The subcontinental versus suboceanic debate, I Lead-neodymium-strontium isotopes in primary alkali basalts from a shield area the Ahaggar volcanic suite. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 52(1), 85-92. Girod, M., Dautria, J. M., & De Giovanni, R. (1981). A first insight into the constitution of the upper mantle under the Hoggar area (southern Algeria): the lherzolite xenoliths in the alkali-basalts. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 77(1), 66-73. Dautria, J. M., Liotard, J. M., Cabanes, N., Girod, M., & Briqueu, L. (1987). Amphibole-rich xenoliths and host alkali basalts: petrogenetic constraints and implications on the recent evolution of the upper mantle beneath Ahaggar (Central Sahara, Southern Algeria). Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 95(2), 133-144. Dautria, J. M., Dostal, J., Dupuy, C., & Liotard, J. M. (1988). Geochemistry and petrogenesis of alkali basalts from Tahalra (Hoggar, Northwest Africa). Chemical Geology, 69(1-2), 17-35. Leblanc, M., Dautria, J. M., & Girod, M. (1982). Magnesian ilmenitite xenoliths in a basanite from Tahalra, Ahaggar (Southern Algeria). Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 79(4), 347-354
'Diopside-Hedenbergite Series' ?
Description: Pyroxene crystals labelled as such in mineral shows, but probably without any analysis
Reference: Jahn, S., Medenbach, O., Lyckberg, P., Lierl, H. J., Bode, R. & Brandstätter, G. (2003): Marokko - Land der schönen Mineralien und Fossilien. Bode Verlag, Haltern, Germany, 543 pp (p.186)
Dioptase
Formula: CuSiO3 · H2O
Reference: Tom Praskier has been to the locality and confirmed dioptase with (unknown) tests
Djurleite
Formula: Cu31S16
Reference: Jordi Fabre
Dmisteinbergite
Formula: Ca(Al2Si2O8)
Reference: Fintor, K., Park, C., Nagy, S., Pál-Molnár, E. & Krot, A. N (2014) Hydrothermal origin of hexagonal CaAl2Si2O8 (dmisteinbergite) in a type A CAI from the Northwest Africa 2086 CV3 Chondrite: Meteoritics & Planetary Science 49 (5): 812-823 (May 2014)
Dmitryivanovite (TL)
Formula: CaAl2O4
Type Locality:
Reference: Am. Min. 94,746-750(2009)
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Localities: Reported from at least 39 localities in this region.
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Dolomite var. Cobalt-bearing Dolomite
Formula: (Ca,Mg,Co)CO3
Reference: John Sobelewski specimen
Dolomite var. Iron-bearing Dolomite
Formula: Ca(Mg,Fe)(CO3)2
Reference: Karel Bal Collection
Donwilhelmsite (TL)
Formula: CaAl4Si2O11
Type Locality:
Reference: Fritz, J., Greshake, A., Klementova, M., Wirth, R., Palatinus, L., Trønnes, R.G., Fernandes, V.A., Böttger, U., Ferrière, L. (2020) Donwilhelmsite, [CaAl4Si2O11], a new lunar high-pressure Ca-Al-silicate with relevance for subducted terrestrial sediments. American Mineralogist: 105(11): 1704–1711.; Fritz, J., Greshake, A., Klementova, M., Wirth, R., Palatinus, L., Assis Fernandes, V., Böttger, U. and Ferrière, L. (2019) Donwilhelmsite, IMA 2018-113. CNMNC Newsletter No. 47, February 2019, page 201. European Journal of Mineralogy: 31: 199–204.
Dufrénite
Formula: Ca0.5Fe2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2O
Reference: GAUDEFROY, C. (1955) Description provisoire des espèces minérales du Maroc - IV. Notes Serv. géol. Maroc, 125, 154-155
Duftite
Formula: PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Description: collected by JE Dietrich in the 1960's
Reference: Georges FAVREAU collection
Dussertite (TL)
Formula: BaFe3+3(AsO4)(AsO3OH)(OH)6
Type Locality:
Reference: C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris (1925): 180, 299; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 840.
Dyscrasite
Formula: Ag3Sb
Reference: Barral, J.-P., Favreau, G. and Lheur, C. (2009): Imiter, der größte Silberbergbau Marokkos: Geologie, Bergbaugeschichte und Mineralien. Lapis 34 (12), 15-43; 62 (in German).
Edenite
Formula: NaCa2Mg5(Si7Al)O22OH2
Reference: Ba, H., Black, R., Benziane, B., Diombana, D., Hascoet-Fender, J., Bonin, B., ... & Liégeois, J. P. (1985). La province des complexes annulaires alcalins sursaturés de l'Adrar des Iforas, Mali. Journal of African Earth Sciences (1983), 3(1-2), 123-142. doi.org/10.1016/0899-5362(85)90031-4 Liégeois, J. P., Sauvage, J. F., & Black, R. (1991). The Permo-Jurassic alkaline province of Tadhak, Mali: geology, geochronology and tectonic significance. Lithos, 27(2), 95-105. doi.org/10.1016/0024-4937(91)90022-D
Elbaite
Formula: Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Reference: Favreau, G. (2012): Les minéralisations à phosphates de la pegmatite d'Angarf-Sud (Maroc).Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2012, 3-70.
Elpidite
Formula: Na2ZrSi6O15 · 3H2O
Reference: Khadem Allah, B. (1993)
Emplectite
Formula: CuBiS2
Reference: Ilmen, S., Alansari, A., Bajddi, A., & Maacha, L. (2015). Cu–Au vein mineralization related to the Talat n’Imjjad shear zone (western High Atlas, Morocco): geological setting, ore mineralogy, and geochemical evolution. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 8(7), 5039-5056.
Enargite
Formula: Cu3AsS4
Reference: Barral, J.-P., Favreau, G. and Lheur, C. (2009): Imiter, der größte Silberbergbau Marokkos: Geologie, Bergbaugeschichte und Mineralien. Lapis 34 (12), 15-43; 62 (in German).
Enstatite
Formula: Mg2Si2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 17 localities in this region.
Reference: Eur. J. Mineral. , 1996, 8, pp. 625-638.
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 20 localities in this region.
Reference: Visited by Tomasz Praszkier.
Epsomite
Formula: MgSO4 · 7H2O
Reference: No reference listed
Erlichmanite
Formula: OsS2
Description: Erlichmanite(Osmium sulfide) & Laurite (Ruthenium sulfide)form solid solutions and intimate intergrowths
Reference: Schulze, H. (1998) Meteoritics & Planetary Science 33 (4, Supplement): A139. (July 1998)
Erythrite
Formula: Co3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 23 localities in this region.
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Eskolaite
Formula: Cr2O3
Reference: https://www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor/metbull.php?code=55627
Eudialyte
Formula: Na15Ca6Fe3Zr3Si(Si25O73)(O,OH,H2O)3(Cl,OH)2
Reference: Agard, J. (1960). Les carbonatites et les roches a'silicates et carbonates associe¤ s du massif de roches alcalines du Tamazeght (Haut Atlas de Midelt, Maroc) et les proble'mes de leur gene'se. In Proceedings of the 21st International Geological Congress, Norden, Norway (Vol. 13, pp. 293-303). Aghchmi, E. M. (1984). Les carbonatites filoniennes de l'Oued Tamazeght et leurs relations avec les métasyénites (Haut Atlas de Midelt Maroc). Bernard-Griffiths, J., Fourcade, S., & Dupuy, C. (1991). Isotopic study (Sr, Nd, O and C) of lamprophyres and associated dykes from Tamazert (Morroco): crustal contamination processes and source characteristics. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 103(1-4), 190-199. doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(91)90160-J Bouabdli, A., Dupuy, C., & Dostal, J. (1988). Geochemistry of Mesozoic alkaline lamprophyres and related rocks from the Tamazert massif, High Atlas (Morocco). Lithos, 22(1), 43-58. doi.org/10.1016/0024-4937(88)90028-X Jeremine, E. (1949). Étude pétrographique des roches éruptives et métamorphiques du massif de Bou Agrao. Notes. Serv. Geol. Maroc., 74, 119-147. Jeremine, E., & Dubar, G. (1947). * MINERALOGIE-NOTE SUR LES SYENITES NEPHELINIQUES A EUDIALYTE DU MASSIF ERUPTIF DU BOU AGRAO (HAUT-ATLAS, MAROC). COMPTES RENDUS HEBDOMADAIRES DES SEANCES DE L ACADEMIE DES SCIENCES, 224(13), 1022-1023. Mourtada, S. (1997). Pétrogenèse des carbonatites et contribution à l'étude des minéralisations (NB, Tr, Ba et Sr) associées: exemple du complexe alcalin de Tamazert (Haut-Atlas marocain) (Doctoral dissertation, Clermont-Ferrand 2). Mourtada, S., Le Bas, M. J., & Pin, C. (1997). Pétrogenèse des magnésio-carbonatites du complexe de Tamazert (Haut Atlas marocain). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences-Series IIA-Earth and Planetary Science, 325(8), 559-564. doi.org/10.1016/S1251-8050(97)89455-4 Salvi, S., Fontan, F., Monchoux, P., Williams-Jones, A. E., & Moine, B. (2000). Hydrothermal mobilization of high field strength elements in alkaline igneous systems: evidence from the Tamazeght Complex (Morocco). Economic Geology, 95(3), 559-576. doi.org/10.2113/gsecongeo.95.3.559 Tisserant, D. (1976). DONNEES GEOCHRONOLOGIQUES SUR LE COMPLEXE DE ROCHES ALCALINES DU TAMAZEGHT (HAUT-ATLAS. DE MIDELT), MAROC. Bulletin du Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres, II, 3, 279-283.
Eugenite
Formula: Ag11Hg2
Reference: Barral, J.-P., Favreau, G. and Lheur, C. (2008). La mine d'argent d'Imiter (Maroc) - Géologie, histoire exploitation et description des espèces minérales. Le Cahier des Micromonteurs 3/2008, 1-110. (in French)
Fairfieldite
Formula: Ca2Mn2+(PO4)2 · 2H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. (2012): Deux pegmatites à phosphates de Sidi Bou Othmane (Maroc). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2012, 71-109
Fayalite
Formula: Fe2+2SiO4
Localities: Reported from at least 15 localities in this region.
Reference: Ba, H., Black, R., Benziane, B., Diombana, D., Hascoet-Fender, J., Bonin, B., ... & Liégeois, J. P. (1985). La province des complexes annulaires alcalins sursaturés de l'Adrar des Iforas, Mali. Journal of African Earth Sciences (1983), 3(1-2), 123-142. doi.org/10.1016/0899-5362(85)90031-4 Black, R., Ba, H., Ball, E., Bertrand, J. M., Boullier, A. M., Caby, R., ... & Wright, L. I. (1979). Outline of the Pan-African geology of adrar des Iforas (Republic of Mali). Geologische Rundschau, 68(2), 543-564. doi.org/10.1007/BF01820806 Liégeois, J. P., & Black, R. (1984). Pétrographie et géochronologie Rb-Sr de la transition calco-alcaline-alcaline fini-Panafricaine dans l'Adrar des Iforas (Mali): accrétion crustale au Précambrien supérieur. In Géologie africaine (pp. 115-145).
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'
Localities: Reported from at least 79 localities in this region.
Reference: JÉRÉMINE, E. (1955). L'ANKARATRITE A HAUYNE DU JEBEL TOURGUEJID. Notes et mémoires du Service géologique, (123-125), 59-75.
'Feldspar Group'
Localities: Reported from at least 34 localities in this region.
Reference: Bessoles, B. (1977). GEOLOGIE DE L'AFRIQUE. LE CRATON OUEST AFRICAIN. Memoires du Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres, 88. Cahen, L., Snelling, N. J., Delhal, J., Vail, J. R., Bonhomme, M., & Ledent, D. (1984). The geochronology and evolution of Africa. Clarendon Press, Oxford. Nations Unies 1974. Carte geologique de la dorsale regueibat. et de ses bordures sedimentaires (Partie orientale). Republique Islamique de Mauritanie. Nations Unies, MAU-69-504, 1:500000.
'Feldspar Group var. Perthite'
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Reference: Bessoles, B. (1977). GEOLOGIE DE L'AFRIQUE. LE CRATON OUEST AFRICAIN. Memoires du Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres, 88. Cahen, L., Snelling, N. J., Delhal, J., Vail, J. R., Bonhomme, M., & Ledent, D. (1984). The geochronology and evolution of Africa. Clarendon Press, Oxford. Nations Unies 1974. Carte geologique de la dorsale regueibat. et de ses bordures sedimentaires (Partie orientale). Republique Islamique de Mauritanie. Nations Unies, MAU-69-504, 1:500000.
Ferberite
Formula: FeWO4
Reference: Suzaki, R., Kolli, O., Mokrane, K., Boutaleb, A., Taguchi, S., Yonezu, K., & Watanabe, K. (2013) Granite Related Mineralization of Tungsten in Hoggar, Southern Algeria. ASEAN Paper ID 109
Fergusonite-(Ce)
Formula: CeNbO4 · 0.3H2O
Reference: Hadj-Kaddour, Z., Liegeois, J. P., Demaiffe, D., & Caby, R. (1998). The alkaline–peralkaline granitic post-collisional Tin Zebane dyke swarm (Pan-African Tuareg shield, Algeria): prevalent mantle signature and late agpaitic differentiation. Lithos, 45(1), 223-243.
Ferrihydrite
Formula: Fe3+10O14(OH)2
Reference: Greshake, A. (1997). The primitive matrix components of the unique carbonaceous chondrite Acfer 094: A TEM study. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 61 (2): 437–452. (Jan 1997). ; Wasson, J. T. & Rubin, A. E. (2010). Matrix and whole-rock fractionations in the Acfer 094 type 3.0 ungrouped carbonaceous chondrite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 45 (1): 73-90. (Jan 2010).
Ferrilotharmeyerite
Formula: CaZnFe3+(AsO4)2(OH) · H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Ferrilotharmeyerite var. Cobalt-bearing Ferrilotharmeyerite
Formula: Ca(Fe3+,Co)2[AsO4]2 · 2(H2O,OH)
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Ferrisicklerite (TL)
Formula: Li1-x(Fe3+xFe2+1-x)PO4
Reference: Bulletin de Minéralogie 99 (1976), 274
Ferroalluaudite
Formula: (Na,Ca)Fe2+(Fe3+,Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)3
Description: The ferroalluadite from this locality is in the alluaudite-NaNa field according to Fransolet et al. (1985).
Reference: Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data; FRANSOLET, A.-M. (1974) Les phosphates lithiques des pegmatites de la plaine des Zenaga (Anti-Atlas, Maroc). Notes Serv. géol. Maroc, 35, 137-143
'Ferroalluaudite-NaNa'
Formula: Na4Na4Fe2+4Fe3+8(PO4)12
Reference: Moore and Ito, 1971, Mineralogical Magazine 43:227
Ferro-edenite
Formula: NaCa2Fe2+5(Si7Al)O22OH2
Reference: Azzouni‐Sekkal, A., & Boissonnas, J. (1987). Geochemistry of the Tioueine Pan‐African granite complex (Hoggar, Algeria). In: Thirteenth Colloquium of African Geology, St Andrews. Occasional Publication, International Centre for Training and Exchanges in the Geosciences, 1985/3, 140-141.
Ferrohögbomite-2N2S (TL)
Formula: [(Fe2+,Mg,Zn,Al)3(Al,Ti,Fe3+)8O15(OH)]2
Type Locality:
Reference: C. Hejny et al. (2002) Eur. J. Mineral. 14, 957-967
Ferro-hornblende
Formula: ◻Ca2(Fe2+4Al)(Si7Al)O22(OH)2
Reference: Azzouni‐Sekkal, A., & Boissonnas, J. (1987). Geochemistry of the Tioueine Pan‐African granite complex (Hoggar, Algeria). In: Thirteenth Colloquium of African Geology, St Andrews. Occasional Publication, International Centre for Training and Exchanges in the Geosciences, 1985/3, 140-141.
Ferro-richterite
Formula: {Na}{CaNa}{Fe2+5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Ba, H., Black, R., Benziane, B., Diombana, D., Hascoet-Fender, J., Bonin, B., ... & Liégeois, J. P. (1985). La province des complexes annulaires alcalins sursaturés de l'Adrar des Iforas, Mali. Journal of African Earth Sciences (1983), 3(1-2), 123-142. doi.org/10.1016/0899-5362(85)90031-4 Black, R., Ba, H., Ball, E., Bertrand, J. M., Boullier, A. M., Caby, R., ... & Wright, L. I. (1979). Outline of the Pan-African geology of adrar des Iforas (Republic of Mali). Geologische Rundschau, 68(2), 543-564. doi.org/10.1007/BF01820806 Liégeois, J. P., & Black, R. (1984). Pétrographie et géochronologie Rb-Sr de la transition calco-alcaline-alcaline fini-Panafricaine dans l'Adrar des Iforas (Mali): accrétion crustale au Précambrien supérieur. In Géologie africaine (pp. 115-145).
Ferrosilite
Formula: FeSiO3
Reference: L. Latouche : "L'orthoferrosilite et les roches associées de la région des Gour Oumeladen (N.E. Ahaggar, Algérie)", Bull. Minéral. , 1983, 106, pp. 329-339.
Fettelite ?
Formula: [Ag6As2S7][Ag10HgAs2S8]
Description: PXRD inconclusive (similar to polybasite, see http://www.mindat.org/mesg-7-93085.html) Considered polybasite in Barral et al. (2009).
Reference: Marcus Origlieri (PXRD analysis) (see also http://www.mindat.org/mesg-7-93085.html)
Fluellite
Formula: Al2(PO4)F2(OH) · 7H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. (2012): Deux pegmatites à phosphates de Sidi Bou Othmane (Maroc). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2012, 71-109.
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Fluorescence: Glows under 405nm laser pointer.
Description: Apatite is listed from this locality, but not Fluorapatite. James Stroud determined which species of Apatite is found there by using a Fluorescent laser with a wavelength of 405nm. As neither Hydroxylapatite nor Chlorapatite are fluorescent, and the material from here is, he determined that the material must be Fluorapatite.
Reference: James Stroud's Collection
Fluorapophyllite-(K)
Formula: KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
Reference: Ph. M. Sonnet : "Burtite, Calcium Hexahydrostannate, a New Mineral from El Hamman, Central Morocco", Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 19, 1981, pp. 397-401.
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Localities: Reported from at least 23 localities in this region.
Reference: Bessoles, B. (1977). GEOLOGIE DE L'AFRIQUE. LE CRATON OUEST AFRICAIN. Memoires du Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres, 88. Cahen, L., Snelling, N. J., Delhal, J., Vail, J. R., Bonhomme, M., & Ledent, D. (1984). The geochronology and evolution of Africa. Clarendon Press, Oxford. Nations Unies 1974. Carte geologique de la dorsale regueibat. et de ses bordures sedimentaires (Partie orientale). Republique Islamique de Mauritanie. Nations Unies, MAU-69-504, 1:500000.
Fornacite
Formula: Pb2Cu(CrO4)(AsO4)(OH)
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Forsterite
Formula: Mg2SiO4
Localities: Reported from at least 25 localities in this region.
Reference: Woolley, A. R. (2001). Alkaline Rocks and Carbonatites of the World: Africa. Geological Society of London.
Fraipontite
Formula: (Zn,Al)3((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4
Reference: F. Choulet, M. Buatier, L. Barbanson, R. Guégan, A. Ennaciri (2016): Zinc-rich clays in supergene non-sulfide zinc deposits. Mineralium Deposita 51, 467–490.
Francevillite
Formula: Ba(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 5H2O
Reference: W.Paar (1974)
'Freibergite Subgroup'
Formula: ([Ag6]4+,((Cu,Ag)4 C2+2)Sb4S12S0-1
Reference: Tuduri, Johann & Chauvet, Alain & Barbanson, Luc & Bourdier, Jean-Louis & Labriki, Mohamed & Ennaciri, A & Badra, Lakhlifi & Dubois, Michel & Ennaciri-Leloix, Christelle & Sizaret, Stanislas & Maacha, L. (2018). The Jbel Saghro Au(-Ag, Cu) and Ag-Hg Metallogenetic Province: Product of a Long-Lived Ediacaran Tectono-Magmatic Evolution in the Moroccan Anti-Atlas. Minerals. 8. 592. 10.3390/min8120592.
Frondelite
Formula: Mn2+Fe3+4(PO4)3(OH)5
Reference: Favreau, G. (2012): Deux pegmatites à phosphates de Sidi Bou Othmane (Maroc). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2012, 71-109
Galena
Formula: PbS
Localities: Reported from at least 59 localities in this region.
Reference: Daoudi, L., Mouguina, E. M. (2008): Pb-Zn mineralization of Ali ou Daoud area (Central High Atlas, Morocco): characterisation of deposit and relationship with the clay assemblages. Estudios Geologicos 64(2), 135-150.
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1080.
'Garnet Group var. Titanian Garnet'
Reference: Agard, J. (1960). Les carbonatites et les roches a'silicates et carbonates associe¤ s du massif de roches alcalines du Tamazeght (Haut Atlas de Midelt, Maroc) et les proble'mes de leur gene'se. In Proceedings of the 21st International Geological Congress, Norden, Norway (Vol. 13, pp. 293-303). Aghchmi, E. M. (1984). Les carbonatites filoniennes de l'Oued Tamazeght et leurs relations avec les métasyénites (Haut Atlas de Midelt Maroc). Bernard-Griffiths, J., Fourcade, S., & Dupuy, C. (1991). Isotopic study (Sr, Nd, O and C) of lamprophyres and associated dykes from Tamazert (Morroco): crustal contamination processes and source characteristics. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 103(1-4), 190-199. doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(91)90160-J Bouabdli, A., Dupuy, C., & Dostal, J. (1988). Geochemistry of Mesozoic alkaline lamprophyres and related rocks from the Tamazert massif, High Atlas (Morocco). Lithos, 22(1), 43-58. doi.org/10.1016/0024-4937(88)90028-X Jeremine, E. (1949). Étude pétrographique des roches éruptives et métamorphiques du massif de Bou Agrao. Notes. Serv. Geol. Maroc., 74, 119-147. Jeremine, E., & Dubar, G. (1947). * MINERALOGIE-NOTE SUR LES SYENITES NEPHELINIQUES A EUDIALYTE DU MASSIF ERUPTIF DU BOU AGRAO (HAUT-ATLAS, MAROC). COMPTES RENDUS HEBDOMADAIRES DES SEANCES DE L ACADEMIE DES SCIENCES, 224(13), 1022-1023. Mourtada, S. (1997). Pétrogenèse des carbonatites et contribution à l'étude des minéralisations (NB, Tr, Ba et Sr) associées: exemple du complexe alcalin de Tamazert (Haut-Atlas marocain) (Doctoral dissertation, Clermont-Ferrand 2). Mourtada, S., Le Bas, M. J., & Pin, C. (1997). Pétrogenèse des magnésio-carbonatites du complexe de Tamazert (Haut Atlas marocain). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences-Series IIA-Earth and Planetary Science, 325(8), 559-564. doi.org/10.1016/S1251-8050(97)89455-4 Salvi, S., Fontan, F., Monchoux, P., Williams-Jones, A. E., & Moine, B. (2000). Hydrothermal mobilization of high field strength elements in alkaline igneous systems: evidence from the Tamazeght Complex (Morocco). Economic Geology, 95(3), 559-576. doi.org/10.2113/gsecongeo.95.3.559 Tisserant, D. (1976). DONNEES GEOCHRONOLOGIQUES SUR LE COMPLEXE DE ROCHES ALCALINES DU TAMAZEGHT (HAUT-ATLAS. DE MIDELT), MAROC. Bulletin du Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres, II, 3, 279-283.
'Garnierite'
Reference: Jahn, S., Medenbach, O., Lyckberg, P., Lierl, H. J., Bode, R. & Brandstätter, G. (2003): Marokko - Land der schönen Mineralien und Fossilien. Bode Verlag, Haltern, Germany, 543 pp (p.336)
Gaudefroyite (TL)
Formula: Ca4Mn3+2-3(BO3)3(CO3)(O,OH)3
Type Locality:
Reference: Bull.Soc.fr.Min.Crist. 87 (1964), 216
Gedrite
Formula: ◻{Mg2}{Mg3Al2}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Reference: C. Lemanski, Jr. (re-entry lost Mindat data).
Gehlenite
Formula: Ca2Al(AlSiO7)
Description: As 'large' (>100 µm) crystals w. small grains of spinel and perovskite
Reference: Fintor, K., Walter, H. & Nagy, Sz. (2013) Petrographic and Micro-Raman Analysis of Chondrules and (Ca, Al)-Rich Inclusions of NWA 2086 CV3 Type Carbonaceous Chondrite: Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XLIV. LPI Contribution No. 1719, p.1152. (March 2013)
Geikielite
Formula: MgTiO3
Reference: Meteoritical Bulletin Database
'Geikielite-Ilmenite Series'
Reference: Eur. J. Mineral. , 1996, 8, pp. 625-638.
Geminite
Formula: Cu2+(AsO3OH) · H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Gerhardtite ?
Formula: Cu2(NO3)(OH)3
Reference: Georges FAVREAU collection
Gersdorffite
Formula: NiAsS
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Gersdorffite-P213
Reference: Bayliss, P. (1982) A further crystal structure refinement of gersdorffite, American Mineralogist. 67: 1058-106
'Glass'
Localities: Reported from at least 19 localities in this region.
Reference: Eur. J. Mineral. , 1996, 8, pp. 625-638.
Glaucodot
Formula: (Co0.50Fe0.50)AsS
Reference: Barral, J.-P., Favreau, G. and Lheur, C. (2009): Imiter, der größte Silberbergbau Marokkos: Geologie, Bergbaugeschichte und Mineralien. Lapis 34 (12), 15-43; 62 (in German).
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 30 localities in this region.
Reference: Karel Bal Collection
Gold
Formula: Au
Localities: Reported from at least 22 localities in this region.
Reference: El Ghorfi, M., Oberthür, T., Melcher, F., Lüders, V., El Boukhari, A., Maacha, L., Ziadi, R., and Baoutoul, H. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41, 549-564.; Bernhard Pracejus (2015) The Ore Minerals Under the Microscope, Volume 3 2nd Edition. Elsevier 1118p
Gold var. Electrum
Formula: (Au,Ag)
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: El Ghorfi, M., Oberthür, T., Melcher, F., Lüders, V., El Boukhari, A., Maacha, L., Ziadi, R., and Baoutoul, H. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41, 549-564.
Gold var. Palladian Gold
Formula: (Au,Pd)
Reference: El Ghorfi, M., Oberthür, T., Melcher, F., Lüders, V., El Boukhari, A., Maacha, L., Ziadi, R., and Baoutoul, H. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41, 549-564.
Gordonite
Formula: MgAl2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. (2012): Les minéralisations à phosphates de la pegmatite d'Angarf-Sud (Maroc).Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2012, 3-70.
Götzenite
Formula: NaCa6Ti(Si2O7)2OF3
Reference: KHADEM ALLAH, B., FONTAN, F., KADAR, M., MONCHOUX, P. & SØRENSEN, H. (1998): Reactions between agpaitic nepheline syenitic melts and sedimentary carbonate rocks, exemplified by the Tamazeght complex, Morocco. Geokhimiya 7, 643-655.
Graftonite
Formula: Fe2+Fe2+2(PO4)2
Reference: Fontan, F. (1978) : Etude minéralogique et essais expérimentaux sur les phosphates de fer et de manganèse des pegmatites des Jebilet (Maroc) et des Pyrénées (France), PhD thesis, Toulouse, 272 p.
Grandidierite
Formula: (Mg,Fe2+)(Al,Fe3+)3(SiO4)(BO3)O2
Reference: Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W. and Nichols, M.C., Eds. Handbook of Mineralogy, Mineralogical Society of America, Chantilly, VA 20151-1110, USA. http://www.handbookofmineralogy.org/ (2016); van Bergen, M.J. (1980): Grandidierite from aluminous metasedimentary xenoliths within acid volcanics, a first record in Italy. Mineralogical Magazine: 43: 651-658
Graphite
Formula: C
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Reference: http://www.onhym.com/ONHYM/pdf/ANG/promotion%20sheets/Azougar%20N%27tilili%2002-09_English.pdf
Grossite (TL)
Formula: CaAl4O7
Reference: Weber D, Bischoff A (1994) Grossite (CaAl4O7) - a rare phase in terrestrial rocks and meteorites, European Journal of Mineralogy 6, 591-594
Grossular
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Georges FAVREAU collection
'Grünlingite'
Reference: Paar, W. H., Putz, H., Topa, D., Roberts, A. C., Stanley, C. J., & Culetto, F. J. (2006). Jonassonite, Au (Bi, Pb) 5S4, a new mineral species from Nagybörzsöny, Hungary. The Canadian Mineralogist, 44(5), 1127-1136.
Guanacoite
Formula: Cu2Mg3(AsO4)2(OH)4 · 4H2O
Reference: T. Witzke, U. Kolitsch, W. Krause, A. Wiechowski, O. Medenbach, A. R. Kampf, I. M. Steele and G. Favreau (2006): Guanacoite, Cu2Mg2(Mg0.5Cu0.5)(OH)4(H2O)4(AsO4)2, a new arsenate mineral species from the El Guanaco Mine, near Taltal, Chile: Description and crystal structure. Eur. J. Mineral. 18, 813-821.
Guérinite
Formula: Ca5(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 9H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
'Gummite'
Reference: Favreau, G. (2012): Deux pegmatites à phosphates de Sidi Bou Othmane (Maroc). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2012, 71-109
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 19 localities in this region.
Reference: Jahn, S., Medenbach, O., Lyckberg, P., Lierl, H. J., Bode, R. & Brandstätter, G. (2003): Marokko - Land der schönen Mineralien und Fossilien. Bode Verlag, Haltern, Germany, 543 pp (p.336)
Gypsum var. Selenite
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 17:243.
Hafnon
Formula: HfSiO4
Reference: Fontan, F. (1978) : Etude minéralogique et essais expérimentaux sur les phosphates de fer et de manganèse des pegmatites des Jebilet (Maroc) et des Pyrénées (France), PhD thesis, Toulouse, 272 p.
Halilsarpite (TL)
Formula: [Mg(H2O)6][CaAs3+2(Fe3+2.67Mo6+0.33)(AsO4)2O7]
Type Locality:
Reference: Grey I.E., Husdal T., Friis H., Dal Bo F., Kampf A.R., MacRae C.M., Mumme W.G., Ljøstad O.-T., Shanks F. (2019): Halilsarpite, IMA 2019-023. CNMNC Newsletter No. 50; Mineralogical Magazine: 31, doi: 10.1180/mgm.2019.46; Husdal, T., Grey, I.E., Friis, H., Bo, F.D., Kampf, A.R., MacRae, C.M., Mumme, W.G., Ljøstad, O.-T., Shanks, F. (2020) Halilsarpite, a new arsenate analogue of walentaite, from the Oumlil mine, Bou Azzer district, Morocco. European Journal of Mineralogy: 32: 89-98.
Halite
Formula: NaCl
Reference: Tortochaux F. (1962): Occurrence and structure of evaporites in North Africa. In: Mattox R.B. (ed.) (1968), Saline Deposits. A Symposium based on Papers from the International Conference on Saline Deposits, Huston, Texas, 1962. Special GSA Papers Number 88. The Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado, 107-138.
Halotrichite
Formula: FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Reference: Rachid Hakkou, Mostafa Benzaazoua and Bruno Bussière (2008): Acid Mine Drainage at the Abandoned Kettara Mine (Morocco): 1. Environmental Characterization. Mine Water and the Environment, 27, 145-159.
Hastingsite
Formula: NaCa2(Fe2+4Fe3+)(Si6Al2)O22OH2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Woolley, A. R. (2001). Alkaline rocks and carbonatites of the world. Part 3: Africa. Geological Society. Natural History Museum, London, p. 184. Bessoles, B. (1977). GEOLOGIE DE L'AFRIQUE. LE CRATON OUEST AFRICAIN. Memoires du Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres, 88. Cahen, L., Snelling, N. J., Delhal, J., Vail, J. R., Bonhomme, M., & Ledent, D. (1984). The geochronology and evolution of Africa. Clarendon Press, Oxford. Gevin, M.P. Carte geologique du Nord-ouest de l'Afrique. Sahara Occidental (1:200000). Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.
Hausmannite
Formula: Mn2+Mn3+2O4
Reference: FAVREAU G. & DIETRICH J.E. (2006) Tachgagalt (Maroc), Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 93, 37-71. (in French)
Haüyne
Formula: (Na,K)3(Ca,Na)(Al3Si3O12)(SO4,S,Cl)
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Cherotzky, G. 1969. Sur la composition chimique de la talzastite. Notes et Memoires du Service Geologique Maroc, 213, 97-100. Gentil, L. 1916. Note sur les regions volcaniques du Maroc central. Bulletin de la Societe Geologique de France, Ser. 4, 16, 186-218. Termier, H. 1936. Etudes geologiques sur le Maroc central et le Moyen Atlas Septentrional. Service des Mines et de la Carte Geologique Notes et Memoires, Rabat, 33 (III), 1503-1547. Harmand, C., & Cantagrel, J. M. (1984). Le volcanisme alcalin Tertiaire et Quaternaire du Moyen Atlas (Maroc): chronologie K/Ar et cadre géodynamique. Journal of African Earth Sciences (1983), 2(1), 51-55. doi.org/10.1016/0899-5362(84)90019-8 Termier, H., Termier, G., & Jouravsky, G. (1948). Une roche volcanique à gros grain de la famille des ijolites: la Talzastite. Notes Serv. géol. Maroc, 1(71), 81-120.
Haxonite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)23C6
Reference: Buchwald, V. F. (1975) Handbook of Iron Meteorites, vol 2: 632-634. University of California Press.
Hedenbergite
Formula: CaFe2+Si2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 17 localities in this region.
Reference: Ba, H., Black, R., Benziane, B., Diombana, D., Hascoet-Fender, J., Bonin, B., ... & Liégeois, J. P. (1985). La province des complexes annulaires alcalins sursaturés de l'Adrar des Iforas, Mali. Journal of African Earth Sciences (1983), 3(1-2), 123-142. doi.org/10.1016/0899-5362(85)90031-4 Black, R., Ba, H., Ball, E., Bertrand, J. M., Boullier, A. M., Caby, R., ... & Wright, L. I. (1979). Outline of the Pan-African geology of adrar des Iforas (Republic of Mali). Geologische Rundschau, 68(2), 543-564. doi.org/10.1007/BF01820806 Liégeois, J. P., & Black, R. (1984). Pétrographie et géochronologie Rb-Sr de la transition calco-alcaline-alcaline fini-Panafricaine dans l'Adrar des Iforas (Mali): accrétion crustale au Précambrien supérieur. In Géologie africaine (pp. 115-145).
Hedenbergite var. Ferrosalite
Reference: Cheilletz, A., & Giuliani, G. (1988). Epigenesis versus syngenesis: a contribution to the debate based on the stratiform tungsten skarn, nnineralizations of Djebel Aouam, central Morocco. Seventh Quadrennial IAGOD Symposium
Hedleyite
Formula: Bi7Te3
Reference: Ilmen, S., Alansari, A., Baidada, B., Maacha, L., & Bajddi, A. (2016). Minerals of the Ag–Bi–Cu–Pb–S system from the Amensif carbonate-replacement deposit (western High Atlas, Morocco). Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 161, 85-97.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 45 localities in this region.
Habit: Several remarkable forms: - pseudo-rhombohedral xls - scalenohedral xls (in nearby outcrop) - star-shaped twins
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Hematite var. Specularite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: El Ghorfi, M., Oberthür, T., Melcher, F., Lüders, V., El Boukhari, A., Maacha, L., Ziadi, R., and Baoutoul, H. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41, 549-564.
Hemimorphite
Formula: Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Reference: Flavien Choulet, Nicolas Charles, Luc Barbanson, Yannick Branquet, Stanislas Sizaret, Aomar Ennaciri, Lakhlifi Badra, Yan Chen (2014): Non-sulfide zinc deposits of the Moroccan High Atlas: Multi-scale characterization and origin. Ore Geology Reviews, 56, 115-140.
Henritermierite (TL)
Formula: Ca3Mn3+2(SiO4)2[◻(OH)4]
Type Locality:
Reference: Bull.Soc.fr.Min.Crist. 92 (1969), 185; Handbook of Mineralogy 2/1 (1995)
Hercynite
Formula: Fe2+Al2O4
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Reference: Eur. J. Mineral. , 1996, 8, pp. 625-638.
Hercynite var. Picotite
Formula: (Fe,Mg)(Al,Cr)2O4
Reference: M. Guiraud, J.R. Kienast, A. Rahmani : "Petrological study of high-temperature granulites from In Ouzal, Algeria : some implications on the phase relationships in the FMASTOCr system", Eur. J. Mineral. , 1996, 8, 1375-1390.
Heterogenite
Formula: Co3+O(OH)
Reference: Found by Frank de Wit
Heterosite
Formula: (Fe3+,Mn3+)PO4
Description: can be purpurite
Reference: Favreau, G. (2012): Deux pegmatites à phosphates de Sidi Bou Othmane (Maroc). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2012, 71-109
'Heulandite' ?
Reference: Rachid Hakkou, Mostafa Benzaazoua and Bruno Bussière (2008): Acid Mine Drainage at the Abandoned Kettara Mine (Morocco): 1. Environmental Characterization. Mine Water and the Environment, 27, 145-159.
Hexamolybdenum
Formula: (Mo,Ru,Fe,Ir,Os)
Reference: Ma, C., Kampf, A.R., Connolly, H.C. Jr., Beckett, J.R., Rossman, G.R., Sweeney Smith, A.A., Schrader, D.L. (2011) Krotite: a new refractory mineral from the NWA 1934 meteorite. American Mineralogist, 96, 709-715.
Hibonite
Formula: CaAl12O19
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Ivanova, M. A. et al (2002): Meteorit.Planet. Sci. 37, 1337-1444.
Hiortdahlite
Formula: Na2Ca4(Ca0.5Zr0.5)Zr(Si2O7)2OF3
Reference: Robles, E., Fontan, F., Monchoux, P., Soerensen, H. (2001): Hiortdahlite II from the Ilimaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland, South Greenland, Geology of Greenland Survey Bulletin, 190, 131-137
Hoganite ?
Formula: Cu(CH3COO)2 · H2O
Description: Suspected to be the result of cleaning copper minerals with acetic acid (vinegar). See discussion at: https://www.mineral-forum.com/message-board/viewtopic.php?t=5437 En español: https://www.foro-minerales.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=13247
Reference: In the collection of Brent Thorne. Acquired from Joy Desor. EDS and XRD analyzed. https://e-rocks.com/blogs/1/hoganite-paceite
Hollandite
Formula: Ba(Mn4+6Mn3+2)O16
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Econ Geol (1986) 81:65-79
Holtstamite
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)2[◻(OH)4]
Reference: EDXS analyses by P. Roth, July 2019
'Hornblende'
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: JÉRÉMINE, E. (1955). L'ANKARATRITE A HAUYNE DU JEBEL TOURGUEJID. Notes et mémoires du Service géologique, (123-125), 59-75.
Hörnesite
Formula: Mg3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Hübnerite
Formula: MnWO4
Hureaulite
Formula: Mn2+5(PO3OH)2(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. (2012): Deux pegmatites à phosphates de Sidi Bou Othmane (Maroc). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2012, 71-109
Hydromagnesite
Formula: Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Hydroniumjarosite
Formula: (H3O)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Rachid Hakkou, Mostafa Benzaazoua and Bruno Bussière (2008): Acid Mine Drainage at the Abandoned Kettara Mine (Morocco): 1. Environmental Characterization. Mine Water and the Environment, 27, 145-159.
Hydroxylapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
Reference: Favreau, G. (2012): Deux pegmatites à phosphates de Sidi Bou Othmane (Maroc). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2012, 71-109
Hydrozincite
Formula: Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Flavien Choulet, Nicolas Charles, Luc Barbanson, Yannick Branquet, Stanislas Sizaret, Aomar Ennaciri, Lakhlifi Badra, Yan Chen (2014): Non-sulfide zinc deposits of the Moroccan High Atlas: Multi-scale characterization and origin. Ore Geology Reviews, 56, 115-140.
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Localities: Reported from at least 47 localities in this region.
Reference: Ba, H., Black, R., Benziane, B., Diombana, D., Hascoet-Fender, J., Bonin, B., ... & Liégeois, J. P. (1985). La province des complexes annulaires alcalins sursaturés de l'Adrar des Iforas, Mali. Journal of African Earth Sciences (1983), 3(1-2), 123-142. doi.org/10.1016/0899-5362(85)90031-4 Black, R., Ba, H., Ball, E., Bertrand, J. M., Boullier, A. M., Caby, R., ... & Wright, L. I. (1979). Outline of the Pan-African geology of adrar des Iforas (Republic of Mali). Geologische Rundschau, 68(2), 543-564. doi.org/10.1007/BF01820806 Liégeois, J. P., & Black, R. (1984). Pétrographie et géochronologie Rb-Sr de la transition calco-alcaline-alcaline fini-Panafricaine dans l'Adrar des Iforas (Mali): accrétion crustale au Précambrien supérieur. In Géologie africaine (pp. 115-145).
Ilvaite
Formula: CaFe3+Fe2+2(Si2O7)O(OH)
Reference: Tomasz Praszkier information 2012
Imiterite (TL)
Formula: Ag2HgS2
Reference: Bull.Min.(1985) 108, 457-464; Anthony, et al. Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol 1, pg. 230; Uwe Kolitsch collection (analysed by single-crystal XRD); Burniaux, P. and Williams-Jones, A.E., (2006) Controls Of Silver-Mercury Mineralization At Imiter, Morocco. in Geological Association of Canada, Program with Abstracts Volume 3; Levresse, Gilles & Bouabdellah, Mohammed & Cheilletz, Alain & Gasquet, Dominique & Maacha, L & Tritlla, Jordi & Banks, D & Rachid Azizi-Samir, Moulay. (2016). Degassing as the main ore-forming process at the giant Imiter Ag-Hg vein deposit in the Anti-Atlas system, Morocco..
Irarsite
Formula: (Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsS
Description: Along with sperrylite, most abundant of noble metal containing phases
Reference: Schulze, H. (1998) Meteoritics & Planetary Science 33 (4, Supplement): A139. (July 1998)
Irhtemite (TL)
Formula: Ca4Mg(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 4H2O
Reference: American Mineralogist: 59: 209
Iron
Formula: Fe
Localities: Reported from at least 49 localities in this region.
Reference: Michael K. Weisberg & 7 others (2009). The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 95. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 44(3): 429-462. (March 2009).
Iron var. Kamacite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)
Localities: Reported from at least 45 localities in this region.
Reference: Michael K. Weisberg & 7 others (2009). The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 95. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 44(3): 429-462. (March 2009).
Iron var. Martensite
Formula: Fe
Reference: Gattacceca, J. et al. (2017) Young asteroid mixing revealed in ordinary chondrites: The case of NWA 5764, a polymict LL breccia with L clasts: Meteoritics & Planetary Science 52 (11): 2289-2304. (Nov 2017).
Isocubanite
Formula: CuFe2S3
Reference: Ramdohr, P. (1973). The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages.
Isomertieite
Formula: Pd11Sb2As2
Reference: El Ghorfi, M., Oberthür, T., Melcher, F., Lüders, V., El Boukhari, A., Maacha, L., Ziadi, R., and Baoutoul, H. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41, 549-564.
Ixiolite
Formula: (Ta,Nb,Sn,Fe,Mn)4O8
Reference: Kesraoui, M., & Nedjari, S. (2002). Contrasting evolution of low-P rare metal granites from two different terranes in the Hoggar area, Algeria. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 34(3), 247-257.; Kesraoui Mokrane; Marignac Christian; Verkaeren Jean, 2000: Late magmatic evolution of rare earth granites; example of the Tin-Amzi Cupola Ahaggar, Algeria. Bulletin du Service Geologique de l'Algerie 11(2): 195-216
Ixiolite var. Wolframoixiolite
Formula: (Nb,W,Ta,Fe,Mn,Nb)2O4
Reference: Kesraoui, M., & Nedjari, S. (2002). Contrasting evolution of low-P rare metal granites from two different terranes in the Hoggar area, Algeria. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 34(3), 247-257.; Kesraoui Mokrane; Marignac Christian; Verkaeren Jean, 2000: Late magmatic evolution of rare earth granites; example of the Tin-Amzi Cupola Ahaggar, Algeria. Bulletin du Service Geologique de l'Algerie 11(2): 195-216
Jacquesdietrichite (TL)
Formula: Cu2(H2BO3)(OH)3
Type Locality:
Reference: Kampf, A.R. & Favreau, G. (2004): Jacquesdietrichite, Cu2[BO(OH)2](OH)3, a new mineral from the Tachgagalt mine, Morocco: Description and crystal structure. European Journal of Mineralogy, 16, 361-366.
Jahnsite-(CaMnFe)
Formula: {Ca}{Mn2+}{Fe2+2}{Fe3+2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. (2012): Deux pegmatites à phosphates de Sidi Bou Othmane (Maroc). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2012, 71-109
Jahnsite-(CaMnMg)
Formula: {Ca}{Mn2+}{(Mg,Fe2+)2}{Fe3+2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
Reference: Fontan, F. (1978) : Etude minéralogique et essais expérimentaux sur les phosphates de fer et de manganèse des pegmatites des Jebilet (Maroc) et des Pyrénées (France), PhD thesis, Toulouse, 272 p.
Jahnsite-(CaMnMn)
Formula: {Ca}{Mn2+}{Mn2+2}{Fe3+2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. (2012): Deux pegmatites à phosphates de Sidi Bou Othmane (Maroc). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2012, 71-109
Jahnsite-(MnMnMn)
Formula: {Mn2+}{Mn2+}{Mn2+2}{Fe3+2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
Habit: elongated prisms
Colour: clove brown
Description: EDS analysis A. Kasatkin 11/2013 Associated with angarfite
Reference: Georges FAVREAU collection
Jahnsite-(NaFeMg)
Formula: NaFe3+Mg2Fe3+2(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
Habit: boat shaped xls
Colour: reddish brown
Reference: Kampf, A.R., Mills, S.J., Housley, R.M., Favreau, G., Boulliard, J-C, and Bourgoin, V. (2012) Angarfite, a new mineral species from the Angarf-sud pegmatite, Morocco : description and crystal structure. The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 50, pages 781-791. DOI 10.3749/canmin.50.4.781
Janggunite
Formula: Mn5-x(Mn,Fe)1+xO8(OH)6
Reference: Force, E.R., Back, W., Spiker, E.C., Knauth, L.P. (1986) A ground-water mixing model for the diagenesis of the Imini manganese deposit (Cretaceous) of Morocco. Economic Geology: 81: 65-79.
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Rachid Hakkou, Mostafa Benzaazoua and Bruno Bussière (2008): Acid Mine Drainage at the Abandoned Kettara Mine (Morocco): 1. Environmental Characterization. Mine Water and the Environment, 27, 145-159.
Jonassonite
Formula: AuBi5S4
Reference: . Moëlo : "Compte-rendu de la réunion "Systématique des Minéraux" du 23 novembre 1989", Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéral. , France.; Canadian Mineralogist 44,1127(2006)
'Joséite'
Formula: Bi4TeS2
Reference: Y. Moëlo : "Compte-rendu de la réunion "Systématique des Minéraux" du 23 novembre 1989", Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéral. , France.
Jouravskite (TL)
Formula: Ca3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Bull.Soc.fr.Min.Crist.(1965) 88, 254-262
Kaersutite
Formula: NaCa2(Mg3AlTi4+)(Si6Al2)O22O2
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: Journal of Petrology, Vol. 44, Number 5, 2003, pp. 937-965.
Kalsilite
Formula: KAlSiO4
Reference: Bea, F., Montero, P., Haissen, F., & El Archi, A. (2013). 2.46 Ga kalsilite and nepheline syenites from the Awsard pluton, Reguibat Rise of the West African Craton, Morocco. Generation of extremely K-rich magmas at the Archean–Proterozoic transition. Precambrian Research, 224, 242-254.
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Reference: Daoudi, L., Mouguina, E. M. (2008): Pb-Zn mineralization of Ali ou Daoud area (Central High Atlas, Morocco): characterisation of deposit and relationship with the clay assemblages. Estudios Geologicos 64(2), 135-150.
Karibibite
Formula: Fe3+3(As3+O2)4(As3+2O5)(OH)
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Katophorite
Formula: {Na}{CaNa}{Mg4Al}[(AlSi7)O22](OH)2
Description: Byramjee R.and Meindre M.(1956)publish the following normalized amphibole composition: (Na0.394K0.243)0.637(Na1.242Ca0.758)2.00(Mg4.139Mn0.311Fe0.068Al0.471Ti0.010)5.00(Si7.894Al0.106)O22((OH)2. Their data does not give a Fe3+/(Fe3+ + Fe2+) ratio, but charge balance calculations give sufficient Fe3+ for the amphibole to fall within the katophorite range as defined by Hawthorne et al. (2012)
Reference: Byramjee R.and Meindre M.(1956): Le gisement de manganèse de Guettara. Symposium du manganèse XX congrès international de géologie,
Keithconnite
Formula: Pd20Te7
Reference: El Ghorfi, M., Oberthür, T., Melcher, F., Lüders, V., El Boukhari, A., Maacha, L., Ziadi, R., and Baoutoul, H. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41, 549-564.
Keldyshite ?
Formula: (Na,H)2ZrSi2O7
Description: Potassium rich variety.
Reference: Bea, F., Montero, P., Haissen, F., & El Archi, A. (2013). 2.46 Ga kalsilite and nepheline syenites from the Awsard pluton, Reguibat Rise of the West African Craton, Morocco. Generation of extremely K-rich magmas at the Archean–Proterozoic transition. Precambrian Research, 224, 242-254.
Kermesite
Formula: Sb2S2O
Reference: BARRAL, J.P. (2013): Nador n'Bails - Djebel Hammimat. Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 102, 5-22.
'K Feldspar'
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Description: Zone between granite and metapelites.
Reference: D. Blamart et al. , Eur. Journ. Mineral. , 1992, 4, pp. 355-368.
'K Feldspar var. Adularia'
Formula: KAlSi3O8
Reference: Tuduri, Johann & Chauvet, Alain & Barbanson, Luc & Bourdier, Jean-Louis & Labriki, Mohamed & Ennaciri, A & Badra, Lakhlifi & Dubois, Michel & Ennaciri-Leloix, Christelle & Sizaret, Stanislas & Maacha, L. (2018). The Jbel Saghro Au(-Ag, Cu) and Ag-Hg Metallogenetic Province: Product of a Long-Lived Ediacaran Tectono-Magmatic Evolution in the Moroccan Anti-Atlas. Minerals. 8. 592. 10.3390/min8120592.
Kidwellite
Formula: NaFe3+9+x(PO4)6(OH)11 · 3H2O, x = 0.33
Reference: Favreau, G. (2012): Les minéralisations à phosphates de la pegmatite d'Angarf-Sud (Maroc).Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2012, 3-70.
Kirschsteinite
Formula: CaFe2+SiO4
Reference: Agee, C. B., Miley, H. M., Ziegler, K. & Spilde, M. N. (2015) Northwest Africa 8535: Unique Dunitic Angrite. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XLVI, LPI Contribution No. 1832, pdf.2681. (Mar 2015).
Köttigite
Formula: Zn3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Kotulskite
Formula: Pd(Te,Bi)2-x (x ≈ 0.4)
Reference: El Ghorfi, M., Oberthür, T., Melcher, F., Lüders, V., El Boukhari, A., Maacha, L., Ziadi, R., and Baoutoul, H. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41, 549-564.
Krotite (TL)
Formula: CaAl2O4
Type Locality:
Reference: Ma, C., Kampf, A.R., Connolly, Jr, H.C., Beckett, J.R., Rossman, G.R., Sweeney Smith, S.A. and Schrader, D.L. (2010) Krotite, IMA 2010-038. CNMNC Newsletter, October 2010, page 901; Mineralogical Magazine, 74, 899-902.
Krupkaite
Formula: PbCuBi3S6
Reference: Ilmen, S., Alansari, A., Baidada, B., Maacha, L., & Bajddi, A. (2016). Minerals of the Ag–Bi–Cu–Pb–S system from the Amensif carbonate-replacement deposit (western High Atlas, Morocco). Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 161, 85-97.
Kryzhanovskite
Formula: (Fe3+,Mn2+)3(PO4)2(OH,H2O)3
Reference: Favreau, G. (2012): Deux pegmatites à phosphates de Sidi Bou Othmane (Maroc). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2012, 71-109
Ktenasite
Formula: ZnCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 6H2O
Habit: small blocky crystals
Colour: grayish green, green
Reference: Georges FAVREAU collection
Kulkeite (TL)
Formula: Mg8Al(AlSi7O20)(OH)10
Type Locality:
Reference: Abraham, K., Schreyer, W., Medenbach, O., Gebert, W. (1980) Kulkeit, ein geordnetes 1:1 mixed-layer-mineral zwischen klinochlor und talk. Fortschritte der Mineralogie: 5: 4-5.; Schreyer, W., Medenbach, O., Abraham, K., Gebert, W., Müller, W.F. (1982) Kulkeite, a new metamorphic phyllosilicate mineral: Ordered 1:1 chlorite/talc mixed-layer. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 80: 103-109.
Kupletskite
Formula: (K,Na)3(Mn,Fe)7Ti2Si8O26(OH)4F
Reference: Khadem Allah, B. (1993)
Kuratite
Formula: Ca2(Fe2+5Ti)O2[Si4Al2O18]
Reference: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.P41A0219K (as rhönite); http://www.hou.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2014/pdf/1818.pdf
Kushiroite
Formula: CaAl[AlSiO6]
Reference: Ma, C., Krot, A.N., Nagashima, K. (2017): Addibischoffite, Ca2Al6Al6O20, a new calcium aluminate mineral from the Acfer 214 CH carbonaceous chondrite: A new refractory phase from the solar nebula. American Mineralogist: 102: 1556-1560.
Kushiroite var. Ti-kushiroite
Reference: Ma, C., Krot, A.N., Nagashima, K. (2017): Addibischoffite, Ca2Al6Al6O20, a new calcium aluminate mineral from the Acfer 214 CH carbonaceous chondrite: A new refractory phase from the solar nebula. American Mineralogist: 102: 1556-1560.
Laitakarite
Formula: Bi4Se2S
Reference: Belkabir, A., Gibson, H.L., Marcoux, E., Lentz, D., and Rziki, S. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 280-306.
Lakargiite
Formula: Ca(Zr,Sn,Ti)O3
Reference: Ma, C. (2011) Discovery of Meteoritic Lakargiite (CaZrO3), a New Ultra-Refractory Mineral from the Acfer 094 Carbonaceous Chondrite (Abstract-Id.#5169). Meteoritics & Planetary Science, Supplement s1, p. A144. (Sept 2011).
Lamprophyllite
Formula: (Na,Mn2+)3(Sr,Na)2(Ti,Fe3+)3(Si2O7)2O2(OH,O,F)2
Reference: Khadem Allah, B. (1993)
Langite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Reference: Georges Favreau collection
Laurite
Formula: RuS2
Reference: El Ghorfi, M., Melcher, F., Oberthür, T., Boukhari, A. E., Maacha, L., Maddi, A., & Mhaili, M. (2008). Platinum group minerals in podiform chromitites of the Bou Azzer ophiolite, Anti Atlas, Central Morocco. Mineralogy and Petrology, 92(1-2), 59-80.
Lavendulan
Formula: NaCaCu5(AsO4)4Cl · 5H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: Tomasz Praszkier (2010) Lapis, 35, #11, 29-31.
Låvenite
Formula: (Na,Ca)2(Mn2+,Fe2+)(Zr,Ti)(Si2O7)(O,OH,F)2
Reference: Agard, J. (1960). Les carbonatites et les roches a'silicates et carbonates associe¤ s du massif de roches alcalines du Tamazeght (Haut Atlas de Midelt, Maroc) et les proble'mes de leur gene'se. In Proceedings of the 21st International Geological Congress, Norden, Norway (Vol. 13, pp. 293-303). Aghchmi, E. M. (1984). Les carbonatites filoniennes de l'Oued Tamazeght et leurs relations avec les métasyénites (Haut Atlas de Midelt Maroc). Bernard-Griffiths, J., Fourcade, S., & Dupuy, C. (1991). Isotopic study (Sr, Nd, O and C) of lamprophyres and associated dykes from Tamazert (Morroco): crustal contamination processes and source characteristics. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 103(1-4), 190-199. doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(91)90160-J Bouabdli, A., Dupuy, C., & Dostal, J. (1988). Geochemistry of Mesozoic alkaline lamprophyres and related rocks from the Tamazert massif, High Atlas (Morocco). Lithos, 22(1), 43-58. doi.org/10.1016/0024-4937(88)90028-X Jeremine, E. (1949). Étude pétrographique des roches éruptives et métamorphiques du massif de Bou Agrao. Notes. Serv. Geol. Maroc., 74, 119-147. Jeremine, E., & Dubar, G. (1947). * MINERALOGIE-NOTE SUR LES SYENITES NEPHELINIQUES A EUDIALYTE DU MASSIF ERUPTIF DU BOU AGRAO (HAUT-ATLAS, MAROC). COMPTES RENDUS HEBDOMADAIRES DES SEANCES DE L ACADEMIE DES SCIENCES, 224(13), 1022-1023. Mourtada, S. (1997). Pétrogenèse des carbonatites et contribution à l'étude des minéralisations (NB, Tr, Ba et Sr) associées: exemple du complexe alcalin de Tamazert (Haut-Atlas marocain) (Doctoral dissertation, Clermont-Ferrand 2). Mourtada, S., Le Bas, M. J., & Pin, C. (1997). Pétrogenèse des magnésio-carbonatites du complexe de Tamazert (Haut Atlas marocain). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences-Series IIA-Earth and Planetary Science, 325(8), 559-564. doi.org/10.1016/S1251-8050(97)89455-4 Salvi, S., Fontan, F., Monchoux, P., Williams-Jones, A. E., & Moine, B. (2000). Hydrothermal mobilization of high field strength elements in alkaline igneous systems: evidence from the Tamazeght Complex (Morocco). Economic Geology, 95(3), 559-576. doi.org/10.2113/gsecongeo.95.3.559 Tisserant, D. (1976). DONNEES GEOCHRONOLOGIQUES SUR LE COMPLEXE DE ROCHES ALCALINES DU TAMAZEGHT (HAUT-ATLAS. DE MIDELT), MAROC. Bulletin du Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres, II, 3, 279-283.
Lazulite
Formula: MgAl2(PO4)2(OH)2
Reference: Lecolle, Michel; Derre, Colette; Rjimati, Ech Cherki; Fonteilles, Michel; Azza, Addi; Benanni, Abdelhak (1993): A silicated and phosphated peraluminous hydrothermal alteration with associated rutile in the Upper Proterozoic of the Saghro (Anti-​Atlas, Morocco)​. Genesis and metallogenic consequences. Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, Serie II: Mecanique, Physique, Chimie, Sciences de la Terre et de l'Univers 316, 123-130.
Lechatelierite
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Ben Youssef Malek specimen
Lepidocrocite
Formula: γ-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Pršek, J., Dumańska-Słowik, M., Powolny, T., Natkaniec-Nowak, L., Toboła, T., Zych, D., & Skrepnicka, D. (2020) Agates from Western Atlas (Morocco)—Constraints from Mineralogical and Microtextural Characteristics. Minerals, 10(2), 198.
Leucite
Formula: K(AlSi2O6)
Reference: Bea, F., Montero, P., Haissen, F., & El Archi, A. (2013). 2.46 Ga kalsilite and nepheline syenites from the Awsard pluton, Reguibat Rise of the West African Craton, Morocco. Generation of extremely K-rich magmas at the Archean–Proterozoic transition. Precambrian Research, 224, 242-254.
Leucophosphite
Formula: KFe3+2(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. (2012): Deux pegmatites à phosphates de Sidi Bou Othmane (Maroc). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2012, 71-109
'Leucoxene'
Reference: Petruk, W. (1975). Mineralogy and geology of the Zgounder silver deposit in Morocco. The Canadian Mineralogist, 13(1), 43-54.
Libethenite
Formula: Cu2(PO4)(OH)
Reference: Favreau, G. (2012): Les minéralisations à phosphates de la pegmatite d'Angarf-Sud (Maroc).Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2012, 3-70.
Liebermannite
Formula: KAlSi3O8
Reference: Ma, C., Tschauner, O., Beckett, J.R., Rossman, G.R. (2015): Liebermannite: A new potassic hollandite (KAlSi3O8) from the Zagami basaltic shergottite. 46th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Abstract #1401.
'Limonite'
Localities: Reported from at least 20 localities in this region.
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Linarite
Formula: PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Reference: Georges FAVREAU collection
Lingunite
Formula: (Na,Ca)AlSi3O8
Reference: Baziotis, I. P., Liu, Y., DeCarli, P. S., Melosh, H. J., McSween, H. Y., Bodnar, R. J., & Taylor, L. A. (2013). The Tissint Martian meteorite as evidence for the largest impact excavation. Nature Communications, 4, 1404.
Lipscombite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2
Reference: Favreau, G. (2012): Deux pegmatites à phosphates de Sidi Bou Othmane (Maroc). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2012, 71-109.
Litharge
Formula: PbO
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
'Lithian Muscovite'
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Kesraoui Mokrane; Marignac Christian; Verkaeren Jean, 2000: Late magmatic evolution of rare earth granites; example of the Tin-Amzi Cupola Ahaggar, Algeria. Bulletin du Service Geologique de l'Algerie 11(2): 195-216
Lithiophosphate
Formula: Li3PO4
Habit: striated flattened prisms (3 mm max.)
Colour: white
Reference: Favreau, G. (2012): Deux pegmatites à phosphates de Sidi Bou Othmane (Maroc). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2012, 71-109
Lizardite
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Habit: crusts showing crystal end faces
Colour: pale yellow
Description: EDS analysis Association Jean Wyart, Paris
Reference: Georges FAVREAU collection
Löllingite
Formula: FeAs2
Localities: Reported from at least 14 localities in this region.
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Lorenzenite
Formula: Na2Ti2(Si2O6)O3
Reference: Khadem Allah, B. (1993)
Loveringite
Formula: (Ca,Ce,La)(Zr,Fe)(Mg,Fe)2(Ti,Fe,Cr,Al)18O38
Description: Inclusions in picotite. Up to 8 wt% ZrO2.
Reference: J.P. Lorand and J.Y. Cottin, Bull. Minéral. , 1987, 110, pp. 373-378.
'Low-calcium pyroxene'
Reference: https://www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor/metbull.php?code=72475
Luanheite
Formula: Ag3Hg
Reference: Barral, J.-P., Favreau, G. and Lheur, C. (2008). La mine d'argent d'Imiter (Maroc) - Géologie, histoire exploitation et description des espèces minérales. Le Cahier des Micromonteurs 3/2008, 1-110. (in French)
Ludlamite
Formula: Fe2+3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. (2012): Deux pegmatites à phosphates de Sidi Bou Othmane (Maroc). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2012, 71-109
Luzonite
Formula: Cu3AsS4
Reference: Benchekroun, F., & Jettane, A. (2004). Fluid inclusions and quantitative model for gold precipitation in the Tiouit deposit (Anti-Atlas, Morocco). Journal of African Earth Sciences, 39(3), 295-300.
Mackinawite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)9S8
Reference: Wang, Y., & Hsu, W. (2016). Shock-Induced Metamorphism in the Lunar Meteorite Northwest Africa 4734. LPI Contributions, 1921.
Maghemite
Formula: (Fe3+0.670.33)Fe3+2O4
Reference: http://www.portergeo.com.au/database/mineinfo.asp?mineid=mn1027
Maghrebite (TL)
Formula: MgAl2(AsO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
Habit: gypsum-like xls (same shape as mangangordonite)
Colour: colorless
Description: Maghrebite was first found (together with cabalzarite) in the open pit at Aghbar (not in the mine)
Reference: N. Meisser, J. Brugger (2006): "Bouazzerit und Maghrebit, zwei neue Arsenatmineralien aus dem Revier Bou Azzer, Marokko", Lapis 31(7/8), 69-71; Meisser, N.; Brugger, J.; Krivovichev, S.; Armbruster, T.; Favreau, G. (2012): Description and crystal structure of maghrebite, MgAl2(AsO4)2(OH)2•8H2O, from Aghbar, Anti-Atlas, Morocco: first arsenate in the laueite mineral group. European Journal of Mineralogy 24, 717-726.
Magnesiochromite
Formula: MgCr2O4
Reference: http://www.cometshopnew.com/meso.html
Magnesiozippeite
Formula: Mg(UO2)2(SO4)O2 · 3.5H2O
Habit: balls of short needles
Colour: bright yellow
Description: SEM-EDS analysis Association Jean Wyart, Paris. The first uranium mineral described in the district. Associated with ktenasite and serpierite.
Reference: Georges FAVREAU collection
Magnesite
Formula: MgCO3
Reference: Collection of NHM, Vienna
Magnesite var. Breunnerite
Formula: (Mg,Fe)CO3
Reference: Endress, M., Keil, K., Bischoff, A., Spettel, B., Clayton, R. N. & Mayeda, T. K. (1994) Origin of dark clasts in the ACFER 059/El Djouf 001 CR2 chondrite: Meteoritics 29 (1): 26-40. (Jan 1994).
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Localities: Reported from at least 56 localities in this region.
Reference: Blanc, P. & Pomerol, C. 1973. Presence de filons de roches carbonatees a analcime dans la depression de Tin Jouker, Richat, Adrar de Mauritainie. Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, Paris, 265D, 2409-2411. Dietz, R. S., Fudali, R., & Cassidy, W. (1969). Richât and Semsiyat domes (Mauritania): not astroblemes. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 80(7), 1367-1372. doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1969)80[1367:RASDMN]2.0.CO;2 NETTO, A.M, FABRE, J., POUPEAU, G. & CHAMPENOIS, M. (1992). Datation par traces de fission (TF) de la structure circulaire des Richat (Mauritanie centrale). Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, Paris, 314 (Serie II), 1179-1186. Trompette, R. 1973. Pétrographie des Richât. A - Les delérites de l'Adrar de Mauritanie et le probléme des analcimolites des Richât (Sahara occidentale). Sciences de la Terre. Mémoires, Nancy, 28, 83-95. Woolley, A. R., Rankin, A. H., Elliott, C. J., Bishot, A. C., & Niblett, D. (1984). Carbonatite dykes from the Richat dome. Mauritania, and the genesis of the dome: Indian Mineralogist, 189-207.
Magnetite var. Nickel-bearing Magnetite
Formula: (Fe2+,Ni)Fe3+2O4
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Magnetite var. Titaniferous Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
Localities: Reported from at least 14 localities in this region.
Reference: Woolley, A. R. (2001). Alkaline Rocks and Carbonatites of the World: Africa. Geological Society of London. Berrahma, M., & Delaloye, M. (1989). Données géochronologiques nouvelles sur le massif volcanique du Siroua (Anti-Atlas, Maroc). Journal of African Earth Sciences (and the Middle East), 9(3-4), 651-656. doi.org/10.1016/0899-5362(89)90049-3 BERRAHMA, M. H., & Hernandez, J. (1985). Nouvelles donnees sur le volcanisme trachytique hyperalcalin du volcan du Siroua (Anti-Atlas, Maroc). Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences. Série 2, Mécanique, Physique, Chimie, Sciences de l'univers, Sciences de la Terre, 300(17), 863-868. Choubert, G., Charlot, R., Faure-Muret, A., Hottinger, L., Marçais, J., Tisserant, D. & Vidal, P. 1968. Note préliminaire sur le volcanisme messinien (pontien) au Maroc. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, Paris, 266D, 197-199. Wagner, C., Parodi, G. C., Semet, M., Robert, J. L., Berrahma, M., & Velde, D. (1991). Crystal chemistry of narsarsukite. European Journal of Mineralogy, 3(3), 575-586. Berrahma, M., & Delaloye, M. (1989). Données géochronologiques nouvelles sur le massif volcanique du Siroua (Anti-Atlas, Maroc). Journal of African Earth Sciences (and the Middle East), 9(3-4), 651-656. doi.org/10.1016/0899-5362(89)90049-3 BERRAHMA, M. H., & Hernandez, J. (1985). Nouvelles donnees sur le volcanisme trachytique hyperalcalin du volcan du Siroua (Anti-Atlas, Maroc). Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences. Série 2, Mécanique, Physique, Chimie, Sciences de l'univers, Sciences de la Terre, 300(17), 863-868. Choubert, G., Charlot, R., Faure-Muret, A., Hottinger, L., Marçais, J., Tisserant, D. & Vidal, P. 1968. Note préliminaire sur le volcanisme messinien (pontien) au Maroc. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, Paris, 266D, 197-199. Wagner, C., Parodi, G. C., Semet, M., Robert, J. L., Berrahma, M., & Velde, D. (1991). Crystal chemistry of narsarsukite. European Journal of Mineralogy, 3(3), 575-586.
Majorite
Formula: Mg3(MgSi)(SiO4)3
Reference: Fudge, C., Sharp, T. G., Hu, J., Ma, C., Tschauner, O., & Wittmann, A. (2018). Characterization of a new high-pressure assemblage after anorthitic plagioclase in polymict eucrite Northwest Africa 10658. In 49th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (Abstract 2083).
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 43 localities in this region.
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Malayaite
Formula: CaSn(SiO4)O
Reference: Econ Geol (1989) 84:575-590
Maldonite
Formula: Au2Bi
Reference: Y. Moëlo : "Compte-rendu de la réunion "Systématique des Minéraux" du 23 novembre 1989", Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéral. , France.
'Manganese Oxides'
Reference: OBservation on dumps during Mindat.org Conference 2 nov 2012- Knut Edvard Larsen and others
'Manganese Oxides var. Manganese Dendrites'
Reference: Don Windeler collection, MinDat November 2012
Manganite
Formula: Mn3+O(OH)
Reference: Jordi Fabre specimen
Manganoneptunite
Formula: Na2KLiMn2+2Ti2Si8O24
Reference: Khadem Allah, B. (1993)
Mansfieldite
Formula: AlAsO4 · 2H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Localities: Reported from at least 22 localities in this region.
Reference: Ba, H., Black, R., Benziane, B., Diombana, D., Hascoet-Fender, J., Bonin, B., ... & Liégeois, J. P. (1985). La province des complexes annulaires alcalins sursaturés de l'Adrar des Iforas, Mali. Journal of African Earth Sciences (1983), 3(1-2), 123-142. doi.org/10.1016/0899-5362(85)90031-4 Black, R., Ba, H., Ball, E., Bertrand, J. M., Boullier, A. M., Caby, R., ... & Wright, L. I. (1979). Outline of the Pan-African geology of adrar des Iforas (Republic of Mali). Geologische Rundschau, 68(2), 543-564. doi.org/10.1007/BF01820806 Liégeois, J. P., & Black, R. (1984). Pétrographie et géochronologie Rb-Sr de la transition calco-alcaline-alcaline fini-Panafricaine dans l'Adrar des Iforas (Mali): accrétion crustale au Précambrien supérieur. In Géologie africaine (pp. 115-145).
Marićite
Formula: NaFe2+(PO4)
Reference: Barth, M.I.F. et al. (2018) Sulfide-oxide assemblages in Acfer 094—Clues to nebular metal-gas interactions. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 53, 2: 187-203. (Feb 2018).
Marokite (TL)
Formula: CaMn3+2O4
Type Locality:
Reference: Gaudefroy, C., Jouravsky, G., Permingeat, F. (1963) La marokite, CaMn2O4 une nouvelle éspèce minérale. Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie et de Cristallographie: 86: 359-67.
'Maskelynite'
Localities: Reported from at least 17 localities in this region.
Reference: Hu, S., Li, Y., Gu, L., Tang, Xu, Zhang, T., Yamaguchi, A., Lin, Y., Changela, H. (2020): Discovery of coesite from the martian shergottite Northwest Africa 8657. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 286, 404-417. https://www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor/metbull.php?code=61221; Hu, S., Li, Y., Gu, L., Tang, Xu, Zhang, T., Yamaguchi, A., Lin, Y., Changela, H. (2020): Discovery of coesite from the martian shergottite Northwest Africa 8657. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 286, 404-417. https://www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor/metbull.php?code=61221; Hu, S., Li, Y., Gu, L., Tang, Xu, Zhang, T., Yamaguchi, A., Lin, Y., Changela, H. (2020): Discovery of coesite from the martian shergottite Northwest Africa 8657. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 286, 404-417. https://www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor/metbull.php?code=61221
Massicot ?
Formula: PbO
Description: Bouabdellah et al. (2021) indicates early goethite is plentiful but does not mention lead oxides.
Reference: Reiner Mielke
Matildite
Formula: AgBiS2
Reference: Ilmen, S., Alansari, A., Baidada, B., Maacha, L., & Bajddi, A. (2016). Minerals of the Ag–Bi–Cu–Pb–S system from the Amensif carbonate-replacement deposit (western High Atlas, Morocco). Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 161, 85-97.
Maucherite
Formula: Ni11As8
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Mcguinnessite
Formula: (Mg,Cu)2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Favreau, G., Dietrich, J. E., Meisser, N., Brugger, J., Ait Haddouch, L. & Maacha, L. (2007): Bou Azzer, Morocco. Mineralogical Record 38, 345-407
Melanterite
Formula: Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Reference: A. J. Irving, T. E. Bunch, Alan E. Rubin & John T. Wasson (2010). Northwest Africa 2828/Al Haggounia 001 is a Weathered, Unequilibrated EL Chondrite: Trace Element and Petrologic Evidence. Meteoritics and Planetary Science, Vol. 45, p. A90. [Supplement]
'Melilite Group'
Formula: Ca2M(XSiO7)
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Reference: Ivanova, M. A. et al (2002): Meteorit.Planet. Sci. 37, 1337-1444.
Melliniite (TL)
Formula: (Ni,Fe)4P
Reference: V. Moggi-Cecchi et al., 2005
Mélonjosephite (TL)
Formula: CaFe2+Fe3+(PO4)2(OH)
Type Locality:
Habit: fibrous in matrix
Colour: black
Reference: Fransolet, A.-M. (1973): La mélonjosephite, CaFe2+Fe3+(PO4)2(OH), une nouvelle espèce minérale. Bull. Soc. fr. Minéral., 96, 135–142 (in French with English abs.).
Merenskyite
Formula: PdTe2
Reference: El Ghorfi, M., Oberthür, T., Melcher, F., Lüders, V., El Boukhari, A., Maacha, L., Ziadi, R., and Baoutoul, H. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41, 549-564.
Merrillite
Formula: Ca9NaMg(PO4)7
Localities: Reported from at least 26 localities in this region.
Reference: Michael K. Weisberg & 7 others (2009). The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 95. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 44(3): 429-462. (March 2009).
Mertieite-I
Formula: Pd11(Sb,As)4
Reference: El Ghorfi, M., Oberthür, T., Melcher, F., Lüders, V., El Boukhari, A., Maacha, L., Ziadi, R., and Baoutoul, H. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41, 549-564.
Mesolite
Formula: Na2Ca2Si9Al6O30 · 8H2O
Reference: Tschernich, R. (1992), Zeolites of the World, p.321
Messelite
Formula: Ca2Fe2+(PO4)2 · 2H2O
Reference: FRANSOLET, A.-M. (1974) Les phosphates lithiques des pegmatites de la plaine des Zenaga (Anti-Atlas, Maroc). Notes Serv. géol. Maroc, 35, 137-143
Metacinnabar
Formula: HgS
Reference: Barral, J.-P., Favreau, G. and Lheur, C. (2009): Imiter, der größte Silberbergbau Marokkos: Geologie, Bergbaugeschichte und Mineralien. Lapis 34 (12), 15-43; 62 (in German).
Metanováčekite
Formula: Mg(UO2)2(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
'Meteoritic Iron'
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Srinivasan, P., Dunlap, D. R., Agee, C. B., Wadhwa, M., Coleff, D., Ziegler, K., ... & McCubbin, F. M. (2018). Silica-rich volcanism in the early solar system dated at 4.565 Ga. Nature communications, 9(1), 3036.
Miargyrite
Formula: AgSbS2
Reference: El Arbaoui, Amal & Amina, Wafik & N'Diaye, Ismaïla & Maacha, L. & Zouhair, Mohamed & Abdelmalek, Ouadjou & Radnaoui, Ahmed. (2015) Mineral resources in a sustainable world Fluids and ore genesis Mineralogical Evolution of the Polymetallic Vein Mineralization at the Roc Blanc Silver Deposit (Jebilet Massif, Variscan Belt, Morocco).
'Mica Group'
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Agard, J. (1960). Les carbonatites et les roches a'silicates et carbonates associe¤ s du massif de roches alcalines du Tamazeght (Haut Atlas de Midelt, Maroc) et les proble'mes de leur gene'se. In Proceedings of the 21st International Geological Congress, Norden, Norway (Vol. 13, pp. 293-303). Aghchmi, E. M. (1984). Les carbonatites filoniennes de l'Oued Tamazeght et leurs relations avec les métasyénites (Haut Atlas de Midelt Maroc). Bernard-Griffiths, J., Fourcade, S., & Dupuy, C. (1991). Isotopic study (Sr, Nd, O and C) of lamprophyres and associated dykes from Tamazert (Morroco): crustal contamination processes and source characteristics. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 103(1-4), 190-199. doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(91)90160-J Bouabdli, A., Dupuy, C., & Dostal, J. (1988). Geochemistry of Mesozoic alkaline lamprophyres and related rocks from the Tamazert massif, High Atlas (Morocco). Lithos, 22(1), 43-58. doi.org/10.1016/0024-4937(88)90028-X Jeremine, E. (1949). Étude pétrographique des roches éruptives et métamorphiques du massif de Bou Agrao. Notes. Serv. Geol. Maroc., 74, 119-147. Jeremine, E., & Dubar, G. (1947). * MINERALOGIE-NOTE SUR LES SYENITES NEPHELINIQUES A EUDIALYTE DU MASSIF ERUPTIF DU BOU AGRAO (HAUT-ATLAS, MAROC). COMPTES RENDUS HEBDOMADAIRES DES SEANCES DE L ACADEMIE DES SCIENCES, 224(13), 1022-1023. Mourtada, S. (1997). Pétrogenèse des carbonatites et contribution à l'étude des minéralisations (NB, Tr, Ba et Sr) associées: exemple du complexe alcalin de Tamazert (Haut-Atlas marocain) (Doctoral dissertation, Clermont-Ferrand 2). Mourtada, S., Le Bas, M. J., & Pin, C. (1997). Pétrogenèse des magnésio-carbonatites du complexe de Tamazert (Haut Atlas marocain). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences-Series IIA-Earth and Planetary Science, 325(8), 559-564. doi.org/10.1016/S1251-8050(97)89455-4 Salvi, S., Fontan, F., Monchoux, P., Williams-Jones, A. E., & Moine, B. (2000). Hydrothermal mobilization of high field strength elements in alkaline igneous systems: evidence from the Tamazeght Complex (Morocco). Economic Geology, 95(3), 559-576. doi.org/10.2113/gsecongeo.95.3.559 Tisserant, D. (1976). DONNEES GEOCHRONOLOGIQUES SUR LE COMPLEXE DE ROCHES ALCALINES DU TAMAZEGHT (HAUT-ATLAS. DE MIDELT), MAROC. Bulletin du Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres, II, 3, 279-283.
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Bessoles, B. (1977). GEOLOGIE DE L'AFRIQUE. LE CRATON OUEST AFRICAIN. Memoires du Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres, 88. Cahen, L., Snelling, N. J., Delhal, J., Vail, J. R., Bonhomme, M., & Ledent, D. (1984). The geochronology and evolution of Africa. Clarendon Press, Oxford. Nations Unies 1974. Carte geologique de la dorsale regueibat. et de ses bordures sedimentaires (Partie orientale). Republique Islamique de Mauritanie. Nations Unies, MAU-69-504, 1:500000.
Microcline var. Hyalophane
Formula: (K,Ba)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Reference: Meteoritical Society Abstracts (2001)
'Microlite Group'
Formula: A2-mTa2X6-wZ-n
Reference: Fabre, J. (1976). Introduction à la géologie du Sahara algérien et des régions voisines: La couverture phanérozoïque (Vol. 1). SNED. Lelubre, M. (1952). Recherches sur la géologie de l'Ahaggar central et occidental: Sahara central. Bulletin du Service de la Carte Geologique de l'Algerie, Ser. 2, 22. Remy, J.-M. 1967. Etude geologique et volcanologique du sud-est de l'Amadror en Ahaggar (Sahara Central). Sciences de la Tierre, Memoires, 10. Nancy. Fabre, J. (1976). Introduction à la géologie du Sahara algérien et des régions voisines: La couverture phanérozoïque (Vol. 1). SNED. Lelubre, M. (1952). Recherches sur la géologie de l'Ahaggar central et occidental: Sahara central. Bulletin du Service de la Carte Geologique de l'Algerie, Ser. 2, 22. Remy, J.-M. 1967. Etude geologique et volcanologique du sud-est de l'Amadror en Ahaggar (Sahara Central). Sciences de la Tierre, Memoires, 10. Nancy.
'Microperthite'
Reference: Cahen, L., Snelling, N. J., Delhal, J., Vail, J. R., Bonhomme, M., & Ledent, D. (1984). The geochronology and evolution of Africa. Clarendon Press, Oxford. Bonin, B., & Lameyre, J. (1978). Relexions sur la position et l'origine des complexes magmatiques anorogeniques. Bulletin de la Société géologique de France, 7(1), 45-59. doi.org/10.2113/gssgfbull.S7-XX.1.45 Lameyre, J., & Lasserre, M. (1967). Etude géochronologique des syénites alcalines et néphéliniques du massif annulaire de Hassi-El-Fogra, Mauritanie du Nord. CR Acad. Sci. Paris, 265, 733-736.
Millerite
Formula: NiS
Reference: JP Barral collection
Mimetite
Formula: Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Minium
Formula: Pb3O4
Reference: Jébrak, M., Marcoux, E., Nasloubi, M., Zaharaoui, M. (1998): From sandstone- to carbonate-hosted stratabound deposits: an isotope study of galena in the Upper-Moulouya District (Morocco). Mineralium Deposita 33(4), 406-415.
Minrecordite ?
Formula: CaZn(CO3)2
Description: ID by x-ray (may be a bit questionable)
Reference: Belhai, D., Sahoui, R., & Devouard, B. (2012, March). New Studies about the Maadna Impact Crater (Talemzane, Algeria). In Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (Vol. 43).
Mitridatite
Formula: Ca2Fe3+3(PO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Habit: clusters of thick hexagonal plates
Colour: bronze green, with reddish internal reflections
Reference: ČECH, F., JOHAN, Z. et POVONDRA, P. (1972) La barbosalite de la pegmatite d'Angarf-Sud, plaine de Tazenakht, Anti-Atlas, Maroc. Notes Serv. géol. Maroc, 32, 241, 121-128
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Reference: Paul De Bondt.; Ibouh, H., Hibti, M., Saidi, A., & Touil, A. (2011) Azegour, gîte métasomatique à Cu, Mo, W (Haut Atlas occidental) /Azegour Cu-Mo-W Metasomatic Deposit (Western High Atlas) pp 229-233
'Molybdenum'
Formula: Mo
Reference: Cheilletz, A., & Giuliani, G. (1988). Epigenesis versus syngenesis: a contribution to the debate based on the stratiform tungsten skarn, nnineralizations of Djebel Aouam, central Morocco. Seventh Quadrennial IAGOD Symposium
Molysite
Formula: FeCl3
Description: Microinclusions in quartz.
Reference: Cheilletz, C. (1984) Caractéristiques géochimiques et thermobarométriques des fluides associés à la scheelite et au quartz des minéralisations de tungstène du Jbel Aouam (Maroc Central). Bulletin de Minéralogie, 107:2, 255-272 (in French).
'Monazite'
Formula: REE(PO4)
Reference: Rachid Hakkou, Mostafa Benzaazoua and Bruno Bussière (2008): Acid Mine Drainage at the Abandoned Kettara Mine (Morocco): 1. Environmental Characterization. Mine Water and the Environment, 27, 145-159.
Monazite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce(PO4)
Reference: Benaouda, R., Kraemer, D., Sitnikova, M., Goldmann, S., Schwarz-Schampera, U., Errami, A., Mouttaqi, A., Bau, M. (2020): Discovery of high-grade REE-Nb-Fe mineralization associated with calciocarbonatite in south Morocco. Ore Geology Reviews, 109, (in press); http://forum.amiminerals.it/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=16432
Moncheite
Formula: (Pt,Pd)(Te,Bi)2
Description: A single grain was analyzed (Schulze,1998).
Reference: Schulze, H. (1998) Meteoritics & Planetary Science 33 (4, Supplement): A139. (July 1998)
Moncheite var. Chengbolite
Description: A single grain was analyzed (Schulze,1998).
Reference: Schulze, H. (1998) Meteoritics & Planetary Science 33 (4, Supplement): A139. (July 1998)
Montdorite
Formula: (K,Na)2(Fe2+,Mn2+,Mg)5(Si4O10)2(OH,F)4
Reference: Eur. J. Mineral. , 1996, 8, pp. 625-638.
Montebrasite
Formula: LiAl(PO4)(OH)
Reference: Fontan, F. (1978) : Etude minéralogique et essais expérimentaux sur les phosphates de fer et de manganèse des pegmatites des Jebilet (Maroc) et des Pyrénées (France), PhD thesis, Toulouse, 272 p.
Montgomeryite
Formula: Ca4MgAl4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 12H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. (2012): Deux pegmatites à phosphates de Sidi Bou Othmane (Maroc). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2012, 71-109
Moorhouseite
Formula: (Co,Ni,Mn)SO4 · 6H2O
Reference: Gunnar Färber and Thomas Witzke (2010) Lapis, 35, #11, 35-36.
Mosandrite-(Ce)
Formula: (Ca3REE)[(H2O)2Ca0.50.5]Ti(Si2O7)2(OH)2(H2O)2
Reference: Allègre, C. J., Dupré, B., Lambret, B., & Richard, P. (1981). The subcontinental versus suboceanic debate, I Lead-neodymium-strontium isotopes in primary alkali basalts from a shield area the Ahaggar volcanic suite. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 52(1), 85-92. Boivin, P., & Camus, G. (1981). Igneous scapolite-bearing associations in the Chaine des Puys, Massif Central (France) and Atakor (Hoggar, Algeria). Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 77(4), 365-375. Dupuy, C., Dostal, J., Dautria, J. M., & Girod, M. (1986). Geochemistry of spinel peridotite inclusions in basalts from Hoggar, Algeria. Journal of African Earth Sciences (1983), 5(3), 209-215. Girod, M. (1971). Le massif volcanique de l'Atakor (Hoggar, Sahara algérien): étude pétrographique, structurale et volcanologique. Centre de Recherches sur les zones arides. Serie Geologie, Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 12, 1-158. Girod, M., Dautria, J. M., & De Giovanni, R. (1981). A first insight into the constitution of the upper mantle under the Hoggar area (southern Algeria): the lherzolite xenoliths in the alkali-basalts. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 77(1), 66-73. Rognon, P., Gourinard, Y., Bandet, Y., Koeniguer, J. C., & Delteil-Desneux, F. (1983). Precisions chronologiques sur l'evolution volcanotectonique et geomorphologique de l'Atakor (Hoggar); apports des donnees radiometriques (K/Ar) et paleobotaniques (bois fossiles). Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France, 7(6), 973-980.
Mottramite
Formula: PbCu(VO4)(OH)
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 35 localities in this region.
Description: Zone between granite and metapelites.
Reference: D. Blamart et al. , Eur. Journ. Mineral. , 1992, 4, pp. 355-368.
Muscovite var. Illite
Formula: K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Reference: F. Choulet, M. Buatier, L. Barbanson, R. Guégan, A. Ennaciri (2016): Zinc-rich clays in supergene non-sulfide zinc deposits. Mineralium Deposita 51, 467–490.
Muscovite var. Phengite
Formula: KAl1.5(Mg,Fe)0.5(Al0.5Si3.5O10)(OH)2
Description: In pegmatitic/hydrothermal veins. In pelitic wallrocks.
Reference: D. Blamart et al. , Eur. Journ. Mineral. , 1992, 4, pp. 355-368.
Muscovite var. Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Description: In pelitic wallrocks.
Reference: D. Blamart et al. , Eur. Journ. Mineral. , 1992, 4, pp. 355-368.
Nadorite
Formula: PbSbClO2
Reference: Mineralogical Record Nov-Dec 2013 Volume 44 Number 6
Namuwite
Formula: Zn4(SO4)(OH)6 · 4H2O
Reference: Georges FAVREAU collection
Nantokite
Formula: CuCl
Reference: Georges FAVREAU collection
Narsarsukite
Formula: Na4(Ti,Fe)2[Si8O20](O,OH,F)2
Reference: Woolley, A. R. (2001). Alkaline Rocks and Carbonatites of the World: Africa. Geological Society of London. Berrahma, M., & Delaloye, M. (1989). Données géochronologiques nouvelles sur le massif volcanique du Siroua (Anti-Atlas, Maroc). Journal of African Earth Sciences (and the Middle East), 9(3-4), 651-656. doi.org/10.1016/0899-5362(89)90049-3 BERRAHMA, M. H., & Hernandez, J. (1985). Nouvelles donnees sur le volcanisme trachytique hyperalcalin du volcan du Siroua (Anti-Atlas, Maroc). Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences. Série 2, Mécanique, Physique, Chimie, Sciences de l'univers, Sciences de la Terre, 300(17), 863-868. Choubert, G., Charlot, R., Faure-Muret, A., Hottinger, L., Marçais, J., Tisserant, D. & Vidal, P. 1968. Note préliminaire sur le volcanisme messinien (pontien) au Maroc. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, Paris, 266D, 197-199. Wagner, C., Parodi, G. C., Semet, M., Robert, J. L., Berrahma, M., & Velde, D. (1991). Crystal chemistry of narsarsukite. European Journal of Mineralogy, 3(3), 575-586.
Natrodufrénite
Formula: NaFe2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. (2012): Les minéralisations à phosphates de la pegmatite d'Angarf-Sud (Maroc).Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2012, 3-70.
Natrolite
Formula: Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Reference: Khadem Allah, B. (1993)
Neltnerite (TL)
Formula: CaMn3+6(SiO4)O8
Type Locality:
Description: Vein N° 2. Associated with braunite II rich in calcium. Neltnerite also shows hausmannite inclusions.
Reference: Bull.Min.(1982) 105, 161-165
Nepheline
Formula: Na3K(Al4Si4O16)
Localities: Reported from at least 19 localities in this region.
Reference: Cahen, L., Snelling, N. J., Delhal, J., Vail, J. R., Bonhomme, M., & Ledent, D. (1984). The geochronology and evolution of Africa. Clarendon Press, Oxford. Bonin, B., & Lameyre, J. (1978). Relexions sur la position et l'origine des complexes magmatiques anorogeniques. Bulletin de la Société géologique de France, 7(1), 45-59. doi.org/10.2113/gssgfbull.S7-XX.1.45 Lameyre, J., & Lasserre, M. (1967). Etude géochronologique des syénites alcalines et néphéliniques du massif annulaire de Hassi-El-Fogra, Mauritanie du Nord. CR Acad. Sci. Paris, 265, 733-736.
Népouite
Formula: (Ni,Mg)3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Nickelaustinite
Formula: CaNi(AsO4)(OH)
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Nickeline
Formula: NiAs
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Jahn, S., Medenbach, O., Lyckberg, P., Lierl, H. J., Bode, R. & Brandstätter, G. (2003): Marokko - Land der schönen Mineralien und Fossilien. Bode Verlag, Haltern, Germany, 543 pp
'Nickel-iron'
Reference: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor/metbull.php
Nickellotharmeyerite
Formula: CaNi2(AsO4)2 · 2H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Nickelphosphide
Formula: (Ni,Fe)3P
Reference: V. Moggi-Cecchi et al., 2005
Nickelskutterudite
Formula: (Ni,Co,Fe)As3
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Nickeltalmessite (TL)
Formula: Ca2Ni(AsO4)2 · 2H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: ZRMO 138(4),32-39 (2009); N. V. Chukanov, A. A. Mukhanova, S. Möckel, D. I. Belakovsky und L. A. Levitskaya (2010): Nickeltalmessite, Ca2Ni(AsO4)2 • 2H2O, a new mineral species of the fairfieldite group, Bou Azzer, Morocco. Geology of Ore Deposits 52, 606-611.
Nierite
Formula: Si3N4
Reference: Lee, M.R., Russell, S.S., Arden, J.W., & Pillinger, C.T. (1995) Nierite (Si3N4), a new mineral from ordinary and enstatite chondrites. Meteoritics 30 (4): 387-397. (July 1995).
Niningerite
Formula: (Mg,Fe2+,Mn2+)S
Reference: Patzer, A., Hill, D. H., & Boynton, W. V. (2001). Itqiy: A metal‐rich enstatite meteorite with achondritic texture. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 36(11), 1495-1505.
Normandite
Formula: NaCa(Mn,Fe)(Ti,Nb,Zr)(Si2O7)OF
Reference: Khadem Allah, B. (1993)
Nosean
Formula: Na8(Al6Si6O24)(SO4) · H2O
Reference: Woolley, A. R. (2001). Alkaline Rocks and Carbonatites of the World: Africa. Geological Society of London. Berrahma, M., & Delaloye, M. (1989). Données géochronologiques nouvelles sur le massif volcanique du Siroua (Anti-Atlas, Maroc). Journal of African Earth Sciences (and the Middle East), 9(3-4), 651-656. doi.org/10.1016/0899-5362(89)90049-3 BERRAHMA, M. H., & Hernandez, J. (1985). Nouvelles donnees sur le volcanisme trachytique hyperalcalin du volcan du Siroua (Anti-Atlas, Maroc). Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences. Série 2, Mécanique, Physique, Chimie, Sciences de l'univers, Sciences de la Terre, 300(17), 863-868. Choubert, G., Charlot, R., Faure-Muret, A., Hottinger, L., Marçais, J., Tisserant, D. & Vidal, P. 1968. Note préliminaire sur le volcanisme messinien (pontien) au Maroc. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, Paris, 266D, 197-199. Wagner, C., Parodi, G. C., Semet, M., Robert, J. L., Berrahma, M., & Velde, D. (1991). Crystal chemistry of narsarsukite. European Journal of Mineralogy, 3(3), 575-586.
'Nováčekite'
Formula: Mg(UO2)2(AsO4)2 · nH2O (n = 12, 10 or 8)
Reference: Favreau, G., Dietrich, J. E., Meisser, N., Brugger, J., Ait Haddouch, L. & Maacha, L. (2007): Bou Azzer, Morocco. Mineralogical Record 38, 345-407
Nováčekite-I
Formula: Mg(UO2)2(AsO4)2 · 12H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Oldhamite
Formula: (Ca,Mg)S
Reference: Patzer, A., Hill, D. H., & Boynton, W. V. (2001). Itqiy: A metal‐rich enstatite meteorite with achondritic texture. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 36(11), 1495-1505.
Olivenite
Formula: Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Olivenite var. Cobalt-bearing Olivenite
Formula: (Cu,Co)2AsO4(OH)
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Olivenite var. Zinc-bearing Olivenite
Formula: (Cu,Zn)2(AsO4)(OH)
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Opal
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Reference: Georges FAVREAU collection
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'
Localities: Reported from at least 24 localities in this region.
Reference: Michael K. Weisberg & 7 others (2009). The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 95. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 44(3): 429-462. (March 2009).
Osbornite
Formula: TiN
Description: 3 small grains
Reference: McCoy, T. J. et al. (1995) Origin and history of impact-melt rocks of enstatite chondrite parentage: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 59 (1): 161-175. (Feb 1995)
Owyheeite
Formula: Ag3+xPb10-2xSb11+xS28, -0.13 < x > +0.20
Reference: El Arbaoui, Amal & Amina, Wafik & N'Diaye, Ismaïla & Maacha, L. & Zouhair, Mohamed & Abdelmalek, Ouadjou & Radnaoui, Ahmed. (2015) Mineral resources in a sustainable world Fluids and ore genesis Mineralogical Evolution of the Polymetallic Vein Mineralization at the Roc Blanc Silver Deposit (Jebilet Massif, Variscan Belt, Morocco).
Palladseite
Formula: Pd17Se15
Reference: El Ghorfi, M., Oberthür, T., Melcher, F., Lüders, V., El Boukhari, A., Maacha, L., Ziadi, R., and Baoutoul, H. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41, 549-564.
Palygorskite ?
Formula: (Mg,Al)2Si4O10(OH) · 4H2O
Description: Maybe the same as the smectite in the 2009 reference
Reference: MINERALOGICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF Mg-SMECTITE FROM JBEL GHASSOUL, MOROCCO, A. Benhammou, B. Tanouti, L. Nibou, A. Yaacoubi and J.-P. Bonnet; Clays and Clay Minerals; v. 57 p. 264 (2009). ANALYSES OF PALYGORSKITES AND ASSOCIATED CLAYS FROM THE JBEL RHASSOUL (MOROCCO) A. Chahi, J. Duplay, J. Luca; Clays and Clay Minerals; v. 41 p. 401 (1993).
Paraguanajuatite
Formula: Bi2Se3
Reference: Belkabir, A., Gibson, H.L., Marcoux, E., Lentz, D., and Rziki, S. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 280-306.
Parasymplesite
Formula: Fe2+3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Parasymplesite var. Cobalt-bearing Parasymplesite
Formula: (Fe,Co)3[AsO4]2 · 8H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Pargasite
Formula: NaCa2(Mg4Al)(Si6Al2)O22(OH)2
Description: Ti-pargasite.
Reference: J.P. Lorand and J.Y. Cottin, Bull. Minéral. , 1987, 110, pp. 373-378.
'Parisite'
Formula: Ca(Ce/La/Nd/REE)2(CO3)3F2
Reference: Agard, J. (1960). Les carbonatites et les roches a'silicates et carbonates associe¤ s du massif de roches alcalines du Tamazeght (Haut Atlas de Midelt, Maroc) et les proble'mes de leur gene'se. In Proceedings of the 21st International Geological Congress, Norden, Norway (Vol. 13, pp. 293-303). Aghchmi, E. M. (1984). Les carbonatites filoniennes de l'Oued Tamazeght et leurs relations avec les métasyénites (Haut Atlas de Midelt Maroc). Bernard-Griffiths, J., Fourcade, S., & Dupuy, C. (1991). Isotopic study (Sr, Nd, O and C) of lamprophyres and associated dykes from Tamazert (Morroco): crustal contamination processes and source characteristics. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 103(1-4), 190-199. doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(91)90160-J Bouabdli, A., Dupuy, C., & Dostal, J. (1988). Geochemistry of Mesozoic alkaline lamprophyres and related rocks from the Tamazert massif, High Atlas (Morocco). Lithos, 22(1), 43-58. doi.org/10.1016/0024-4937(88)90028-X Jeremine, E. (1949). Étude pétrographique des roches éruptives et métamorphiques du massif de Bou Agrao. Notes. Serv. Geol. Maroc., 74, 119-147. Jeremine, E., & Dubar, G. (1947). * MINERALOGIE-NOTE SUR LES SYENITES NEPHELINIQUES A EUDIALYTE DU MASSIF ERUPTIF DU BOU AGRAO (HAUT-ATLAS, MAROC). COMPTES RENDUS HEBDOMADAIRES DES SEANCES DE L ACADEMIE DES SCIENCES, 224(13), 1022-1023. Mourtada, S. (1997). Pétrogenèse des carbonatites et contribution à l'étude des minéralisations (NB, Tr, Ba et Sr) associées: exemple du complexe alcalin de Tamazert (Haut-Atlas marocain) (Doctoral dissertation, Clermont-Ferrand 2). Mourtada, S., Le Bas, M. J., & Pin, C. (1997). Pétrogenèse des magnésio-carbonatites du complexe de Tamazert (Haut Atlas marocain). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences-Series IIA-Earth and Planetary Science, 325(8), 559-564. doi.org/10.1016/S1251-8050(97)89455-4 Salvi, S., Fontan, F., Monchoux, P., Williams-Jones, A. E., & Moine, B. (2000). Hydrothermal mobilization of high field strength elements in alkaline igneous systems: evidence from the Tamazeght Complex (Morocco). Economic Geology, 95(3), 559-576. doi.org/10.2113/gsecongeo.95.3.559 Tisserant, D. (1976). DONNEES GEOCHRONOLOGIQUES SUR LE COMPLEXE DE ROCHES ALCALINES DU TAMAZEGHT (HAUT-ATLAS. DE MIDELT), MAROC. Bulletin du Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres, II, 3, 279-283.
Parnauite
Formula: Cu9(AsO4)2(SO4)(OH)10 · 7H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Paulkerrite
Formula: K(Mg,Mn2+)2(Fe3+,Al,Ti,Mg)2Ti(PO4)4(OH)3 · 15H2O
Habit: small square plates
Colour: pale yellow
Description: EDS analysis P. Orlandi (Pisa)
Reference: Favreau, G. (2012): Deux pegmatites à phosphates de Sidi Bou Othmane (Maroc). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2012, 71-109.
Pearceite
Formula: [(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
Reference: Barral, J.-P., Favreau, G. and Lheur, C. (2009): Imiter, der größte Silberbergbau Marokkos: Geologie, Bergbaugeschichte und Mineralien. Lapis 34 (12), 15-43; 62 (in German).; Levresse, Gilles & Bouabdellah, Mohammed & Cheilletz, Alain & Gasquet, Dominique & Maacha, L & Tritlla, Jordi & Banks, D & Rachid Azizi-Samir, Moulay. (2016). Degassing as the main ore-forming process at the giant Imiter Ag-Hg vein deposit in the Anti-Atlas system, Morocco..
Pecoraite
Formula: Ni3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Gunnar Färber specimens (with nickeltalmessite)
Pectolite
Formula: NaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Reference: Bea, F., Montero, P., Haissen, F., & El Archi, A. (2013). 2.46 Ga kalsilite and nepheline syenites from the Awsard pluton, Reguibat Rise of the West African Craton, Morocco. Generation of extremely K-rich magmas at the Archean–Proterozoic transition. Precambrian Research, 224, 242-254.
Pekoite
Formula: PbCuBi11S18
Reference: Paar, W. H., Putz, H., Topa, D., Roberts, A. C., Stanley, C. J., & Culetto, F. J. (2006). Jonassonite, Au (Bi, Pb) 5S4, a new mineral species from Nagybörzsöny, Hungary. The Canadian Mineralogist, 44(5), 1127-1136.
Pentlandite
Formula: (NixFey)Σ9S8
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Kamiskey, F.V., Raman'ko, Ye.F., Kolesnikov, S.K. & Salkhi, M. 1993. Lamproites of northern Algeria. International Geology Review, 35, 235-252. Raoult, J. F., & Velde, D. (1971). Découvertes de trachytes potassiques aolivine et d’andésites en coulées dans le Miocene continental au Sud du Kef Hahouner (Nord du Constantinois). CR Acad. Sci. Paris, 272, 1051-1054.
Periclase
Formula: MgO
Reference: Greshake, A., Bischoff, A. & Putnis, A. (1996). Pure CaO, MgO (Periclase), TiO2 (Rutile), and Al2O3 (Corundum) in Ca,Al-rich Inclusions from Carbonaceous Chondrites. Lunar and Planetary Science, vol. 27, p. 463. (March 1996).
Perovskite
Formula: CaTiO3
Localities: Reported from at least 15 localities in this region.
Reference: Ivanova, M. A. et al (2002): Meteorit.Planet. Sci. 37, 1337-1444.
Perryite
Formula: (Ni,Fe)5(Si,P)2
Reference: Bunch, T.E., Irving, A.J., Wittke, J.H., Kuehner, S.M. (2008) Zincian Brezinaite and Other Rare Minerals in Two Cumulate-textured Aubrites from Northwest Africa. 71st Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society, July 28-August 1, 2008, Matsue, Japan. Meteoritics and Planetary Science Supplement: 43: paper id. 5309.
'Petroleum var. Bitumen'
Reference: USGS Open-File Report 2009-1252 Sediment-hosted zinc-lead deposits of the world - Database and grade and tonnage models
Pharmacoalumite
Formula: KAl4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6.5H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68; Favreau, G., Dietrich, J. E., Meisser, N., Brugger, J., Ait Haddouch, L. & Maacha, L. (2007): Bou Azzer, Morocco. Mineralogical Record 38, 345-407
Pharmacolite
Formula: Ca(HAsO4) · 2H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Pharmacosiderite
Formula: KFe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Reference: Journal of Petrology, Vol. 44, Number 5, 2003, pp. 937-965.
Phlogopite var. Chromium-bearing Phlogopite
Formula: K(Mg,Cr)3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Description: Ti-Cr phlogopite.
Reference: J.P. Lorand and J.Y. Cottin, Bull. Minéral. , 1987, 110, pp. 373-378.
Phosgenite
Formula: Pb2CO3Cl2
Reference: [MinRec 18:430, 20:69; 20(5): 396.]
Phosphohedyphane
Formula: Ca2Pb3(PO4)3Cl
Reference: Joan Rosell - Rosell Minerals
Phosphosiderite
Formula: FePO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. (2012): Deux pegmatites à phosphates de Sidi Bou Othmane (Maroc). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2012, 71-109
Picropharmacolite
Formula: Ca4Mg(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 11H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Piemontite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: FAVREAU G. & DIETRICH J.E. (2006) Tachgagalt (Maroc), Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 93, 37-71. (in French)
Pigeonite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 27 localities in this region.
Reference: Meteoritical Society Abstracts (2001)
'Pimelite'
Formula: Ni3Si4O10(OH)2 · 4H2O
Reference: Eur. J. Mineral. , 1993, 5, pp. 1205-1215.
'Plessite'
Reference: Ramdohr, P. (1973) The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages.
Plumbogummite
Formula: PbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Reference: Tristan Mantoy's collection
Pollucite
Formula: (Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
Reference: Bea, F., Montero, P., Haissen, F., & El Archi, A. (2013). 2.46 Ga kalsilite and nepheline syenites from the Awsard pluton, Reguibat Rise of the West African Craton, Morocco. Generation of extremely K-rich magmas at the Archean–Proterozoic transition. Precambrian Research, 224, 242-254.
Polybasite
Formula: [(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
Reference: Uwe Kolitsch collection (analysed by single-crystal XRD); Barral, J.-P., Favreau, G. and Lheur, C. (2009): Imiter, der größte Silberbergbau Marokkos: Geologie, Bergbaugeschichte und Mineralien. Lapis 34 (12), 15-43; 62 (in German).; Burniaux, P. and Williams-Jones, A.E., (2006) Controls Of Silver-Mercury Mineralization At Imiter, Morocco. in Geological Association of Canada, Program with Abstracts Volume 3; Levresse, Gilles & Bouabdellah, Mohammed & Cheilletz, Alain & Gasquet, Dominique & Maacha, L & Tritlla, Jordi & Banks, D & Rachid Azizi-Samir, Moulay. (2016). Degassing as the main ore-forming process at the giant Imiter Ag-Hg vein deposit in the Anti-Atlas system, Morocco..
'Polybasite-Tac'
Reference: Burniaux, P. and Williams-Jones, A.E., (2006) Controls Of Silver-Mercury Mineralization At Imiter, Morocco. in Geological Association of Canada, Program with Abstracts Volume 3
Polylithionite
Formula: KLi2Al(Si4O10)(F,OH)2
Reference: Khadem Allah, B. (1993)
Posnjakite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · H2O
Habit: balls, rounded platy crystals
Colour: dark blue
Reference: Georges FAVREAU collection
Potarite ?
Formula: PdHg
Reference: El Ghorfi, M., Oberthür, T., Melcher, F., Lüders, V., El Boukhari, A., Maacha, L., Ziadi, R., and Baoutoul, H. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41, 549-564.
Potassic-magnesio-fluoro-arfvedsonite
Formula: [(K,Na)][Na2][Mg4Fe3+][Si8O22][(F,OH)2]
Reference: Bea, F., Montero, P., Haissen, F., & El Archi, A. (2013). 2.46 Ga kalsilite and nepheline syenites from the Awsard pluton, Reguibat Rise of the West African Craton, Morocco. Generation of extremely K-rich magmas at the Archean–Proterozoic transition. Precambrian Research, 224, 242-254.
Powellite
Formula: Ca(MoO4)
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Prehnite
Formula: Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Reference: Carlos Pareja collection
'Protolithionite'
Reference: Kesraoui, M., & Nedjari, S. (2002). Contrasting evolution of low-P rare metal granites from two different terranes in the Hoggar area, Algeria. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 34(3), 247-257.; Kesraoui Mokrane; Marignac Christian; Verkaeren Jean, 2000: Late magmatic evolution of rare earth granites; example of the Tin-Amzi Cupola Ahaggar, Algeria. Bulletin du Service Geologique de l'Algerie 11(2): 195-216
Proustite
Formula: Ag3AsS3
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Pseudobrookite
Formula: Fe2TiO5
Description: Mg-rich pseudobrookite inclusions in picotite. Ferri-armalcolite.
Reference: J.P. Lorand and J.Y. Cottin, Bull. Minéral. , 1987, 110, pp. 373-378.
Pseudomalachite
Formula: Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Reference: Jahn, S., Medenbach, O., Lyckberg, P., Lierl, H. J., Bode, R. & Brandstätter, G. (2003): Marokko - Land der schönen Mineralien und Fossilien. Bode Verlag, Haltern, Germany, 543 pp (p.339)
Pseudorutile
Formula: Fe2Ti3O9
Reference: C. Hejny et al. (2002) Eur. J. Mineral. 14, 957-967
'Psilomelane'
Formula: Mn, O
Reference: Jahn, S., Medenbach, O., Lyckberg, P., Lierl, H. J., Bode, R. & Brandstätter, G. (2003): Marokko - Land der schönen Mineralien und Fossilien. Bode Verlag, Haltern, Germany, 543 pp (p.340)
Pyrargyrite
Formula: Ag3SbS3
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Barral, J.-P., Favreau, G. and Lheur, C. (2008). La mine d'argent d'Imiter (Maroc) - Géologie, histoire exploitation et description des espèces minérales. Le Cahier des Micromonteurs 3/2008, 1-110. (in French); Levresse, Gilles & Bouabdellah, Mohammed & Cheilletz, Alain & Gasquet, Dominique & Maacha, L & Tritlla, Jordi & Banks, D & Rachid Azizi-Samir, Moulay. (2016). Degassing as the main ore-forming process at the giant Imiter Ag-Hg vein deposit in the Anti-Atlas system, Morocco..
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Localities: Reported from at least 67 localities in this region.
Reference: Flavien Choulet, Nicolas Charles, Luc Barbanson, Yannick Branquet, Stanislas Sizaret, Aomar Ennaciri, Lakhlifi Badra, Yan Chen (2014): Non-sulfide zinc deposits of the Moroccan High Atlas: Multi-scale characterization and origin. Ore Geology Reviews, 56, 115-140.
Pyrite var. Arsenic-bearing Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Tuduri, Johann & Chauvet, Alain & Barbanson, Luc & Bourdier, Jean-Louis & Labriki, Mohamed & Ennaciri, A & Badra, Lakhlifi & Dubois, Michel & Ennaciri-Leloix, Christelle & Sizaret, Stanislas & Maacha, L. (2018). The Jbel Saghro Au(-Ag, Cu) and Ag-Hg Metallogenetic Province: Product of a Long-Lived Ediacaran Tectono-Magmatic Evolution in the Moroccan Anti-Atlas. Minerals. 8. 592. 10.3390/min8120592.
Pyrite var. Bravoite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)S2
Reference: Barral, J.-P., Favreau, G. and Lheur, C. (2009): Imiter, der größte Silberbergbau Marokkos: Geologie, Bergbaugeschichte und Mineralien. Lapis 34 (12), 15-43; 62 (in German).
Pyroaurite
Formula: Mg6Fe3+2(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2O
Habit: thick hexagonal platy xls up to 3 mm
Colour: orange, yellow
Description: May also include the former sjögrenite (now pyroaurite-2H)
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
'Pyrochlore Group'
Formula: A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Reference: Blanc, P. & Pomerol, C. 1973. Presence de filons de roches carbonatees a analcime dans la depression de Tin Jouker, Richat, Adrar de Mauritainie. Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, Paris, 265D, 2409-2411. Dietz, R. S., Fudali, R., & Cassidy, W. (1969). Richât and Semsiyat domes (Mauritania): not astroblemes. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 80(7), 1367-1372. doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1969)80[1367:RASDMN]2.0.CO;2 NETTO, A.M, FABRE, J., POUPEAU, G. & CHAMPENOIS, M. (1992). Datation par traces de fission (TF) de la structure circulaire des Richat (Mauritanie centrale). Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, Paris, 314 (Serie II), 1179-1186. Trompette, R. 1973. Pétrographie des Richât. A - Les delérites de l'Adrar de Mauritanie et le probléme des analcimolites des Richât (Sahara occidentale). Sciences de la Terre. Mémoires, Nancy, 28, 83-95. Woolley, A. R., Rankin, A. H., Elliott, C. J., Bishot, A. C., & Niblett, D. (1984). Carbonatite dykes from the Richat dome. Mauritania, and the genesis of the dome: Indian Mineralogist, 189-207.
'Pyrochlore Group var. Ceriopyrochlore (of Hogarth 1977)'
Formula: A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
Reference: Benaouda, R., Holzheid, A., Schenk, V., Badra, L., Enaciri, A. (2017): Magmatic evolution of the Jbel Boho alkaline complex in the Bou Azzer inlier (Anti-Atlas/Morocco) and its relation to REE mineralization. Journal of African Earth Sciences: 129; doi: 10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2017.01.003
Pyrolusite
Formula: Mn4+O2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Econ Geol (1986) 81:65-79
Pyromorphite
Formula: Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Reference: Jahn, S., Medenbach, O., Lyckberg, P., Lierl, H. J., Bode, R. & Brandstätter, G. (2003): Marokko - Land der schönen Mineralien und Fossilien. Bode Verlag, Haltern, Germany, 543 pp (p 329)
Pyrophanite
Formula: Mn2+TiO3
Reference: Khadem Allah, B. (1993)
Pyrophyllite
Formula: Al2Si4O10(OH)2
Reference: Berrada, S. H. et al. (2009): Pyrophyllite – zunyite – diaspore mineralization at Chouichiat, Anti-Atlas, Morocco. Can. Mineral. 47, 441-456
Pyrostilpnite ?
Formula: Ag3SbS3
Reference: Thomas Barral, J.-P., Favreau, G. and Lheur, C. (2008). La mine d'argent d'Imiter (Maroc) - Géologie, histoire exploitation et description des espèces minérales. Le Cahier des Micromonteurs 3/2008, 1-110. (in French)
'Pyroxene Group'
Localities: Reported from at least 55 localities in this region.
Reference: Ba, H., Black, R., Benziane, B., Diombana, D., Hascoet-Fender, J., Bonin, B., ... & Liégeois, J. P. (1985). La province des complexes annulaires alcalins sursaturés de l'Adrar des Iforas, Mali. Journal of African Earth Sciences (1983), 3(1-2), 123-142. doi.org/10.1016/0899-5362(85)90031-4 Black, R., Ba, H., Ball, E., Bertrand, J. M., Boullier, A. M., Caby, R., ... & Wright, L. I. (1979). Outline of the Pan-African geology of adrar des Iforas (Republic of Mali). Geologische Rundschau, 68(2), 543-564. doi.org/10.1007/BF01820806 Liégeois, J. P., & Black, R. (1984). Pétrographie et géochronologie Rb-Sr de la transition calco-alcaline-alcaline fini-Panafricaine dans l'Adrar des Iforas (Mali): accrétion crustale au Précambrien supérieur. In Géologie africaine (pp. 115-145).
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe1-xS
Localities: Reported from at least 44 localities in this region.
Reference: Tuduri, Johann & Chauvet, Alain & Barbanson, Luc & Bourdier, Jean-Louis & Labriki, Mohamed & Ennaciri, A & Badra, Lakhlifi & Dubois, Michel & Ennaciri-Leloix, Christelle & Sizaret, Stanislas & Maacha, L. (2018). The Jbel Saghro Au(-Ag, Cu) and Ag-Hg Metallogenetic Province: Product of a Long-Lived Ediacaran Tectono-Magmatic Evolution in the Moroccan Anti-Atlas. Minerals. 8. 592. 10.3390/min8120592.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 130 localities in this region.
Reference: Various collections
Quartz var. Agate
Reference: Takehiro Touge
Quartz var. Amethyst
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Karel Bal Collection
Quartz var. Chalcedony
Formula: SiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Reference: Rob Lavinsky
Quartz var. Eisenkiesel
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Lapis 39 (2014), p. 70
Quartz var. Ferruginous Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Yves Masson
Quartz var. Jasper
Reference: Zbynek Burival collection
Quartz var. Milky Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Quartz var. Prase
Formula: SiO2
Reference: A.M.I. Martins collection
Quartz var. Quartzine
Formula: SiO2
Description: Unsuspiciously intergrown with length-fast chalcedony in agates. White bands in agates from this locality are potential candidates.
Reference: "Amir Akhavan" Collection;
Quartz var. Rock Crystal
Formula: SiO2
Reference: https://sites.google.com/site/mineralienmuseumguntersblum/bildergalerien/achate/afrika/marokko/agouim
Quartz var. Sceptre Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Quartz var. Smoky Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Rammelsbergite
Formula: NiAs2
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Realgar
Formula: As4S4
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Retgersite
Formula: NiSO4 · 6H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Rhodonite
Formula: CaMn3Mn[Si5O15]
Reference: Byramjee R.and Meindre M.(1956): Le gisement de manganèse de Guettara. Symposium du manganèse XX congrès international de géologie,
'Rhombohedral Carbonate'
Formula: (Ca/Mg/Fe/Mn etc)CO3
Reference: Blanc, P. & Pomerol, C. 1973. Presence de filons de roches carbonatees a analcime dans la depression de Tin Jouker, Richat, Adrar de Mauritainie. Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, Paris, 265D, 2409-2411. Dietz, R. S., Fudali, R., & Cassidy, W. (1969). Richât and Semsiyat domes (Mauritania): not astroblemes. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 80(7), 1367-1372. doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1969)80[1367:RASDMN]2.0.CO;2 NETTO, A.M, FABRE, J., POUPEAU, G. & CHAMPENOIS, M. (1992). Datation par traces de fission (TF) de la structure circulaire des Richat (Mauritanie centrale). Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, Paris, 314 (Serie II), 1179-1186. Trompette, R. 1973. Pétrographie des Richât. A - Les delérites de l'Adrar de Mauritanie et le probléme des analcimolites des Richât (Sahara occidentale). Sciences de la Terre. Mémoires, Nancy, 28, 83-95. Woolley, A. R., Rankin, A. H., Elliott, C. J., Bishot, A. C., & Niblett, D. (1984). Carbonatite dykes from the Richat dome. Mauritania, and the genesis of the dome: Indian Mineralogist, 189-207.
Rhönite
Formula: Ca4[Mg8Fe3+2Ti2]O4[Si6Al6O36]
Reference: Mikouchi, T., McKay G., Koizumi E., Monkawa, A. & Miyamoto, M. (2003) Northwest Africa 1670: A new quenched angrite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 38(7,Suppl.): A115.
'Ribose'
Formula: C5H10O5
Reference: https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2019/11/12/1907169116
Richterite
Formula: {Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Agard, J. (1950). Sur l'âge et le mode de gisement des aïounites et mestigmérites du Maroc oriental. Notes et Mém. Serv. géol. Maroc, 76, 189-196. Charlot, R., Choubert, G., Faure-Muret, A., & Hamel, C. (1964). Age des aıounites du Maroc Nord-Oriental. Comptes Rendus Sommaire de la Socie¤ te¤ Ge¤ ologique de France, 9, 401-402. Cherotzky, G. 1967. À propos de la composition chimique des mestigmerites et aïounites. Mines et Géologie. Royaume du Maroc, Ministere du Commerce, de l'Artisanat, de l'Industrie et des Mines, Rabat, 25, 51-56. Jeremine, E. (1948). Sur quelques roches provenant du Maroc oriental: aıounites et mestigmérites. Notes Service Géologique du Maroc, 71, 67-71. Mokhtari, A., & Velde, D. (1988). Xenocrysts in Eocene camptonites from Taourirt, northern Morocco. Mineralogical Magazine, 52(368), 587-601. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Abdelkader_Mokhtari/publication/249849715_Xenocrysts_in_Eocene_Camptonites_from_Taourirt_Northern_Morocco/links/53fb9ae30cf2dca8fffe804e/Xenocrysts-in-Eocene-Camptonites-from-Taourirt-Northern-Morocco.pdf Mokhtari, A., Wagner, C., & Velde, D. (1996). Découverte d'une enclave de carbonatite dans une camptonite de la région de Taourirt (Nord-Est du Maroc). Conséquences géologiques. Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences. Série 2. Sciences de la terre et des planètes, 323(6), 467-474. Wagner, C., Mokhtari, A., & Velde, D. (1993). Xenocrystic richterite in an olivine-nephelinite: destabilisation and diffusion phenomena. Mineralogical Magazine, 57(388), 515-525. doi.org/10.1180/minmag.1993.057.388.12
Riebeckite
Formula: ◻[Na2][Fe2+3Fe3+2]Si8O22(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Bessoles, B. (1977). GEOLOGIE DE L'AFRIQUE. LE CRATON OUEST AFRICAIN. Memoires du Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres, 88. Cahen, L., Snelling, N. J., Delhal, J., Vail, J. R., Bonhomme, M., & Ledent, D. (1984). The geochronology and evolution of Africa. Clarendon Press, Oxford. Nations Unies 1974. Carte geologique de la dorsale regueibat. et de ses bordures sedimentaires (Partie orientale). Republique Islamique de Mauritanie. Nations Unies, MAU-69-504, 1:500000.
Ringwoodite
Formula: (Mg,Fe2+)2SiO4
Reference: Ma, C., Tschauner, O., Liu, Y., Beckett, J. R., Rossman, G. R., Zuravlev, K., ... & Taylor, L. A. (2014, March). Discovery of Ahrensite gamma-Fe2SiO4 and Tissintite (Ca, Na, □) AlSi2O6: Two New High Pressure Minerals from the Tissint Martian Meteorite. In Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (Vol. 45, p. 1222).; Baziotis, I. P., Liu, Y., DeCarli, P. S., Melosh, H. J., McSween, H. Y., Bodnar, R. J., & Taylor, L. A. (2013). The Tissint Martian meteorite as evidence for the largest impact excavation. Nature Communications, 4, 1404.; Miyahara, M., Ohtani, E., El Goresy, A., Ozawa, S., & Gillet, P. (2016). Phase transition processes of olivine in the shocked Martian meteorite Tissint: Clues to origin of ringwoodite-, bridgmanite-and magnesiowüstite-bearing assemblages. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 259, 18-28.
Rinkite-(Ce)
Formula: (Ca3Ce)Na(NaCa)Ti(Si2O7)2(OF)F2
Reference: Agard, J. (1960). Les carbonatites et les roches a'silicates et carbonates associe¤ s du massif de roches alcalines du Tamazeght (Haut Atlas de Midelt, Maroc) et les proble'mes de leur gene'se. In Proceedings of the 21st International Geological Congress, Norden, Norway (Vol. 13, pp. 293-303). Aghchmi, E. M. (1984). Les carbonatites filoniennes de l'Oued Tamazeght et leurs relations avec les métasyénites (Haut Atlas de Midelt Maroc). Bernard-Griffiths, J., Fourcade, S., & Dupuy, C. (1991). Isotopic study (Sr, Nd, O and C) of lamprophyres and associated dykes from Tamazert (Morroco): crustal contamination processes and source characteristics. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 103(1-4), 190-199. doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(91)90160-J Bouabdli, A., Dupuy, C., & Dostal, J. (1988). Geochemistry of Mesozoic alkaline lamprophyres and related rocks from the Tamazert massif, High Atlas (Morocco). Lithos, 22(1), 43-58. doi.org/10.1016/0024-4937(88)90028-X Jeremine, E. (1949). Étude pétrographique des roches éruptives et métamorphiques du massif de Bou Agrao. Notes. Serv. Geol. Maroc., 74, 119-147. Jeremine, E., & Dubar, G. (1947). * MINERALOGIE-NOTE SUR LES SYENITES NEPHELINIQUES A EUDIALYTE DU MASSIF ERUPTIF DU BOU AGRAO (HAUT-ATLAS, MAROC). COMPTES RENDUS HEBDOMADAIRES DES SEANCES DE L ACADEMIE DES SCIENCES, 224(13), 1022-1023. Mourtada, S. (1997). Pétrogenèse des carbonatites et contribution à l'étude des minéralisations (NB, Tr, Ba et Sr) associées: exemple du complexe alcalin de Tamazert (Haut-Atlas marocain) (Doctoral dissertation, Clermont-Ferrand 2). Mourtada, S., Le Bas, M. J., & Pin, C. (1997). Pétrogenèse des magnésio-carbonatites du complexe de Tamazert (Haut Atlas marocain). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences-Series IIA-Earth and Planetary Science, 325(8), 559-564. doi.org/10.1016/S1251-8050(97)89455-4 Salvi, S., Fontan, F., Monchoux, P., Williams-Jones, A. E., & Moine, B. (2000). Hydrothermal mobilization of high field strength elements in alkaline igneous systems: evidence from the Tamazeght Complex (Morocco). Economic Geology, 95(3), 559-576. doi.org/10.2113/gsecongeo.95.3.559 Tisserant, D. (1976). DONNEES GEOCHRONOLOGIQUES SUR LE COMPLEXE DE ROCHES ALCALINES DU TAMAZEGHT (HAUT-ATLAS. DE MIDELT), MAROC. Bulletin du Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres, II, 3, 279-283.
Rittmannite
Formula: {(Mn2+,Ca)}{Mn2+}{(Fe2+,Mn2+,Mg)2}{(Al,Fe3+)2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. (2012): Deux pegmatites à phosphates de Sidi Bou Othmane (Maroc). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2012, 71-109
Robertsite
Formula: Ca2Mn3+3(PO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Habit: thick hexagonal tabular
Colour: dark brown
Reference: Favreau, G. (2012): Deux pegmatites à phosphates de Sidi Bou Othmane (Maroc). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2012, 71-109
Rockbridgeite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+4(PO4)3(OH)5
Reference: Favreau, G. (2012): Deux pegmatites à phosphates de Sidi Bou Othmane (Maroc). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2012, 71-109
Rosasite
Formula: (Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Georges FAVREAU collection
Roselite
Formula: Ca2Co(AsO4)2 · 2H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Habit: stout crystals
Colour: cherry red, purple, ....
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
'Roselite-Wendwilsonite Series'
Reference: http://www.spiriferminerals.com/70,IV-2010---Morocco-part-II.html
Rosenbuschite
Formula: Na6Ca6Zr3Ti(Si2O7)4O2F6
Rozenite
Formula: FeSO4 · 4H2O
Reference: WALENTA (1981) Grüner Helvin von Azegour, Der Aufschluß, 32, 443-449
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 18 localities in this region.
Reference: Lecolle, Michel; Derre, Colette; Rjimati, Ech Cherki; Fonteilles, Michel; Azza, Addi; Benanni, Abdelhak (1993): A silicated and phosphated peraluminous hydrothermal alteration with associated rutile in the Upper Proterozoic of the Saghro (Anti-​Atlas, Morocco)​. Genesis and metallogenic consequences. Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, Serie II: Mecanique, Physique, Chimie, Sciences de la Terre et de l'Univers 316, 123-130.
Safflorite
Formula: (Co,Ni,Fe)As2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Sainfeldite
Formula: Ca5(AsO4)2(AsO3OH)2 · 4H2O
Reference: Sergio Varvello
'Salmonsite'
Reference: Fontan, F. (1978) : Etude minéralogique et essais expérimentaux sur les phosphates de fer et de manganèse des pegmatites des Jebilet (Maroc) et des Pyrénées (France), PhD thesis, Toulouse, 272 p.
Sampleite
Formula: NaCaCu5(PO4)4Cl · 5H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. (2012): Les minéralisations à phosphates de la pegmatite d'Angarf-Sud (Maroc).Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2012, 3-70.
Sanidine
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: M. Girod, Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéral. Crist. , 1963, LXXXVI, pp. 121-125.
Saponite
Formula: Ca0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Reference: Fintor, K., Park, C., Nagy, S., Pál-Molnár, E. & Krot, A. N (2014) Hydrothermal origin of hexagonal CaAl2Si2O8 (dmisteinbergite) in a type A CAI from the Northwest Africa 2086 CV3 Chondrite: Meteoritics & Planetary Science 49 (5): 812-823 (May 2014)
Sapphirine
Formula: Mg4(Mg3Al9)O4[Si3Al9O36]
Reference: M. Guiraud, J.R. Kienast, A. Rahmani : "Petrological study of high-temperature granulites from In Ouzal, Algeria : some implications on the phase relationships in the FMASTOCr system", Eur. J. Mineral. , 1996, 8, 1375-1390.
Sarmientite
Formula: Fe3+2(AsO4)(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
Reference: M.E. Ciriotti collection [S. Möckel 2010 - EDX+PXRD]
Sauconite
Formula: Na0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
Reference: Flavien Choulet, Nicolas Charles, Luc Barbanson, Yannick Branquet, Stanislas Sizaret, Aomar Ennaciri, Lakhlifi Badra, Yan Chen (2014): Non-sulfide zinc deposits of the Moroccan High Atlas: Multi-scale characterization and origin. Ore Geology Reviews, 56, 115-140.; F. Choulet, M. Buatier, L. Barbanson, R. Guégan, A. Ennaciri (2016): Zinc-rich clays in supergene non-sulfide zinc deposits. Mineralium Deposita 51, 467–490.
'Scapolite'
Reference: Allègre, C. J., & Caby, R. (1972). Chronologie absolue du Précambrien de l'Ahaggar occidental. CR Acad. Sci. Paris, 275(D), 2095-2098. Bernard-Griffiths, J., Peucat, J. J., Fourcade, S., Kienast, J. R., & Ouzegane, K. (1988). Origin and evolution of 2 Ga old carbonatite complex (Ihouhaouene, Ahaggar, Algeria): Nd and Sr isotopic evidence. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 100(3), 339-348. doi.org/ 10.1007/BF00379743 Carpena, J., Kienast, J. R., Ouzegane, K., & Jehanno, C. (1988). Evidence of the contrasted fission-track clock behavior of the apatites from In Ouzzal carbonatites (northwest Hoggar): The low-temperature thermal history of an Archean basement. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 100(8), 1237-1243. doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1988)100<1237:EOTCFT>2.3.CO;2 Fourcade, S., KIENAST, J. R., & Ouzegane, K. (1996). Metasomatic effects related to channelled fluid streaming through deep crust: fenites and associated carbonatites (In Ouzzal Proterozoic granulites, Hoggar, Algeria). Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 14(6), 763-781. doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-1314.1996.00055.x Ouzegane, K., Fourcade, S., Kienast, J. R., & Javoy, M. (1988). New carbonatite complexes in the Archaean In'Ouzzal nucleus (Ahaggar, Algeria): mineralogical and geochemical data. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 98(3), 277-292. doi.org/10.1007/BF00375179
'Scapolite Group'
Reference: Bouabdellah, M., Lebret, N., Marcoux, E., Sadequi, M. (2013) Les mines de Beni Bou Ifrour-Ouixane (Rif Oriental): un district ferrugineux néogènede type skarns. The Beni Bou Ifrour-Ouixane mines (Eastern Rif), Neogene Skarn Type Iron Deposits. Chalouan, A.A., Rjimati , E., MouttaqiMichard, A., Saddiqi, O. Nouveaux Guides Géologiques et miniers du Maroc, Notes et mémoires du Service géologique du Maroc, pp.357-362, 2012, Notes et mémoires N° 564 du Service géologique du Maroc- 2011.
Scheelite
Formula: Ca(WO4)
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Ibouh, H., Hibti, M., Saidi, A., & Touil, A. (2011) Azegour, gîte métasomatique à Cu, Mo, W (Haut Atlas occidental) /Azegour Cu-Mo-W Metasomatic Deposit (Western High Atlas) pp 229-233
'Schirmerite'
Formula: PbAgBi3S6 - Pb3Ag1.5Bi3.5S9
Reference: Ilmen, S., Alansari, A., Baidada, B., Maacha, L., & Bajddi, A. (2016). Minerals of the Ag–Bi–Cu–Pb–S system from the Amensif carbonate-replacement deposit (western High Atlas, Morocco). Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 161, 85-97.
Schneiderhöhnite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+3As3+5O13
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Schöllhornite
Formula: Na0.3CrS2 · H2O
Reference: Bunch, T.E., Irving, A.J., Wittke, J.H., Kuehner, S.M. (2008) Zincian Brezinaite and Other Rare Minerals in Two Cumulate-textured Aubrites from Northwest Africa. 71st Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society, July 28-August 1, 2008, Matsue, Japan. Meteoritics and Planetary Science Supplement: 43: paper id. 5309.
Schorl
Formula: Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Description: In pegmatitic/hydrothermal veins. In pelitic wallrocks.
Reference: D. Blamart et al. , Eur. Journ. Mineral. , 1992, 4, pp. 355-368.
Schorlomite
Formula: Ca3Ti2(SiO4)(Fe3+O4)2
Schreibersite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)3P
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Reference: http://www.cometshopnew.com/meso.html
Schulenbergite
Formula: (Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
Habit: hexagonal plates, balls
Colour: light greenish blue
Reference: Georges FAVREAU collection
Scorodite
Formula: Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: Collection of RJ Martin based on id by Jean-Pierre Barral and site chemistry
Scorzalite
Formula: Fe2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2
Reference: Favreau, G. (2012): Deux pegmatites à phosphates de Sidi Bou Othmane (Maroc). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2012, 71-109.
Seifertite
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Shohei Kaneko, Eiji Ohtani, Masaaki Miyahara, Takeshi Sakai, Masahiro Kayama, Hirotsugu Nishido, Yasuo Oishi, Naohisa Hirao (2011) Dynamic event recorded in a lunar meteorite NWA 4734. Japan Geooscience Union Meeting Makuhari, Chiba Japan.; Wang, Y., & Hsu, W. (2016). Shock-Induced Metamorphism in the Lunar Meteorite Northwest Africa 4734. LPI Contributions, 1921.
Seligmannite
Formula: PbCuAsS3
Reference: Aouli Essaid, Belov S.V (2015) Structural and Mineralogical Features of the Amesmessa Mineral Deposit in the Algerian Sahara. XII International Conference «New Ideas in Earth Sciences»pp 97-98
Senarmontite (TL)
Formula: Sb2O3
Habit: octahedrons
Colour: gray
Reference: Acta Crystallographica,B31,2016(1975)
'Serpentine Subgroup'
Formula: D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Reference: Jahn, S., Medenbach, O., Lyckberg, P., Lierl, H. J., Bode, R. & Brandstätter, G. (2003): Marokko - Land der schönen Mineralien und Fossilien. Bode Verlag, Haltern, Germany, 543 pp (p.338)
Serpierite
Formula: Ca(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Habit: balls, short crystals
Colour: bright greenish blue
Reference: Georges FAVREAU collection
Sicklerite
Formula: Li1-x(Mn3+xMn2+1-x)PO4
Reference: Fontan, F. (1978) : Etude minéralogique et essais expérimentaux sur les phosphates de fer et de manganèse des pegmatites des Jebilet (Maroc) et des Pyrénées (France), PhD thesis, Toulouse, 272 p.
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 19 localities in this region.
Reference: Jahn, S., Medenbach, O., Lyckberg, P., Lierl, H. J., Bode, R. & Brandstätter, G. (2003): Marokko - Land der schönen Mineralien und Fossilien. Bode Verlag, Haltern, Germany, 543 pp
Siderite var. Manganese-bearing Siderite
Formula: (Fe,Mn)CO3
Reference: Kesraoui, M., & Nedjari, S. (2002). Contrasting evolution of low-P rare metal granites from two different terranes in the Hoggar area, Algeria. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 34(3), 247-257.; Kesraoui Mokrane; Marignac Christian; Verkaeren Jean, 2000: Late magmatic evolution of rare earth granites; example of the Tin-Amzi Cupola Ahaggar, Algeria. Bulletin du Service Geologique de l'Algerie 11(2): 195-216
'Silica'
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Wittmann, A. et al. (2014): M & PS, 49, A437; Wittmann, A. et al. (2015): LPS XLVI, Abstract #1141.
Sillimanite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Description: Zone between granite and metapelites.
Reference: D. Blamart et al. , Eur. Journ. Mineral. , 1992, 4, pp. 355-368.
Silver
Formula: Ag
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Silver var. Arquerite
Formula: (Ag,Hg)
Reference: Oummouch, A., Essaifi, A., Zayane, R., Maddi, O., Zouhair, M., & Maacha, L. (2017). Geology and metallogenesis of the sediment-hosted Cu-Ag deposit of Tizert (Igherm inlier, Anti-Atlas Copperbelt, Morocco). Geofluids, 2017.; Poot, J.; Verhaert, M.; Dekoninck, A.; Oummouch, A.; El Basbas, A.; Maacha, L.; Yans, J. Characterization of Weathering Processes of the Giant Copper Deposit of Tizert (Igherm Inlier, Anti-Atlas, Morocco). Minerals 2020, 10, 620.
Silver var. Kongsbergite
Formula: (Ag,Hg)
Reference: Cheilletz, A., Levresse, G., Gasquet, D., Azizi-Samir, M., Zyadi, R., Archibald, D. A., & Farrar, E. (2002). The giant Imiter silver deposit: Neoproterozoic epithermal mineralization in the Anti-Atlas, Morocco. Mineralium Deposita, 37(8), 772-781.
Silver var. Native Amalgam
Formula: (Ag,Hg)
Reference: Barral, J.-P., Favreau, G. and Lheur, C. (2008). La mine d'argent d'Imiter (Maroc) - Géologie, histoire exploitation et description des espèces minérales. Le Cahier des Micromonteurs 3/2008, 1-110. (in French)
'Sinter var. Siliceous sinter'
Reference: Tuduri, Johann & Chauvet, Alain & Barbanson, Luc & Bourdier, Jean-Louis & Labriki, Mohamed & Ennaciri, A & Badra, Lakhlifi & Dubois, Michel & Ennaciri-Leloix, Christelle & Sizaret, Stanislas & Maacha, L. (2018). The Jbel Saghro Au(-Ag, Cu) and Ag-Hg Metallogenetic Province: Product of a Long-Lived Ediacaran Tectono-Magmatic Evolution in the Moroccan Anti-Atlas. Minerals. 8. 592. 10.3390/min8120592.
Skutterudite
Formula: CoAs3
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
'Smectite Group'
Formula: A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
Reference: F. Choulet, M. Buatier, L. Barbanson, R. Guégan, A. Ennaciri (2016): Zinc-rich clays in supergene non-sulfide zinc deposits. Mineralium Deposita 51, 467–490.
Smithsonite
Formula: ZnCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Reference: Flavien Choulet, Nicolas Charles, Luc Barbanson, Yannick Branquet, Stanislas Sizaret, Aomar Ennaciri, Lakhlifi Badra, Yan Chen (2014): Non-sulfide zinc deposits of the Moroccan High Atlas: Multi-scale characterization and origin. Ore Geology Reviews, 56, 115-140.
Sodalite
Formula: Na4(Si3Al3)O12Cl
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: Cahen, L., Snelling, N. J., Delhal, J., Vail, J. R., Bonhomme, M., & Ledent, D. (1984). The geochronology and evolution of Africa. Clarendon Press, Oxford. Bonin, B., & Lameyre, J. (1978). Relexions sur la position et l'origine des complexes magmatiques anorogeniques. Bulletin de la Société géologique de France, 7(1), 45-59. doi.org/10.2113/gssgfbull.S7-XX.1.45 Lameyre, J., & Lasserre, M. (1967). Etude géochronologique des syénites alcalines et néphéliniques du massif annulaire de Hassi-El-Fogra, Mauritanie du Nord. CR Acad. Sci. Paris, 265, 733-736.
'Sodic amphibole'
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Ba, H., Black, R., Benziane, B., Diombana, D., Hascoet-Fender, J., Bonin, B., ... & Liégeois, J. P. (1985). La province des complexes annulaires alcalins sursaturés de l'Adrar des Iforas, Mali. Journal of African Earth Sciences (1983), 3(1-2), 123-142. doi.org/10.1016/0899-5362(85)90031-4 Black, R., Ba, H., Ball, E., Bertrand, J. M., Boullier, A. M., Caby, R., ... & Wright, L. I. (1979). Outline of the Pan-African geology of adrar des Iforas (Republic of Mali). Geologische Rundschau, 68(2), 543-564. doi.org/10.1007/BF01820806 Liégeois, J. P., & Black, R. (1984). Pétrographie et géochronologie Rb-Sr de la transition calco-alcaline-alcaline fini-Panafricaine dans l'Adrar des Iforas (Mali): accrétion crustale au Précambrien supérieur. In Géologie africaine (pp. 115-145).
'Sodic plagioclase'
Reference: Agard, J. (1960). Les carbonatites et les roches a'silicates et carbonates associe¤ s du massif de roches alcalines du Tamazeght (Haut Atlas de Midelt, Maroc) et les proble'mes de leur gene'se. In Proceedings of the 21st International Geological Congress, Norden, Norway (Vol. 13, pp. 293-303). Aghchmi, E. M. (1984). Les carbonatites filoniennes de l'Oued Tamazeght et leurs relations avec les métasyénites (Haut Atlas de Midelt Maroc). Bernard-Griffiths, J., Fourcade, S., & Dupuy, C. (1991). Isotopic study (Sr, Nd, O and C) of lamprophyres and associated dykes from Tamazert (Morroco): crustal contamination processes and source characteristics. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 103(1-4), 190-199. doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(91)90160-J Bouabdli, A., Dupuy, C., & Dostal, J. (1988). Geochemistry of Mesozoic alkaline lamprophyres and related rocks from the Tamazert massif, High Atlas (Morocco). Lithos, 22(1), 43-58. doi.org/10.1016/0024-4937(88)90028-X Jeremine, E. (1949). Étude pétrographique des roches éruptives et métamorphiques du massif de Bou Agrao. Notes. Serv. Geol. Maroc., 74, 119-147. Jeremine, E., & Dubar, G. (1947). * MINERALOGIE-NOTE SUR LES SYENITES NEPHELINIQUES A EUDIALYTE DU MASSIF ERUPTIF DU BOU AGRAO (HAUT-ATLAS, MAROC). COMPTES RENDUS HEBDOMADAIRES DES SEANCES DE L ACADEMIE DES SCIENCES, 224(13), 1022-1023. Mourtada, S. (1997). Pétrogenèse des carbonatites et contribution à l'étude des minéralisations (NB, Tr, Ba et Sr) associées: exemple du complexe alcalin de Tamazert (Haut-Atlas marocain) (Doctoral dissertation, Clermont-Ferrand 2). Mourtada, S., Le Bas, M. J., & Pin, C. (1997). Pétrogenèse des magnésio-carbonatites du complexe de Tamazert (Haut Atlas marocain). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences-Series IIA-Earth and Planetary Science, 325(8), 559-564. doi.org/10.1016/S1251-8050(97)89455-4 Salvi, S., Fontan, F., Monchoux, P., Williams-Jones, A. E., & Moine, B. (2000). Hydrothermal mobilization of high field strength elements in alkaline igneous systems: evidence from the Tamazeght Complex (Morocco). Economic Geology, 95(3), 559-576. doi.org/10.2113/gsecongeo.95.3.559 Tisserant, D. (1976). DONNEES GEOCHRONOLOGIQUES SUR LE COMPLEXE DE ROCHES ALCALINES DU TAMAZEGHT (HAUT-ATLAS. DE MIDELT), MAROC. Bulletin du Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres, II, 3, 279-283.
Sperrylite
Formula: PtAs2
Reference: El Ghorfi, M., Oberthür, T., Melcher, F., Lüders, V., El Boukhari, A., Maacha, L., Ziadi, R., and Baoutoul, H. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41, 549-564.
Spessartine
Formula: Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Marignac, C. (2001). The Hajjar deposit of Guemassa (SW Meseta, Morocco): a metamor-phosed syn-sedimentary massive sulphide ore body of the Iberian type of volcano-sedimentary massive sulphide deposits. Mineral Deposits at the Beginning of the 21st Century, 281.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Localities: Reported from at least 57 localities in this region.
Reference: Daoudi, L., Mouguina, E. M. (2008): Pb-Zn mineralization of Ali ou Daoud area (Central High Atlas, Morocco): characterisation of deposit and relationship with the clay assemblages. Estudios Geologicos 64(2), 135-150.
Sphalerite var. Schalenblende
Reference: Philip Bluemner Collection
Spherocobaltite
Formula: CoCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Tomasz Praszkier (2010) Lapis, 35, #11, 29-31.
Spinel
Formula: MgAl2O4
Localities: Reported from at least 27 localities in this region.
Reference: Ivanova, M. A. et al (2002): Meteorit.Planet. Sci. 37, 1337-1444.
Spinel var. Pleonaste
Formula: (Mg,Fe)Al2O4
Description: Pleonaste and Cr-Pleonaste appear as two distinct varieties or phases in this meteorite
Reference: Weisberg et al., (2008) Meteoritical Bulletin, no. 94: Meteoritics and Planetary Science 43 (9): 1551-1588. (Sept 2008) ; Anorthite, Diopside, Olivine; Merrillite, Pleonaste, Spinel, Troilite
Spodumene
Formula: LiAlSi2O6
Reference: Fontan, F. (1978) : Etude minéralogique et essais expérimentaux sur les phosphates de fer et de manganèse des pegmatites des Jebilet (Maroc) et des Pyrénées (France), PhD thesis, Toulouse, 272 p.
Stannite
Formula: Cu2FeSnS4
Reference: F. Lotfi, A Belkabir, A.C. Brown, E. Marcoux, S Brunet, and L. Maacha (2008): Geology and Mineralogy of the Hercynian Koudiat Aïcha Polymetallic (Zn-Pb-Cu) Massive Sulfide Deposit, Central Jebilet, Morocco. Exploration and Mining Geology 17, 145-162.; Lotfi, F., Belkabir, A., Brunet, S., Brown, A. C., & Marcoux, E. (2010). Lithogeochemical, mineralogical analyses and oxygen–hydrogen isotopes of the Hercynian Koudiat Aïcha massive sulphide deposit, Morocco. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 56(4), 150-166.
Starkeyite
Formula: MgSO4 · 4H2O
Reference: Rachid Hakkou, Mostafa Benzaazoua and Bruno Bussière (2008): Acid Mine Drainage at the Abandoned Kettara Mine (Morocco): 1. Environmental Characterization. Mine Water and the Environment, 27, 145-159.
Staurolite
Formula: Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)
Reference: D. Blamart et al. , Eur. Journ. Mineral. , 1992, 4, pp. 355-368.
Stephanite
Formula: Ag5SbS4
Reference: Uwe Kolitsch collection (analysed by single-crystal XRD); Barral, J.-P., Favreau, G. and Lheur, C. (2009): Imiter, der größte Silberbergbau Marokkos: Geologie, Bergbaugeschichte und Mineralien. Lapis 34 (12), 15-43; 62 (in German).
Sternbergite
Formula: AgFe2S3
Reference: Barral, J.-P., Favreau, G. and Lheur, C. (2008). La mine d'argent d'Imiter (Maroc) - Géologie, histoire exploitation et description des espèces minérales. Le Cahier des Micromonteurs 3/2008, 1-110. (in French)
Stevensite
Formula: (Ca,Na)xMg3-x(Si4O10)(OH)2
Reference: MINERALOGICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF Mg-SMECTITE FROM JBEL GHASSOUL, MOROCCO, A. Benhammou, B. Tanouti, L. Nibou, A. Yaacoubi and J.-P. Bonnet; Clays and Clay Minerals; v. 57 p. 264 (2009). ANALYSES OF PALYGORSKITES AND ASSOCIATED CLAYS FROM THE JBEL RHASSOUL (MOROCCO) A. Chahi, J. Duplay, J. Luca; Clays and Clay Minerals; v. 41 p. 401 (1993).
Stevensite var. Ghassoulite
Formula: (Ca,Na)xMg3-x(Si4O10)(OH)2
Reference: MINERALOGICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF Mg-SMECTITE FROM JBEL GHASSOUL, MOROCCO, A. Benhammou, B. Tanouti, L. Nibou, A. Yaacoubi and J.-P. Bonnet; Clays and Clay Minerals; v. 57 p. 264 (2009). ANALYSES OF PALYGORSKITES AND ASSOCIATED CLAYS FROM THE JBEL RHASSOUL (MOROCCO) A. Chahi, J. Duplay, J. Luca; Clays and Clay Minerals; v. 41 p. 401 (1993).
Stewartite
Formula: Mn2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. (2012): Deux pegmatites à phosphates de Sidi Bou Othmane (Maroc). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2012, 71-109
'Stibiconite'
Formula: Sb3+Sb5+2O6(OH)
Reference: BARRAL, J.P. (2013): Nador n'Bails - Djebel Hammimat. Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 102, 5-22.
Stibnite
Formula: Sb2S3
Reference: BARRAL, J.P. (2013): Nador n'Bails - Djebel Hammimat. Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 102, 5-22.
Stichtite
Formula: Mg6Cr3+2(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Stilbite-Ca
Formula: NaCa4[Al9Si27O72] · nH2O
Reference: Jordi Fabre specimens
'Stilbite subgroup'
Formula: M6-7[Al8-9Si27-28O72] · nH2O
Reference: Jahn, S., Medenbach, O., Lyckberg, P., Lierl, H. J., Bode, R. & Brandstätter, G. (2003): Marokko - Land der schönen Mineralien und Fossilien. Bode Verlag, Haltern, Germany, 543 pp (p.195)
Stishovite
Formula: SiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Jambon, A., Barrat, J. A., Sautter, V., Gillet, P., Göpel, C., Javoy, M., ... & Lesourd, M. (2002). The basaltic shergottite Northwest Africa 856: Petrology and chemistry. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 37(9), 1147-1164.; Leroux, H., & Cordier, P. (2006). Magmatic cristobalite and quartz in the NWA 856 Martian meteorite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 41(6), 913-923.; Ma, C., Tschauner, O., & Beckett, J. R. (2019). A Closer Look at Martian Meteorites: Discovery of the New Mineral Zagamiite, CaAl2Si3. 5O11, a Shock-Metamorphic, High-Pressure, Calcium Aluminosilicate. LPICo, 2089, 6138.
Stöfflerite (TL)
Formula: CaAl2Si2O8
Type Locality:
Reference: Tschauner, O., Ma, C. (2017): Stöfflerite, IMA 2017-062. CNMNC Newsletter No. 39, October 2017, page 1285; Mineralogical Magazine, 81, 1279–1286; http://forum.amiminerals.it/viewtopic.phpf=5&t=14029&sid=1bd8fea6f10174ac7bdd04a79c06bffd (2017
Stokesite
Formula: CaSn[Si3O9] · 2H2O
Reference: Econ Geol (1989) 84:575-590
Strashimirite ?
Formula: Cu8(AsO4)4(OH)4 · 5H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Strengite
Formula: FePO4 · 2H2O
Reference: WALENTA (1981) Grüner Helvin von Azegour, Der Aufschluß, 32, 443-449
Stromeyerite
Formula: AgCuS
Reference: Barral, J.-P., Favreau, G. and Lheur, C. (2009): Imiter, der größte Silberbergbau Marokkos: Geologie, Bergbaugeschichte und Mineralien. Lapis 34 (12), 15-43; 62 (in German).
Strontianite
Formula: SrCO3
Reference: Agard, J. (1960). Les carbonatites et les roches a'silicates et carbonates associe¤ s du massif de roches alcalines du Tamazeght (Haut Atlas de Midelt, Maroc) et les proble'mes de leur gene'se. In Proceedings of the 21st International Geological Congress, Norden, Norway (Vol. 13, pp. 293-303). Aghchmi, E. M. (1984). Les carbonatites filoniennes de l'Oued Tamazeght et leurs relations avec les métasyénites (Haut Atlas de Midelt Maroc). Bernard-Griffiths, J., Fourcade, S., & Dupuy, C. (1991). Isotopic study (Sr, Nd, O and C) of lamprophyres and associated dykes from Tamazert (Morroco): crustal contamination processes and source characteristics. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 103(1-4), 190-199. doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(91)90160-J Bouabdli, A., Dupuy, C., & Dostal, J. (1988). Geochemistry of Mesozoic alkaline lamprophyres and related rocks from the Tamazert massif, High Atlas (Morocco). Lithos, 22(1), 43-58. doi.org/10.1016/0024-4937(88)90028-X Jeremine, E. (1949). Étude pétrographique des roches éruptives et métamorphiques du massif de Bou Agrao. Notes. Serv. Geol. Maroc., 74, 119-147. Jeremine, E., & Dubar, G. (1947). * MINERALOGIE-NOTE SUR LES SYENITES NEPHELINIQUES A EUDIALYTE DU MASSIF ERUPTIF DU BOU AGRAO (HAUT-ATLAS, MAROC). COMPTES RENDUS HEBDOMADAIRES DES SEANCES DE L ACADEMIE DES SCIENCES, 224(13), 1022-1023. Mourtada, S. (1997). Pétrogenèse des carbonatites et contribution à l'étude des minéralisations (NB, Tr, Ba et Sr) associées: exemple du complexe alcalin de Tamazert (Haut-Atlas marocain) (Doctoral dissertation, Clermont-Ferrand 2). Mourtada, S., Le Bas, M. J., & Pin, C. (1997). Pétrogenèse des magnésio-carbonatites du complexe de Tamazert (Haut Atlas marocain). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences-Series IIA-Earth and Planetary Science, 325(8), 559-564. doi.org/10.1016/S1251-8050(97)89455-4 Salvi, S., Fontan, F., Monchoux, P., Williams-Jones, A. E., & Moine, B. (2000). Hydrothermal mobilization of high field strength elements in alkaline igneous systems: evidence from the Tamazeght Complex (Morocco). Economic Geology, 95(3), 559-576. doi.org/10.2113/gsecongeo.95.3.559 Tisserant, D. (1976). DONNEES GEOCHRONOLOGIQUES SUR LE COMPLEXE DE ROCHES ALCALINES DU TAMAZEGHT (HAUT-ATLAS. DE MIDELT), MAROC. Bulletin du Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres, II, 3, 279-283.
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Svanbergite
Formula: SrAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: Lecolle, Michel; Derre, Colette; Rjimati, Ech Cherki; Fonteilles, Michel; Azza, Addi; Benanni, Abdelhak (1993): A silicated and phosphated peraluminous hydrothermal alteration with associated rutile in the Upper Proterozoic of the Saghro (Anti-​Atlas, Morocco)​. Genesis and metallogenic consequences. Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, Serie II: Mecanique, Physique, Chimie, Sciences de la Terre et de l'Univers 316, 123-130.
Sylvite
Formula: KCl
Reference: A. J. Irving, T. E. Bunch, Alan E. Rubin & John T. Wasson (2010). Northwest Africa 2828/Al Haggounia 001 is a Weathered, Unequilibrated EL Chondrite: Trace Element and Petrologic Evidence. Meteoritics and Planetary Science, Vol. 45, p. A90. [Supplement]
'Synchysite'
Formula: Ca(Ce/Nd/Y/REE)(CO3)2F
Reference: Sauvage, J. F., & Savard, R. (1985). Les complexes alcalins sous-saturés à carbonatites de la région d'In Imanal (Sahara malien): une présentation. Journal of African Earth Sciences (1983), 3(1-2), 143-149. doi.org/10.1016/0899-5362(85)90032-6
Synchysite-(Ce)
Formula: CaCe(CO3)2F
Reference: Khadem Allah, B. (1993); Woolley, A. R. (2001). Alkaline Rocks and Carbonatites of the World: Africa. Geological Society of London.
Synchysite-(Y)
Formula: CaY(CO3)2F
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189.
Taenite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)
Localities: Reported from at least 22 localities in this region.
Reference: Michael K. Weisberg & 7 others (2009). The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 95. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 44(3): 429-462. (March 2009).
Takovite
Formula: Ni6Al2(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2O
Reference: Mills, S.J., Whitfield, P.S., Kampf, A.R., Wilson, S.A., Dipple, G.M., Raudsepp, M., Favreau, G. (2012): Contribution to the crystallography of hydrotalcites: the crystal structures of woodallite and takovite. Journal of Geosciences, 57, 273-279.; Georges Favreau collection; JP Barral collection
Talc
Formula: Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Talmessite
Formula: Ca2Mg(AsO4)2 · 2H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 15 localities in this region.
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68. (in German)
Talmessite var. Cobalt-bearing Talmessite
Formula: Ca2(Mg,Co)(AsO4)2 · 2H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Talmessite var. Nickel-bearing Talmessite
Formula: Ca2(Mg,Ni)(AsO4)2 · 2H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68. (in German)
'Talmessite - β-Roselite Series'
Reference: Favreau, G., Dietrich, J. E., Meisser, N., Brugger, J., Ait Haddouch, L. & Maacha, L. (2007): Bou Azzer, Morocco. Mineralogical Record 38, 345-407
'Tantalite'
Formula: (Mn,Fe)(Ta,Nb)2O6
Reference: Kesraoui, M., & Nedjari, S. (2002). Contrasting evolution of low-P rare metal granites from two different terranes in the Hoggar area, Algeria. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 34(3), 247-257.
Tantalite-(Mn)
Formula: Mn2+Ta2O6
Tavorite
Formula: LiFe3+(PO4)(OH)
Habit: fan-shaped aggregates
Colour: yellowish green
Reference: Favreau, G. (2012): Deux pegmatites à phosphates de Sidi Bou Othmane (Maroc). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2012, 71-109
Tazheranite
Formula: (Zr,Ti,Ca)O2-x
Reference: Ma, C. (2011) Discovery of Meteoritic Lakargiite (CaZrO3), a New Ultra-Refractory Mineral from the Acfer 094 Carbonaceous Chondrite (Abstract-Id.#5169). Meteoritics & Planetary Science, Supplement s1, p. A144. (Sept 2011).
Tellurobismuthite
Formula: Bi2Te3
Reference: Paar, W. H., Putz, H., Topa, D., Roberts, A. C., Stanley, C. J., & Culetto, F. J. (2006). Jonassonite, Au (Bi, Pb) 5S4, a new mineral species from Nagybörzsöny, Hungary. The Canadian Mineralogist, 44(5), 1127-1136.
'Tennantite Subgroup'
Formula: Cu6(Cu4 C2+2)As4S12S
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: Jahn, S., Medenbach, O., Lyckberg, P., Lierl, H. J., Bode, R. & Brandstätter, G. (2003): Marokko - Land der schönen Mineralien und Fossilien. Bode Verlag, Haltern, Germany, 543 pp (p.340)
'Tennantite-Tetrahedrite Series'
Reference: Jébrak, M., Marcoux, E., Nasloubi, M., Zaharaoui, M. (1998): From sandstone- to carbonate-hosted stratabound deposits: an isotope study of galena in the Upper-Moulouya District (Morocco). Mineralium Deposita 33(4), 406-415.
Tetra-auricupride
Formula: AuCu
Reference: El Ghorfi, M., Oberthür, T., Melcher, F., Lüders, V., El Boukhari, A., Maacha, L., Ziadi, R., and Baoutoul, H. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41, 549-564.
Tetradymite
Formula: Bi2Te2S
Reference: Aouli Essaid, Belov S.V (2015) Structural and Mineralogical Features of the Amesmessa Mineral Deposit in the Algerian Sahara. XII International Conference «New Ideas in Earth Sciences»pp 97-98
'Tetrahedrite Subgroup'
Formula: Cu6(Cu4 C2+2)Sb4S12S
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Reference: Tuduri, Johann & Chauvet, Alain & Barbanson, Luc & Bourdier, Jean-Louis & Labriki, Mohamed & Ennaciri, A & Badra, Lakhlifi & Dubois, Michel & Ennaciri-Leloix, Christelle & Sizaret, Stanislas & Maacha, L. (2018). The Jbel Saghro Au(-Ag, Cu) and Ag-Hg Metallogenetic Province: Product of a Long-Lived Ediacaran Tectono-Magmatic Evolution in the Moroccan Anti-Atlas. Minerals. 8. 592. 10.3390/min8120592.
'Tetrahedrite Subgroup var. Argentian Tetrahedrite'
Formula: (Cu,Ag)6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Reference: El Arbaoui, Amal & Amina, Wafik & N'Diaye, Ismaïla & Maacha, L. & Zouhair, Mohamed & Abdelmalek, Ouadjou & Radnaoui, Ahmed. (2015) Mineral resources in a sustainable world Fluids and ore genesis Mineralogical Evolution of the Polymetallic Vein Mineralization at the Roc Blanc Silver Deposit (Jebilet Massif, Variscan Belt, Morocco).
Tetrataenite
Formula: FeNi
Reference: Gattacceca, J. et al. (2017) Young asteroid mixing revealed in ordinary chondrites: The case of NWA 5764, a polymict LL breccia with L clasts: Meteoritics & Planetary Science 52 (11): 2289-2304. (Nov 2017).
Theisite
Formula: Cu5Zn5(AsO4,SbO4)2(OH)14
Habit: balls
Colour: pale green
Description: XRD analysis Nicolas Meisser. Was probably the first occurrence for the mineral in Morocco. Theisite was then found in the Patte d'Oie mine, Bou Skour.
Reference: Georges FAVREAU collection
Thénardite
Formula: Na2SO4
Reference: Joan Rosell - Rosellminerals
Thorianite
Formula: ThO2
Reference: Ba, H., Black, R., Benziane, B., Diombana, D., Hascoet-Fender, J., Bonin, B., ... & Liégeois, J. P. (1985). La province des complexes annulaires alcalins sursaturés de l'Adrar des Iforas, Mali. Journal of African Earth Sciences (1983), 3(1-2), 123-142. doi.org/10.1016/0899-5362(85)90031-4 Black, R., Ba, H., Ball, E., Bertrand, J. M., Boullier, A. M., Caby, R., ... & Wright, L. I. (1979). Outline of the Pan-African geology of adrar des Iforas (Republic of Mali). Geologische Rundschau, 68(2), 543-564. doi.org/10.1007/BF01820806 Liégeois, J. P., & Black, R. (1984). Pétrographie et géochronologie Rb-Sr de la transition calco-alcaline-alcaline fini-Panafricaine dans l'Adrar des Iforas (Mali): accrétion crustale au Précambrien supérieur. In Géologie africaine (pp. 115-145).
Thorite
Formula: Th(SiO4)
Reference: Bea, F., Montero, P., Haissen, F., & El Archi, A. (2013). 2.46 Ga kalsilite and nepheline syenites from the Awsard pluton, Reguibat Rise of the West African Craton, Morocco. Generation of extremely K-rich magmas at the Archean–Proterozoic transition. Precambrian Research, 224, 242-254.
Thorite var. Uranothorite
Formula: (Th,U)SiO4
Reference: Kesraoui, M., & Nedjari, S. (2002). Contrasting evolution of low-P rare metal granites from two different terranes in the Hoggar area, Algeria. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 34(3), 247-257.
Tilasite
Formula: CaMg(AsO4)F
Reference: Heflik W., 1989: Symplectic intergrowths in vulcanites from the Djebel Guettara manganese deposit (Northern Algeria). Mineralogia Polonica, vol. 20(2), 11-28
Tin
Formula: Sn
Description: Thin plates on cassiterite in sheared zones.
Reference: G. Tchimichkian, Bull. Soc. Fr. Minéral. Cristallo. , 1974, 97, pp. 87-88.
Tissintite (TL)
Formula: (Ca,Na,◻)AlSi2O6
Reference: Ma, C., Liu, Y. and Tschauner, O. (2013) Tissintite, IMA 2013-027. CNMNC Newsletter No. 16, August 2013, page 2707; Mineralogical Magazine, 77, 2695-2709; Ma, C., Tschauner, O., Beckett, J.R., Liu, Y., Rossman, G.R., Zhuravlev, K., Prakapenka, V., Dera, P., Taylor, L.A. (2015): Tissintite, (Ca, Na, □)AlSi2O6, a highly-defective, shock-induced, high-pressure clinopyroxene in the Tissint martian meteorite. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 422, 194-205
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Localities: Reported from at least 22 localities in this region.
Reference: Bessoles, B. (1977). GEOLOGIE DE L'AFRIQUE. LE CRATON OUEST AFRICAIN. Memoires du Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres, 88. Cahen, L., Snelling, N. J., Delhal, J., Vail, J. R., Bonhomme, M., & Ledent, D. (1984). The geochronology and evolution of Africa. Clarendon Press, Oxford. Nations Unies 1974. Carte geologique de la dorsale regueibat. et de ses bordures sedimentaires (Partie orientale). Republique Islamique de Mauritanie. Nations Unies, MAU-69-504, 1:500000.
Todorokite
Formula: (Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Reference: FAVREAU G. & DIETRICH J.E. (2006) Tachgagalt (Maroc), Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 93, 37-71. (in French)
Topaz
Formula: Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Suzaki, R., Kolli, O., Mokrane, K., Boutaleb, A., Taguchi, S., Yonezu, K., & Watanabe, K. (2013) Granite Related Mineralization of Tungsten in Hoggar, Southern Algeria. ASEAN Paper ID 109; Kesraoui, M., & Nedjari, S. (2002). Contrasting evolution of low-P rare metal granites from two different terranes in the Hoggar area, Algeria. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 34(3), 247-257.
Torbernite
Formula: Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. (2012): Deux pegmatites à phosphates de Sidi Bou Othmane (Maroc). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2012, 71-109.
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Lecolle, Michel; Derre, Colette; Rjimati, Ech Cherki; Fonteilles, Michel; Azza, Addi; Benanni, Abdelhak (1993): A silicated and phosphated peraluminous hydrothermal alteration with associated rutile in the Upper Proterozoic of the Saghro (Anti-​Atlas, Morocco)​. Genesis and metallogenic consequences. Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, Serie II: Mecanique, Physique, Chimie, Sciences de la Terre et de l'Univers 316, 123-130.
Tranquillityite
Formula: (Fe2+,Ca)8(Zr,Y)2Ti3(SiO4)3O12
Reference: Leroux, H., & Cordier, P. (2006). Magmatic cristobalite and quartz in the NWA 856 Martian meteorite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 41(6), 913-923.
Tremolite
Formula: ◻{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: No reference listed
Tridymite
Formula: SiO2
Reference: http://www.cometshopnew.com/meso.html
Triphylite
Formula: LiFe2+PO4
Reference: FRANSOLET, A.-M. (1974) Les phosphates lithiques des pegmatites de la plaine des Zenaga (Anti-Atlas, Maroc). Notes Serv. géol. Maroc, 35, 137-143
Troilite
Formula: FeS
Localities: Reported from at least 51 localities in this region.
Reference: Michael K. Weisberg & 7 others (2009). The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 95. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 44(3): 429-462. (March 2009).
Tsangpoite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)2(SiO4)
Reference: Hwang, S. L., Shen, P., Chu, H. T., Yui, T. F., Varela, M. E., & Iizuka, Y. (2016, March). Tsangpoite: The Unknown Calcium Silico Phosphate Phase in the Angrite D'Orbigny. In Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (Vol. 47, p. 1466).
Tsumoite
Formula: BiTe
Reference: Ilmen, S., Alansari, A., Bajddi, A., & Maacha, L. (2015). Cu–Au vein mineralization related to the Talat n’Imjjad shear zone (western High Atlas, Morocco): geological setting, ore mineralogy, and geochemical evolution. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 8(7), 5039-5056.
Tuite
Formula: Ca3(PO4)2
Reference: Suporn Boonsuea & John Spraya (2012) Shock-Induced Phase Transformations in Melt Pockets within Martian Meteorite NWA 4468. Spectroscopy Letters: An International Journal for Rapid Communication 45:127-134.
Ullmannite
Formula: NiSbS
Reference: Barral, J.-P., Favreau, G. and Lheur, C. (2008). La mine d'argent d'Imiter (Maroc) - Géologie, histoire exploitation et description des espèces minérales. Le Cahier des Micromonteurs 3/2008, 1-110. (in French)
Ulvöspinel
Formula: TiFe2O4
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Reference: Hu, S., Li, Y., Gu, L., Tang, Xu, Zhang, T., Yamaguchi, A., Lin, Y., Changela, H. (2020): Discovery of coesite from the martian shergottite Northwest Africa 8657. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 286, 404-417. https://www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor/metbull.php?code=61221; Hu, S., Li, Y., Gu, L., Tang, Xu, Zhang, T., Yamaguchi, A., Lin, Y., Changela, H. (2020): Discovery of coesite from the martian shergottite Northwest Africa 8657. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 286, 404-417. https://www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor/metbull.php?code=61221; Hu, S., Li, Y., Gu, L., Tang, Xu, Zhang, T., Yamaguchi, A., Lin, Y., Changela, H. (2020): Discovery of coesite from the martian shergottite Northwest Africa 8657. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 286, 404-417. https://www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor/metbull.php?code=61221
'UM2004-47-SiO:AlCaNa' ?
Formula: (Na,Ca)(Si,Al)6O11
Reference: Beck, P., Gillet, P., Gautron, L., Daniel, I., El Goresy, A. (2004): A new natural high-pressure (Na,Ca)-hexaluminosilicate [(CaxNa1–x)Al3+xSi3–xO11] in shocked Martian meteorites. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett.: 219: 1–12; in: Jambor, J.L., Grew, E.S., (2004): New mineral names. Am. Mineral.: 89: 1833
Uraninite
Formula: UO2
Reference: Kesraoui, M., & Nedjari, S. (2002). Contrasting evolution of low-P rare metal granites from two different terranes in the Hoggar area, Algeria. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 34(3), 247-257.; Kesraoui Mokrane; Marignac Christian; Verkaeren Jean, 2000: Late magmatic evolution of rare earth granites; example of the Tin-Amzi Cupola Ahaggar, Algeria. Bulletin du Service Geologique de l'Algerie 11(2): 195-216
Uranophane
Formula: Ca(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2 · 5H2O
Reference: Michael Cline Collection - Specimen from Otto Ray
Uranospinite
Formula: Ca(UO2)(AsO4)2 · 10H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Uvarovite
Formula: Ca3Cr2(SiO4)3
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Vaesite
Formula: NiS2
Reference: Barral, J.-P., Favreau, G. and Lheur, C. (2008). La mine d'argent d'Imiter (Maroc) - Géologie, histoire exploitation et description des espèces minérales. Le Cahier des Micromonteurs 3/2008, 1-110. (in French)
Valentinite
Formula: Sb2O3
Reference: BARRAL, J.P. (2013): Nador n'Bails - Djebel Hammimat. Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 102, 5-22.
Vanadinite
Formula: Pb5(VO4)3Cl
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Jahn, S., Medenbach, O., Lyckberg, P., Lierl, H. J., Bode, R. & Brandstätter, G. (2003): Marokko - Land der schönen Mineralien und Fossilien. Bode Verlag, Haltern, Germany, 543 pp (p 329)
Vanadinite var. Arsenic-bearing Vanadinite
Formula: Pb5[(V,As)O4]3Cl
Reference: Touissit, Touissit District, Oujda, Morocco
Varlamoffite
Formula: (Sn,Fe)(O,OH)2
Reference: Econ Geol (1989) 84:575-590
Vesuvianite
Formula: Ca19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Reference: Georges FAVREAU collection
Vinogradovite
Formula: Na4Ti4(Si2O6)2[(Si,Al)4O10]O4 · (H2O,Na,K)3
Reference: Khadem Allah, B. (1993)
Vishnevite
Formula: (Na,K)8(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,CO3) · 2H2O
Reference: Bea, F., Montero, P., Haissen, F., & El Archi, A. (2013). 2.46 Ga kalsilite and nepheline syenites from the Awsard pluton, Reguibat Rise of the West African Craton, Morocco. Generation of extremely K-rich magmas at the Archean–Proterozoic transition. Precambrian Research, 224, 242-254.
Vladimirite
Formula: Ca4(AsO4)2(AsO3OH) · 4H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Volynskite
Formula: AgBiTe2
Reference: El Ghorfi, M., Oberthür, T., Melcher, F., Lüders, V., El Boukhari, A., Maacha, L., Ziadi, R., and Baoutoul, H. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41, 549-564.; Bernhard Pracejus (2015) The Ore Minerals Under the Microscope, Volume 3 2nd Edition. Elsevier 1118p
Wakefieldite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce(VO4)
Description: In quartz veins.
Reference: Bull. Minéral. , 1987, 110, pp. 657-663.
Walentaite
Formula: Fe3+3(P0.84As0.16O4)2(O,OH)6As3+2.56Ca0.42Na0.28Mn2+0.35Fe2+0.30O6.1(OH)0.9(H2O)0.9
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Wendwilsonite
Formula: Ca2Mg(AsO4)2 · 2H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68; Meisser, N.; Brugger, J.; Krivovichev, S.; Armbruster, T.; Favreau, G. (2012): Description and crystal structure of maghrebite, MgAl2(AsO4)2(OH)2•8H2O, from Aghbar, Anti-Atlas, Morocco: first arsenate in the laueite mineral group. European Journal of Mineralogy 24, 717-726.
'Whiteite'
Reference: Fontan, F. (1978) : Etude minéralogique et essais expérimentaux sur les phosphates de fer et de manganèse des pegmatites des Jebilet (Maroc) et des Pyrénées (France), PhD thesis, Toulouse, 272 p.
Whitlockite
Formula: Ca9Mg(PO4)6(PO3OH)
Reference: Favreau, G. (2012): Deux pegmatites à phosphates de Sidi Bou Othmane (Maroc). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2012, 71-109
Wickmanite
Formula: Mn2+[Sn(OH)6]
Reference: Econ Geol (1989) 84:575-590
Willemite
Formula: Zn2SiO4
Reference: Flavien Choulet, Nicolas Charles, Luc Barbanson, Yannick Branquet, Stanislas Sizaret, Aomar Ennaciri, Lakhlifi Badra, Yan Chen (2014): Non-sulfide zinc deposits of the Moroccan High Atlas: Multi-scale characterization and origin. Ore Geology Reviews, 56, 115-140.; F. Choulet, M. Buatier, L. Barbanson, R. Guégan, A. Ennaciri (2016): Zinc-rich clays in supergene non-sulfide zinc deposits. Mineralium Deposita 51, 467–490.
Winchite ?
Formula: ◻{CaNa}{Mg4Al}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Description: An analysis published by Byramjee R.and Meindre M.(1956) gives a composition near the richterite-winchite-katophorite join. The composition falls within a katophorite composition following the species definitions outlined in the amphibole nomenclature by Hawthorne et al.(2012). See the katophorite entry for more details.
Reference: Byramjee R.and Meindre M.(1956): Le gisement de manganèse de Guettara. Symposium du manganèse XX congrès international de géologie, Heflik W., 1989: Symplectic intergrowths in vulcanites from the Djebel Guettara manganese deposit (Northern Algeria). Mineralogia Polonica, vol. 20(2), 11-28
Witherite
Formula: BaCO3
Reference: Bea, F., Montero, P., Haissen, F., & El Archi, A. (2013). 2.46 Ga kalsilite and nepheline syenites from the Awsard pluton, Reguibat Rise of the West African Craton, Morocco. Generation of extremely K-rich magmas at the Archean–Proterozoic transition. Precambrian Research, 224, 242-254.
Wittichenite
Formula: Cu3BiS3
Reference: Ilmen, S., Alansari, A., Bajddi, A., & Maacha, L. (2015). Cu–Au vein mineralization related to the Talat n’Imjjad shear zone (western High Atlas, Morocco): geological setting, ore mineralogy, and geochemical evolution. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 8(7), 5039-5056.
Wöhlerite
Formula: NaCa2(Zr,Nb)(Si2O7)(O,OH,F)2
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189. Sauvage, J. F., & Savard, R. (1985). Les complexes alcalins sous-saturés à carbonatites de la région d'In Imanal (Sahara malien): une présentation. Journal of African Earth Sciences (1983), 3(1-2), 143-149. doi.org/10.1016/0899-5362(85)90032-6
'Wolframite'
Formula: (Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
Reference: Ibouh, H., Hibti, M., Saidi, A., & Touil, A. (2011) Azegour, gîte métasomatique à Cu, Mo, W (Haut Atlas occidental) /Azegour Cu-Mo-W Metasomatic Deposit (Western High Atlas) pp 229-233
Wollastonite
Formula: CaSiO3
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Ibouh, H., Hibti, M., Saidi, A., & Touil, A. (2011) Azegour, gîte métasomatique à Cu, Mo, W (Haut Atlas occidental) /Azegour Cu-Mo-W Metasomatic Deposit (Western High Atlas) pp 229-233
Wulfenite
Formula: Pb(MoO4)
Localities: Reported from at least 14 localities in this region.
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Wurtzite
Formula: (Zn,Fe)S
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Wüstite
Formula: FeO
Reference: Buchwald, V. F. (1975) Handbook of Iron Meteorites, vol 2: 632-634. University of California Press.
Wüstite var. Magnesiowüstite
Formula: FeO
Reference: Miyahara, M., Ohtani, E., El Goresy, A., Ozawa, S., & Gillet, P. (2016). Phase transition processes of olivine in the shocked Martian meteorite Tissint: Clues to origin of ringwoodite-, bridgmanite-and magnesiowüstite-bearing assemblages. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 259, 18-28.
Xanthoconite
Formula: Ag3AsS3
Description: Occurs as yellow micro-crystals with proustite in cavities.
Reference: Josef Vajdak / Czech Geoil. Survey. Recent analysis of new material; Uwe Kolitsch collection (analysed by single-crystal XRD)
'Xenotime'
Reference: Kesraoui Mokrane; Marignac Christian; Verkaeren Jean, 2000: Late magmatic evolution of rare earth granites; example of the Tin-Amzi Cupola Ahaggar, Algeria. Bulletin du Service Geologique de l'Algerie 11(2): 195-216
Xenotime-(Y)
Formula: Y(PO4)
'Xylose'
Formula: C5H10O5
Reference: https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2019/11/12/1907169116
Yukonite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+(AsO4)2(OH)3 · 5H2O
Reference: N. Meisser, J. Brugger (2006): "Bouazzerit und Maghrebit, zwei neue Arsenatmineralien aus dem Revier Bou Azzer, Marokko", Lapis 31(7/8), 69-71
Yukonite var. Chromium-bearing Yukonite
Formula: Ca3(Fe3+,Cr)(AsO4)2(OH)3 · 5H2O
Reference: N. Meisser, J. Brugger (2006): "Bouazzerit und Maghrebit, zwei neue Arsenatmineralien aus dem Revier Bou Azzer, Marokko", Lapis 31(7/8), 69-71
Zagamiite
Formula: CaAl2Si3.5O11
Reference: Ma, C., Tschauner, O., & Beckett, J. R. (2019). A Closer Look at Martian Meteorites: Discovery of the New Mineral Zagamiite, CaAl2Si3. 5O11, a Shock-Metamorphic, High-Pressure, Calcium Aluminosilicate. LPICo, 2089, 6138.
Zálesíite
Formula: CaCu6(AsO4)2(AsO3OH)(OH)6 · 3H2O
Reference: Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
'Zeolite Group'
Reference: Agard, J. (1960). Les carbonatites et les roches a'silicates et carbonates associe¤ s du massif de roches alcalines du Tamazeght (Haut Atlas de Midelt, Maroc) et les proble'mes de leur gene'se. In Proceedings of the 21st International Geological Congress, Norden, Norway (Vol. 13, pp. 293-303). Aghchmi, E. M. (1984). Les carbonatites filoniennes de l'Oued Tamazeght et leurs relations avec les métasyénites (Haut Atlas de Midelt Maroc). Bernard-Griffiths, J., Fourcade, S., & Dupuy, C. (1991). Isotopic study (Sr, Nd, O and C) of lamprophyres and associated dykes from Tamazert (Morroco): crustal contamination processes and source characteristics. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 103(1-4), 190-199. doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(91)90160-J Bouabdli, A., Dupuy, C., & Dostal, J. (1988). Geochemistry of Mesozoic alkaline lamprophyres and related rocks from the Tamazert massif, High Atlas (Morocco). Lithos, 22(1), 43-58. doi.org/10.1016/0024-4937(88)90028-X Jeremine, E. (1949). Étude pétrographique des roches éruptives et métamorphiques du massif de Bou Agrao. Notes. Serv. Geol. Maroc., 74, 119-147. Jeremine, E., & Dubar, G. (1947). * MINERALOGIE-NOTE SUR LES SYENITES NEPHELINIQUES A EUDIALYTE DU MASSIF ERUPTIF DU BOU AGRAO (HAUT-ATLAS, MAROC). COMPTES RENDUS HEBDOMADAIRES DES SEANCES DE L ACADEMIE DES SCIENCES, 224(13), 1022-1023. Mourtada, S. (1997). Pétrogenèse des carbonatites et contribution à l'étude des minéralisations (NB, Tr, Ba et Sr) associées: exemple du complexe alcalin de Tamazert (Haut-Atlas marocain) (Doctoral dissertation, Clermont-Ferrand 2). Mourtada, S., Le Bas, M. J., & Pin, C. (1997). Pétrogenèse des magnésio-carbonatites du complexe de Tamazert (Haut Atlas marocain). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences-Series IIA-Earth and Planetary Science, 325(8), 559-564. doi.org/10.1016/S1251-8050(97)89455-4 Salvi, S., Fontan, F., Monchoux, P., Williams-Jones, A. E., & Moine, B. (2000). Hydrothermal mobilization of high field strength elements in alkaline igneous systems: evidence from the Tamazeght Complex (Morocco). Economic Geology, 95(3), 559-576. doi.org/10.2113/gsecongeo.95.3.559 Tisserant, D. (1976). DONNEES GEOCHRONOLOGIQUES SUR LE COMPLEXE DE ROCHES ALCALINES DU TAMAZEGHT (HAUT-ATLAS. DE MIDELT), MAROC. Bulletin du Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres, II, 3, 279-283.
Zeunerite
Formula: Cu(UO2)2(AsO4)2 · 12H2O
Reference: Favreau, G., Dietrich, J. E., Meisser, N., Brugger, J., Ait Haddouch, L. & Maacha, L. (2007): Bou Azzer, Morocco. Mineralogical Record 38, 345-407
Zinkenite
Formula: Pb9Sb22S42
Reference: Kosakevitch, A. (1974): Supergene remobilization of lead in the antimony deposit of Mejmaa Salihine (central Morocco). Comptes Rendus du Congres National des Societes Savantes, Section des Sciences 96 (Volume Date 1971), 637-645 (in French).
'Zinnwaldite'
Reference: Suzaki, R., Kolli, O., Mokrane, K., Boutaleb, A., Taguchi, S., Yonezu, K., & Watanabe, K. (2013) Granite Related Mineralization of Tungsten in Hoggar, Southern Algeria. ASEAN Paper ID 109; Kesraoui, M., & Nedjari, S. (2002). Contrasting evolution of low-P rare metal granites from two different terranes in the Hoggar area, Algeria. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 34(3), 247-257.
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Localities: Reported from at least 25 localities in this region.
Reference: Ba, H., Black, R., Benziane, B., Diombana, D., Hascoet-Fender, J., Bonin, B., ... & Liégeois, J. P. (1985). La province des complexes annulaires alcalins sursaturés de l'Adrar des Iforas, Mali. Journal of African Earth Sciences (1983), 3(1-2), 123-142. doi.org/10.1016/0899-5362(85)90031-4 Black, R., Ba, H., Ball, E., Bertrand, J. M., Boullier, A. M., Caby, R., ... & Wright, L. I. (1979). Outline of the Pan-African geology of adrar des Iforas (Republic of Mali). Geologische Rundschau, 68(2), 543-564. doi.org/10.1007/BF01820806 Liégeois, J. P., & Black, R. (1984). Pétrographie et géochronologie Rb-Sr de la transition calco-alcaline-alcaline fini-Panafricaine dans l'Adrar des Iforas (Mali): accrétion crustale au Précambrien supérieur. In Géologie africaine (pp. 115-145).
Zirconolite
Formula: CaZrTi2O7
Reference: Can Miner. 25, 687-693 (1987)
Zunyite
Formula: Al13Si5O20(OH,F)18Cl
Reference: Berrada, S. H. et al. (2009): Pyrophyllite – zunyite – diaspore mineralization at Chouichiat, Anti-Atlas, Morocco. Can. Mineral. 47, 441-456

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