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Carrock Fell, Cumbria, England, UKi
Regional Level Types
Carrock FellFell
CumbriaCounty
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01496590014947638423858.jpg
Carrock Fell & Caldew Valley

Carrock Fell, Cumbria, England, UK
06778290014952213272686.jpg
Carrock fell, old level..

Carrock Fell, Cumbria, England, UK
Locality type:


Plutonic intrusive complex/tungsten deposit.

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Standard Detailed Gallery Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded from this region.


Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

132 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

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Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Actinolite
Formula: ☐Ca2(Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5)Si8O22OH2
Reference: Harker, A. (1894) Carrock Fell: a study in the variation of igneous rock masses - part I. The Gabbro. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 50, 311-337.; Harker, A. (1895) Carrock Fell: a study in the variation of igneous rock masses - part II The Carrock Fell Granophyre, part III the Grainsgill greisen. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 51, 125-148.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Harker, 1894-1895).
'Agardite'
Habit: minute sprays of needles
Colour: pale green
Description: Identified on a small specimen from the upper west level submitted to MPC by W. van den Berg. EPMA shows the presence of Ce, La, and Nd; Bi was not detected. Small grain size prevented quantitative results. [...] Agardite-mixite has subsequently been identified (BM(NH): XRD) on a specimen from the C.M. Leppington Collection.
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Agardite-(La)
Formula: LaCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
Reference: Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 4, 2000
Aikinite ?
Formula: PbCuBiS3
Habit: minute crystals and compact patches in quartz stringers in the greisen.
Description: Kingsbury reference.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1956) Cosalite and other lead sulpho-salts at Grainsgill, Carrock Fell, Caldbeck, Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 31, n° 235, 296-300.
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Holmes, A. (1917) Albite granophyre and quartz-porphyry from Brandy Gill, Carrock Fell. Geological Magazine, decade 6, 4, 403-407.; Eastwood, T., Hollingworth, S.E., Rose, W.C.C., and Trotter, F.M. (1968) Geology of the country around Cockermouth and Caldbeck. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Holmes, 1917 and Eastwood et al., 1968).
Albite var. Oligoclase
Formula: (Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Reference: Harker, A. (1895) Carrock Fell: a study in the variation of igneous rock masses - part II The Carrock Fell Granophyre, part III the Grainsgill greisen. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 51, 125-148.; Eastwood, T., Hollingworth, S.E., Rose, W.C.C., and Trotter, F.M. (1968) Geology of the country around Cockermouth and Caldbeck. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Harker, 1895 and Eastwood et al., 1968).
'Albite-Anorthite Series'
Reference: Kitchen, C.S. (1934) The Skiddaw Granite and its residual products. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, 90(1-4), 158-200.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Allophane
Formula: (Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Reference: [Cooper & Stanley, 1990, 76 - "Minerals of the English Lake district"]
Almandine
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Eastwood, T., Hollingworth, S.E., Rose, W.C.C., and Trotter, F.M. (1968) Geology of the country around Cockermouth and Caldbeck. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Eastwood et al., 1968).
Alunite ?
Formula: KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Description: Kingsbury reference to a ferrian variety. Kingsbury & Hartley (1958): "pale yellowish-buff, fine-grained, earthy, ferriferous."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1958) Jarosite and natrojarosite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(240), 813-815.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1958).
'Amphibole Supergroup'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Anatase
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Hitchen, C.S. (1934) The Skiddaw Granite and its residual products. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, 90(1-4), 158-200.
Andradite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Description: Specimen in the BM(NH) (Young, 1987).
Reference: Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp. Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Young, 1987).;
Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Description: Associated with the wulfenite (Goodchild, 1875) that was shown by Russell (1936) to have originated here; listed by Hartley (1984).
Reference: Goodchild, J.G. (1875) "Wulfenite" at "Caldbeck Fell". Geological Magazine, 2(11), 565-566.; Russell, A. (1936) Notes on the occurrence of wulfenite at Brandy Gill, Cumberland, and of leadhillite at Drumruck Mine, Kirkcudbrightshire. Mineralogical Magazine, 24(153), 321-323.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (Referring to Goodchild, 1875, Russell, 1936, and Hartley, 1984).
Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Description: As a late infilling in the tungsten veins and in considerable amounts in the 'ankerite veins' (mineralized faults diverging north-westwards from the Emerson vein). Smythe & Dunham (1947) published an analysis of 'ankerite' from the Harding vein, but with only 7.5 wt% Fe this represents a ferroan dolomite.
Reference: Smythe, J.A. and Dunham, K.C. (1947) Ankerites and chalybites from the northern Pennine ore-field and the north-east coalfield. Mineralogical Magazine, 28, 53-73.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Eastwood, T. (1959) The Lake District mining field. pp. 149-174 in Taylor, S.E. (Ed.) The future of non-ferrous mining in Great Britain and Ireland, a symposium. Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, xxvi, 614 pp.; Eastwood, T., Hollingworth, S.E., Rose, W.C.C., and Trotter, F.M. (1968) Geology of the country around Cockermouth and Caldbeck. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Beddoe-Stephens, B. and Fortey, N.J. (1981) Columbite from the Carrock Fell tungsten deposit. Mineralogical Magazine, 44, 217-223.; Brown, M.J. (1983) Mineral investigations at Carrock Fell, Cumbria. Part 2 - Geochemical investigations. Mineral Reconnaissance Programme, Report of the Institute of Geological Sciences n° 60.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; BMS Database
Anorthite
Formula: Ca(Al2Si2O8)
Reference: Eastwood, T., Hollingworth, S.E., Rose, W.C.C., and Trotter, F.M. (1968) Geology of the country around Cockermouth and Caldbeck. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Fortey, N.J. (1978) Mineral parageneses of the Harding vein tungsten deposit, Carrock Fell mine, Cumbria. Mineralogy Unit Report n° 228, Institute of Geological Sciences.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Eastwood et al., 1968 and Fortey, 1978).
Anorthite var. Labradorite
Formula: (Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si2O8]
Reference: Eastwood, T., Hollingworth, S.E., Rose, W.C.C., and Trotter, F.M. (1968) Geology of the country around Cockermouth and Caldbeck. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Fortey, N.J. (1978) Mineral parageneses of the Harding vein tungsten deposit, Carrock Fell mine, Cumbria. Mineralogy Unit Report n° 228, Institute of Geological Sciences.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Eastwood et al., 1968 and Fortey, 1978).
'Anorthoclase'
Formula: (Na,K)AlSi3O8
Reference: Eastwood, T., Hollingworth, S.E., Rose, W.C.C., and Trotter, F.M. (1968) Geology of the country around Cockermouth and Caldbeck. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Eastwood et al., 1968).;
'Apatite'
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Reference: Harker, A. (1894) Carrock Fell: a study in the variation of igneous rock masses - part I. The Gabbro. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 50, 311-337.; Harker, A. (1895) Carrock Fell: a study in the variation of igneous rock masses - part II The Carrock Fell Granophyre, part III the Grainsgill greisen. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 51, 125-148.; Eastwood, T., Hollingworth, S.E., Rose, W.C.C., and Trotter, F.M. (1968) Geology of the country around Cockermouth and Caldbeck. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Harker, 1894-1895 and Eastwood et al., 1968).; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.
'Apatite Group'
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Goodchild, J.G. (1884) Contributions towards a list of minerals occurring in Cumberland and Westmorland [part 2]. Transactions of the Cumberland Association for the Advancement of Literature and Science, 8 (for 1882-1883), 189-204.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Goodchild, 1884, Davidson & Thomson, 1951, and Hartley, 1984).; BMS Database
Arseniosiderite ?
Formula: Ca2Fe3+3(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Habit: drusy, slightly botryoidal aggregates of minute scales
Colour: brown
Description: Kingsbury reference. Kingsbury and Hartley (1957): "drusy, slightly botryoidal aggregates of minute, brown, glistening scales coating quartz and arsenopyrite."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G., and Hartley, J. (1957) New occurrences of arseniosiderite. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 31, n° 237, 499-500.
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.
Augite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Reference: Harker, A. (1895) Carrock Fell: a study in the variation of igneous rock masses - part II The Carrock Fell Granophyre, part III the Grainsgill greisen. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 51, 125-148.; Eastwood, T., Hollingworth, S.E., Rose, W.C.C., and Trotter, F.M. (1968) Geology of the country around Cockermouth and Caldbeck. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Harker, 1895 and Eastwood et al., 1968).
Azurite ?
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Description: Kingsbury reference. Cooper & Stanley (1990): "With gold and malachite etc. on metamorphosed Skiddaw slate from the No. 1 level (north) on the Harding vein (Kingsbury Collection, BM(NH)); Kingsbury, MS2).
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. (xxxx) (MS2) Notes on the occurrence of gold in the Lake District.; Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury and Young, 1987).; BMS Database
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Description: A specimen in the M.W. Thomas Collection (Oxford University Museum) shows cockscomb baryte blades (< 15mm) in a cavity in iron-stained massive baryte.
Reference: Dewey, H. and Dines, H.G. (1923) Tungsten and manganese ores. Special Report on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain, No. 1. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Dewey & Dines, 1923).; BMS Database
Bayldonite
Formula: PbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
Description: occasionally as epimorphs/pseudomorphs after small mimetite crystals (Cooper & Stanley, 1990-1991)
Reference: Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1956) New occurrences of vanadium minerals (mottramite, descloizite, and vanadinite) in the Caldbeck area of Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(235), 289-295.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10, 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.
Beaverite-(Cu) ?
Formula: Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).;
Beryl ?
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Description: Kingsbury reference. Cooper & Stanley (1990): "As small poor crystals in 'gilbertite' in specimens in the Kingsbury & Russell Collections, BM(NH), collected by the former who noted 'from north-west branch (= south drive on the Harding vein) of the new low-level cross-cut to the Harding vein - the vein in which beryl occurs is apparently an early member of the suite; also in iron-stained mica on dump' (Kingsbury, unpublished manuscript). The reference of Lysons & Lysons (1816: cx) to beryl from 'Caldew-beck ... found by the Rev. Mr. Mandall' probably refers to apatite."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. (xxxx) (MS2) Notes on the occurrence of gold in the Lake District.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury and Hartley, 1984).; BMS Database
Beudantite
Formula: PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Habit: granular crusts; small acute rhombohedra; zoned hexagonal plates to 2 mm
Colour: yellow, yellow-green, olive green, greenish-brown, and brown
Description: occasionally as epimorphs/pseudomorphs after mimetite/carminite crystals (Cooper & Stanley, 1990-1991)
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1956) New occurrences of vanadium minerals (mottramite, descloizite, and vanadinite) in the Caldbeck area of Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(235), 289-295.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) Beaverite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(239), 700-702.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10, 22-39.; Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121 (referring to Hartley, 1984).; BMS Collection.
'Biotite'
Formula: K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Reference: Harker, A. (1894) Carrock Fell: a study in the variation of igneous rock masses - part I. The Gabbro. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 50, 311-337.; Eastwood, T., Hollingworth, S.E., Rose, W.C.C., and Trotter, F.M. (1968) Geology of the country around Cockermouth and Caldbeck. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Harker, 1894 and Eastwood et al., 1968).
Bismite
Formula: Bi2O3
Colour: yellowish white
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "the 'bismuth ochre' reported from 'Brandy Gill' as an associate of bismuth (Goodchild, 1882: 104) may have been bismite or bismutite. Bismite has been recorded from Carrock mine 'in minute amounts' as a yellowish white alteration of bismuthinite (Davidson & Thomson, 1951); and from the dumps of an old level 'at, or near, the junction of the east-west lead veins with the Emerson vein at the foot of Brandy Gill' (Hartley, 1984)."
Reference: Goodchild, J.G. (1882) Contributions towards a list of minerals occurring in Cumberland and Westmorland [part 1]. Transactions of the Cumberland Association for the Advancement of Literature and Science, 7 (for 1881-1882), 101-126.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Goodchild, 1882, Davidson & Thomson, 1951 and Hartley, 1984).; BMS Database
Bismuth
Formula: Bi
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.
Bismuthinite
Formula: Bi2S3
Description: Kingsbury reference.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1956) Cosalite and other lead sulpho-salts at Grainsgill, Carrock Fell, Caldbeck, Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 31, n° 235, pp. 296-300.
'Bismuth Ochre'
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "the 'bismuth ochre' reported from 'Brandy Gill' as an associate of bismuth (Goodchild, 1882: 104) may have been bismite or bismutite."
Reference: Goodchild, J.G. (1882) Contributions towards a list of minerals occurring in Cumberland and Westmorland [part 2]. Transactions of the Cumberland Association for the Advancement of Literature and Science, 7 (for 1881-1882), 189-204.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Goodchild, 1882).
Bismutite
Formula: (BiO)2CO3
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Recorded by Hitchen (1934) and listed from the 'main dump' by Hartley (1984). The 'bismuth ochre' reported from 'Brandy Gill' as an associate of bismuth (Goodchild, 1882: 104) may have been bismite or bismutite."
Reference: Goodchild, J.G. (1882) Contributions towards a list of minerals occurring in Cumberland and Westmorland [part 1]. Transactions of the Cumberland Association for the Advancement of Literature and Science, 7 (for 1881-1882), 101-126.; Hitchen, C.S. (1934) The Skiddaw granite and its residual products. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 90, 158-200.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; BMS Database
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Reference: Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Davidson & Thomson, 1951).; BMS Database
Boulangerite ?
Formula: Pb5Sb4S11
Habit: minute acicular crystals or fibres, tufts or wool-like aggregates, or small fibrous patches.
Colour: dark grey
Description: Kingsbury reference.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1956) Cosalite and other lead sulpho-salts at Grainsgill, Carrock Fell, Caldbeck, Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 31, n° 235, 296-300.
Brochantite ?
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Description: Kingsbury reference?
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury and Hartley, 1951 and Hartley, 1984).
Brookite
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Hitchen, C.S. (1934) The Skiddaw granite and its residual products. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 90, 158-200.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Melmore, S. (1920) The metamorphism of the Carrock Fell gabbro; with a note on the origin of the sulphide veins of the Caldbeck Fells. Geological Magazine, 57, 266-268.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Melmore, 1920).; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.
Caledonite ?
Formula: Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Description: Kingsbury reference? Cooper & Stanley (1990): "From the upper west level dumps (Hartley, 1984); specimens in the Kingsbury Collection, BM(NH), show 1-2mm crystals with linarite."
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Carminite
Formula: PbFe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2
Colour: carmine-red
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Vein exposures near the mine, on the east side of Brandy Gill and in the dry tributary valley to the east [NY32403335] have yielded a few fairly rich specimens of carminite as minutes crystals and drusy crusts on quartz with beudantite (D.R. Middleton & M.P. Cooper Collections, det. University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST): IR)." Cooper & Stanley (1991): "occasionally as epimorphs after small mimetite crystals."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) Beaverite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(239), 700-702.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10, 22-39.; Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121 (referring to Hartley, 1984).
Carpholite ?
Formula: Mn2+Al2(Si2O6)(OH)4
Habit: thin, fibrous, radiating aggregates
Colour: pale, almost cream yellow
Description: Kingsbury reference. Kingsbury & Hartley (1957): "thin, fibrous-radiating aggregates in joints in white vein-quartz, specimens collected being derived almost certainly from the Emerson vein of the Carrock Wolfram Mine. In contrast to its more usual deep straw- or wax-yellow colour, the Grains Gill mineral is of a pale, almost cream yellow, and until the quartz is broken appears merely as a faint yellowish staining."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) Carpholite from Cumberland and Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 31, n° 237, 502.; [Specimen in the Natural History Museum, London]
Cassiterite
Formula: SnO2
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "A few small crystal sections, embedded in quartz and mica, were found by Kingsbury in 1953 from the Harding vein 'new low-level cross-cut, south drive' and are represented by specimens in the Russell and Kingsbury Collections, BM(NH). In addition, the King Collection (National Museum of Wales, Cardiff (NMW)) contains a good grey-brown incomplete geniculate twin, originally labelled scheelite, which, if authentic, is undoubtedly the best Carrock specimen extant. It may have been found during the 1940s working and was obtained by King from the H.F. Harwood collection (R.J. King, pers. comm.) The 'ores of tin, both of a resinous and nearly black colour' in a matrix 'nearly as hard as tempered steel', reported by Parson & White (1829) from 'a vein at Brandy Gill near the Caldew' no doubt refer to scheelite and wolframite."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. (MS1) (1953 or later) Investigation of the minerals of the Lake District, especially the Caldbeck area, in collaboration with J. Hartley. List of minerals found by us at many localities examined 1947-.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; BMS Database
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Description: From a dump at the foot of the gill with pyromorphite.
Reference: Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Davidson & Thomson, 1951 and Hartley, 1984).
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Description: The paragenesis of chalcocite here is discussed in detail by Thimmaiah (1956).
Reference: Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Thimmaiah, T. (1956) Mineralisation of the Caldbeck Fells area, Cumberland. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of London.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Davidson & Thomson, 1951, Thimmaiah, 1956, and Hartley, 1984).; BMS Database
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.
Chenevixite
Formula: Cu2Fe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)4
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Chloritoid
Formula: (Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Reference: Eastwood, T., Hollingworth, S.E., Rose, W.C.C., and Trotter, F.M. (1968) Geology of the country around Cockermouth and Caldbeck. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Eastwood et al., 1968).
Chromite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Reference: Eastwood, T., Hollingworth, S.E., Rose, W.C.C., and Trotter, F.M. (1968) Geology of the country around Cockermouth and Caldbeck. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Eastwood et al., 1968).
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Reference: Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Davidson & Thomson, 1951 and Hartley, 1984).; BMS Database
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: Roberts, D.E. (1983) Metasomatism and the formation of greisen in Grainsgill, Cumbria, England. Geological Journal, 18, 43-52.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Roberts, 1983).
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Forms minute grains (exceptionally up to 180µm, but mostly < 30µm) in arsenopyrite, scheelite and carbonate minerals replacing wolframite. Mangano-columbite is the dominant end-member at Carrock (Beddoe-Stephens & Fortey, 1981).
Reference: Beddoe-Stephens, B. and Fortey, N.J. (1981) Columbite from the Carrock Fell tungsten deposit. Mineralogical Magazine, 44, 217-223.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Beddoe-Stephens & Fortey, 1981).; BMS Database
Columbite-(Mn)
Formula: Mn2+Nb2O6
Reference: Beddoe-Stephens, B. and Fortey, N.J. (1981) Columbite from the Carrock Fell tungsten deposit. Mineralogical Magazine, 44, 217-223.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Conichalcite
Formula: CaCu(AsO4)(OH)
Habit: crystalline crust on quartz
Colour: dark green
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Specimens labelled conichalcite are preserved in the Russell and Kingsbury Collections, BM(NH), but Kingsbury seems later to have considered the mineral to be a calcian duftite ('calcioduftite') although the X-ray powder pattern was 'close to (but by no means identical with) that of conichalcite (Kingsbury & Hartley, MS). Conichalcite has been found intimately associated with bayldonite forming a dark green crystalline crust on quartz (det. BM(NH): XRD, B. Young, pers. comm.)."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp. Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1951 and Young, 1987).
Cordierite
Formula: (Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Reference: Stanley, C.J. (1979) Mineralogical studies of copper, lead, zinc, and cobalt mineralization in the English Lake District. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Aston, Birmingham.; Roberts, D.E. (1983) Metasomatism and the formation of greisen in Grainsgill, Cumbria, England. Geological Journal, 18, 43-52.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Stanley, 1979 and Roberts, 1983).
Corundum
Formula: Al2O3
Habit: hexagonal
Colour: bluish grey
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "'Lately found, in opaque bluish-grey hexagonal crystals in nacrite [= muscovite], by Bruce [sic] Wright, at Carrock Fells' (Greg & Lettsom, 1858: 235). A specimen in the BM(NH), BM 89460, collected c. 1855, fits the above description and, apart from the presence of corundum, appears typical of specimens from the Grainsgill greisen. No record of a subsequent find exists."
Reference: Greg, R.P. and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of the Mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. John van Voorst, London, ix. 483 pp. [facsimile reprint, with addenda, by Lapidary Publications, Broadstairs, 1977.]; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Greg & Lettsom, 1858 and Davidson & Thomson, 1951).
Cosalite
Formula: Pb2Bi2S5
Habit: (tufts of) capillary fibres and (compact) fibrous patches
Colour: steel grey; very dark grey with bluish or yellowish tarnish
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Recently identified (by C.J. Stanley) in polished section, in association with bismuthinite, krupkaite, and bismuth tellurides."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1956) Cosalite and other lead sulpho-salts at Grainsgill, Carrock Fell, Caldbeck, Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(235), 296-300.; Thimmaiah, T. (1956) Mineralisation of the Caldbeck Fells area, Cumberland. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of London.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1956, Thimmaiah, 1956, and Hartley, 1984).; BMS Database
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Description: Replacing chalcopyrite (Thimmaiah, 1956).
Reference: Thimmaiah, T. (1956) Mineralisation of the Caldbeck Fells area, Cumberland. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of London.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Thimmaiah, 1956).; BMS Database
Crocoite ?
Formula: PbCr6+O4
Description: Kingsbury reference. Cooper & Stanley (1990): "A specimen in the Kingsbury Collection, BM(NH), with a crudely crystalline orange encrustation with green pyromorphite on a massive galena and quartz matrix was investigated during the present study. It has an associated label: 'pyromorphite with ?mimetite and ?wulfenite on galena and quartz. Shaft on east/west vein near foot of Poddy Gill, Carrock Fell... 1951' in Kingsbury's handwriting. The orange mineral was shown by XRD to be crocoite. The result is an enigma: Kingsbury was too experienced a mineralogist to have missed the obvious possibility of crocoite: in spite of the locality having been heavily collected over the years for wulfenite and pyromorphite, the authors are not aware of other crocoite specimens from here, and the occurrence requires confirmation."
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Cubanite
Formula: CuFe2S3
Reference: Ewart, A. (1957) The Carrock Fell wolfram deposit. Unpublished MSc thesis, University of London.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Ewart, 1957 and Hartley, 1984).; BMS Database
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).
Descloizite ?
Formula: PbZn(VO4)(OH)
Colour: greenish brown, brown, reddish brown
Description: Kingsbury reference.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1956) New occurrences of vanadium minerals (mottramite, descloizite, and vanadinite) in the Caldbeck area of Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(235), 289-295.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1956 and Hartley, 1984).; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121 (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1956).
Devilline ?
Formula: CaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "The only record is that of Van Den Berg (1985) who cannot now substantiate the record by specimen or reference (pers. comm., 1988). Requires confirmation."
Reference: Van Den Berg, W. (1985) Mineralen zoeken in de Caldbeck Fells (Lake District). Gea (Driemaandelijks tijdschrift va de Stichting Geologische Aktiviteiten), 18, 39-48 (in Dutch).; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Van Den Berg, 1985).
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: Smythe, J.A. and Dunham, K.C. (1947) Ankerites and chalybites from the northern Pennine ore-field and the north-east coalfield. Mineralogical Magazine, 28, 53-73.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Fortey, N.J. (1978) Mineral parageneses of the Harding vein tungsten deposit, Carrock Fell mine, Cumbria. Mineralogy Unit Report 228, Institute of Geological Sciences.; Brown, M.J. (1983) Mineral investigations at Carrock Fell, Cumbria. Part 2 - Geochemical investigations. Mineral Reconnaissance Programme, Report of the Institute of Geological Sciences n° 60.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; BMS Database
Dolomite var. Iron-bearing Dolomite
Formula: Ca(Mg,Fe)(CO3)2
Habit: massive
Colour: cream to brown
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Cream to brown, massive, ferroan dolomite is common as a late-stage mineral in the tungsten veins and forms much of the 'ankerite veins' which split off westwards from the Emerson veins. Uncommon as crystals. Smythe & Dunham (1947) published an analysis of 'ankerite' from the Harding vein, but with only 7.5 wt% Fe this represents a ferroan dolomite."
Reference: Smythe, J.A. and Dunham, K.C. (1947) Ankerites and chalybites from the northern Pennine ore-field and the north-east coalfield. Mineralogical Magazine, 28, 53-73.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Smythe & Dunham, 1947).
Duftite
Formula: PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Habit: thin botryoidal coatings
Colour: pale emerald green to deep moss green
Description: occasionally as epimorphs/pseudomorphs after small mimetite crystals (Cooper & Stanley, 1990-1991)
Reference: Claringbull, G.F. (1951) New occurrences of duftite. Mineralogical Magazine, 29, 609-614.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Guillemin, C. (1956) Contribution à la minéralogie des arséniates, phosphates et vanadates de cuivre. Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie et Crystallographie, 79, 7-95.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121 (referring to Hartley, 1984).; Clark, A.M. (1993) Hey's Mineral Index: mineral species, varieties and synonyms.
Duftite var. Calcio-duftite
Formula: (Pb,Ca)CuAsO4(OH)
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): Kingsbury & Hartley claimed that material they had collected resembled, but was not identical with duftite was actually an intermediate between duftite and conichalcite. They coined the term 'calcio-duftite' for this mineral on the basis of the intermediate nature of the x-ray powder spacings and a qualitative (spectrographic) analysis that showed significant calcium. Claringbull also mentioned the affinity of the x-ray pattern of Brandy Gill duftite with conichalcite and commented on the variation of refractive index within individual spherules of the mineral which, he suggested, resulted from a corresponding variation in composition with the core being richer in lead than the outer areas.
Reference: Claringbull, G.F. (1951) New occurrences of duftite. Mineralogical Magazine, 29, 609-614.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Duftite var. Duftite-β
Formula: PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Most duftite from Brandy Gill appears to be β-duftite as defined by Guillemin (1956: 70), who re-examined Claringbull's (1951) x-ray data. Infra-red absorption spectrophotometry readily distinguishes α- and β-duftite and also shows the predominance of the latter at this locality (R.S.W. Braithwaite, pers. comm.)."
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
'Duftite-alpha'
Formula: PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Habit: globular masses
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "a few specimens recently examined appear to be α-duftite which, at Brandy Gill, forms small globular masses on quartz (M.P. Cooper Collection, det. P.J. Dunn, Smithsonian Institution: XRD) or minute crystals with agardite-mixite (det. BM(NH): XRD, C.M. Leppington, pers. comm.)"
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Enstatite
Formula: Mg2Si2O6
Reference: Harker, A. (1895) Carrock Fell: a study in the variation of igneous rock masses - part II The Carrock Fell Granophyre, part III the Grainsgill greisen. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 51, 125-148.; Eastwood, T., Hollingworth, S.E., Rose, W.C.C., and Trotter, F.M. (1968) Geology of the country around Cockermouth and Caldbeck. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Harker, 1895 and Eastwood et al., 1968).
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Eastwood, T., Hollingworth, S.E., Rose, W.C.C., and Trotter, F.M. (1968) Geology of the country around Cockermouth and Caldbeck. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Eastwood et al., 1968).
'Feldspar Group'
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Ferrimolybdite
Formula: Fe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
Habit: fibrous to powdery
Colour: yellow
Reference: Sowerby, J. (1804-1817) British mineralogy: or coloured figures intended to elucidate the mineralogy of Great Britain. Published by the author, London, 5 volumes (1817: Note 9).; Lévy, A. (1837) Description d'une collection de minéraux formée par M. Henri Heuland et appartenant à M. Ch. Hampden Turner... London, 3 volumes and atlas.; Greg, R.P. and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of the mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. John Van Voorst, London, ix, 483 pp. [facsimile reprint, with addenda, by Lapidary Publications, Broadstairs, 1977].; Jenkinson, H.I. (1875) Practical guide to the English Lake District, 4th ed., Carlisle [a chapter on 'Mineralogy' (pp. lxxi-xciii) was contributed by Bryce M. Wright Jr and was reprinted in all subsequent editions].; Hitchen, C.S. (1934) The Skiddaw granite and its residual products. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 90, 158-200.; Palache, C., Berman, H., and Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley & Sons, New York, xi, 1124 pp.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; BMS Database
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Reference: Finlayson, A.M. (1910) The ore-bearing pegmatites of Carrock Fell. Geological Magazine, 7, 19-28. (analysis of "apatite" from Carrock mine showing it to be a fluorapatite).; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Finlayson, 1910).; TVM Specimen - Ex Mike Gough
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Reference: Kitchen, C. S. (1934). The Skiddaw Granite and its residual products. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, 90(1-4), 158-200.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-122.
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Gold
Formula: Au
Reference: No reference listed
Grossular
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Description: Specimen in the BM(NH) (Young, 1987).
Reference: Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Young, 1987).
'Grünlingite' ?
Description: Kingsbury reference.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1956) Cosalite and other lead sulpho-salts at Grainsgill, Carrock Fell, Caldbeck, Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 31, n° 235, pp. 296-300.
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Habit: crystalline crust on quartz
Colour: white
Description: In the BM(NH) Collection from the No. 3 level (Young, 1987).
Reference: Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Young, 1987).; BMS Database
Hedenbergite
Formula: CaFe2+Si2O6
Reference: Eastwood, T., Hollingworth, S.E., Rose, W.C.C., and Trotter, F.M. (1968) Geology of the country around Cockermouth and Caldbeck. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Eastwood, 1968).
Hedleyite
Formula: Bi7Te3
Description: grains up to 200µm in greisen in the BM(NH) collection
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; BMS Database
Hedyphane
Formula: Ca2Pb3(AsO4)3Cl
Habit: club-shaped aggregates of prismatic crystals
Colour: creamy
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "As club-shaped aggregates of creamy prismatic crystals to 2mm with duftite on quartz on a few specimens found in situ in the top west level in 1985 (det. BM(NH): XRD; R. Starkey, pers. comm., 1985). The first British record."
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Thimmaiah, T. (1956) Mineralisation of the Caldbeck Fells area, Cumberland. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of London.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Thimmaiah, 1956).
Hisingerite
Formula: Fe3+2(Si2O5)(OH)4 · 2H2O
Description: From the upper west level dump.
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).
'Hornblende'
Reference: Goodchild, J.G. (1885) Contributions towards a list of minerals occurring in Cumberland and Westmorland [part 3]. Transactions of the Cumberland Association for the Advancement of Literature and Science, 9 (for 1883-1884), 175-199.; Harker, A. (1894) Carrock Fell: a study in the variation of igneous rock masses - part I. The Gabbro. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 50, 311-337.; Harker, A. (1895) Carrock Fell: a study in the variation of igneous rock masses - part II The Carrock Fell Granophyre, part III the Grainsgill greisen. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 51, 125-148.; Eastwood, T., Hollingworth, S.E., Rose, W.C.C., and Trotter, F.M. (1968) Geology of the country around Cockermouth and Caldbeck. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Goodchild, 1885, Harker, 1894-1895, and Eastwood et al., 1968).
Hübnerite
Formula: MnWO4
Reference: No reference listed
Hydrocerussite ?
Formula: Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2
Habit: minute pearly plates in quartz
Description: Kingsbury reference. Specimens from the Kingsbury Collection (BM(NH)) from the lead vein at the foot of the gill.
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).
'Hypersthene'
Formula: (Mg,Fe)SiO3
Reference: Goodchild, J.G. (1885) Contributions towards a list of minerals occurring in Cumberland and Westmorland [part 3]. Transactions of the Cumberland Association for the Advancement of Literature and Science, 9 (for 1883-1884), 175-199.; Harker, A. (1894) Carrock Fell: a study in the variation of igneous rock masses - part I. The Gabbro. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 50, 311-337.; Eastwood, T., Hollingworth, S.E., Rose, W.C.C., and Trotter, F.M. (1968) Geology of the country around Cockermouth and Caldbeck. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Goodchild, 1885, Harker, 1894, and Eastwood et al., 1968).
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Reference: Harker, A. (1894) Carrock Fell: a study in the variation of igneous rock masses - part I. The Gabbro. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 50, 311-337.; Eastwood, T., Hollingworth, S.E., Rose, W.C.C., and Trotter, F.M. (1968) Geology of the country around Cockermouth and Caldbeck. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Harker, 1894 and Eastwood et al., 1968).; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.
Ingodite
Formula: Bi2TeS
Reference: Zav'yalov, E.N. and Begizov, V.D. (1981) The new bismuth mineral ingodite, Bi2TeS. Zapiski Vsesoyuznogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva, 110, 594-600 (in Russian) [Mineralogical Abstracts, 33, 82M/3350; American Mineralogist, 62, 855 (1982)].; Zav'yalov, E.N. and Begizov, V.D. (1981) Once more on the problem of grünlingite. Zapiski Vsesoyuznogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva, 110, 633-635. [Mineralogical Abstracts, 33, 82M/3316; American Mineralogist, 62, 855 (1982)].; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Zav'yalov and Begizov, 1981).; Cook, N.J., Ciobanu, C.L., Wagner, T., and Stanley, C.J. (2007) Minerals of the system Bi–Te–Se–S related to the tetradymite archetype: review of classification and compositional variation. The Canadian Mineralogist, 45(4), 665-708.
Jamesonite ?
Formula: Pb4FeSb6S14
Habit: minute acicular crystals or fibres, tufts or wool-like aggregates, or small fibrous patches.
Colour: dark grey
Description: Kingsbury reference.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1956) Cosalite and other lead sulpho-salts at Grainsgill, Carrock Fell, Caldbeck, Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 31, n° 235, 296-300.
Jarosite ?
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Description: Kingsbury reference. Kingsbury & Hartley (1958): "crusts of very small golden-yellow to brown crystals on white vein-quartz from the 'granitic' suite of veins; it is associated with pale yellowish-buff, fine-grained, earthy ferriferous alunite (B.M. 1956, 76; 1958, 43)."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1958) Jarosite and natrojarosite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(240), 813-815.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1958).
'Joséite'
Formula: Bi4TeS2
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cook, N.J., Ciobanu, C.L., Wagner, T., and Stanley, C.J. (2007) Minerals of the system Bi–Te–Se–S related to the tetradymite archetype: review of classification and compositional variation. The Canadian Mineralogist, 45(4), 665-708.; BMS Database
Joséite-A
Formula: Bi4TeS2
Reference: Peacock, M.A. (1941) On josëite, grünlingite, oruetite. University of Toronto Studies, Geology Series, 46, 83-105.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Zav'yalov, E.N. and Begizov, V.D. (1981) The new bismuth mineral ingodite, Bi2TeS. Zapiski Vsesoyuznogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva, 110, 594-600 (in Russian) [Mineralogical Abstracts, 33, 82M/3350; American Mineralogist, 62, 855 (1982)].; Zav'yalov, E.N. and Begizov, V.D. (1981) Once more on the problem of grünlingite. Zapiski Vsesoyuznogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva, 110, 633-635. [Mineralogical Abstracts, 33, 82M/3316; American Mineralogist, 62, 855 (1982)].; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Joséite-B
Formula: Bi4Te2S
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): Specimens in the BM(NH) labelled tetradymite and grünlingite contain joséite-B (among other species).
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cook, N.J., Ciobanu, C.L., Wagner, T., and Stanley, C.J. (2007) Minerals of the system Bi–Te–Se–S related to the tetradymite archetype: review of classification and compositional variation. The Canadian Mineralogist, 45(4), 665-708.; BMS Database
Krupkaite
Formula: PbCuBi3S6
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Electron microprobe analyses (by CJS) of a mineral replacing bismuthinite in a telluride-rich specimen (BM(NH)) give a formula consistent with that of krupkaite. Grains are minute (30-60µm)."
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; BMS Database
Leadhillite
Formula: Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Habit: poorly crystalline aggregates
Colour: brownish
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Minute, poorly crystalline brownish aggregates on quartz have been identified (BM(NH): XRD) as leadhillite-susannite (B. Yates Collection)."
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Linarite
Formula: PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).
Lindgrenite ?
Formula: Cu3(MoO4)2(OH)2
Habit: bladed
Colour: dark olive-green
Description: Kingsbury reference. Cooper & Stanley (1990): "The first (and only) British occurrence (Kingsbury & Hartley, 1955). The mineral was found in specimens from the dumps of the eastern level as small (< 1.5mm), dark olive-green bladed crystals on a yellowish-green crystalline mineral (which 'gives [an x-ray powder] pattern and spacings very close to those of the well-known pale blue Cumberland plumbogummite' op. cit.: 724.) It was found in cavities in granophyre presumed to be from the vein wall. Only a few specimens were obtained (Kingsbury and Russell Collections, BM(NH)) and, despite the exertions of a generation of collectors, none has been found since."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1955) On the occurrence of the rare copper molybdate, lindgrenite, at Brandy Gill, Carrock Fell. Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 30(230), 723-726.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10, 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121 (referring to Hartley, 1984).
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Harker, A. (1894) Carrock Fell: a study in the variation of igneous rock masses - part I. The Gabbro. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 50, 311-337.; Harker, A. (1895) Carrock Fell: a study in the variation of igneous rock masses - part II The Carrock Fell Granophyre, part III the Grainsgill greisen. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 51, 125-148.; Melmore, S. (1920) The metamorphism of the Carrock Fell gabbro; with a note on the origin of the sulphide veins of the Caldbeck Fells. Geological Magazine, 57, 266-268.; Eastwood, T., Hollingworth, S.E., Rose, W.C.C., and Trotter, F.M. (1968) Geology of the country around Cockermouth and Caldbeck. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Harker, 1894-1895, Melmore, 1920, and Eastwood et al., 1968).
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. (xxxx) (MS2) Notes on the occurrence of gold in the Lake District.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Davidson & Thomson, 1951, Kingsbury, and Hartley, 1984).; BMS Database
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Brown, M.J. (1983) Mineral investigations at Carrock Fell, Cumbria. Part 2 - Geochemical investigations. Mineral Reconnaissance Programme, Report of the Institute of Geological Sciences n° 60.; Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; BMS Database
'Mica Group'
Colour: yellow
Reference: Hitchen, C.S. (1934) The Skiddaw granite and its residual products. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 90, 158-200.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hitchen, 1934).;
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Colour: pale pink to cream-coloured
Description: Crystals often almost wholly converted into yellow mica in the vicinity of molybdenite-bearing fissures in quartz in a vein a few metres east of the Emerson vein.
Reference: Hitchen, C.S. (1934) The Skiddaw granite and its residual products. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 90, 158-200.; Fortey, N.J. (1978) Mineral parageneses of the Harding vein tungsten deposit, Carrock Fell mine, Cumbria. Mineralogy Unit Report 228, Institute of Geological Sciences.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hitchen, 1934 and Fortey, 1978).; BMS Database
Mimetite
Formula: Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Reference: Hall, T.M. (1868): The Mineralogist's Directory. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.; Cooper & Stanley, 1987, pp. 108-113 - "Minerals of the Caldbeck Fells"
'Mimetite-Pyromorphite Series'
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "The mineral occurs as small flakes and veinlets disseminated in quartz and muscovite or concentrated along vein-greisen boundaries. It is common in microscopic amounts in most of the sulphide, sulpharsenide and telluride mineral assemblages from this locality."
Reference: Sowerby, J. (1804-1817) British mineralogy: or coloured figures intended to elucidate the mineralogy of Great Britain. Published by the author, London, 5 volumes.; Lysons, D. and Lysons, S. (1816) Magna Brittania; being a concise topographical account of the several counties of Great Britain, vol. 4 Cumberland. Cadell and Davies, London, 200 pp.; Borie, Mr (1817) Caldbeck Fells. Annals of Philosophy, 9, 161.; Phillips, W. (1819) An elementary introduction to the knowledge of mineralogy. William Phillips, London, 325 pp. [1st edition].; Jameson, R. (1820) A system of mineralogy in which minerals are arranged according to the natural history method. Archibald Constable, Edinburgh, 3 vols. [2nd edition].; Phillips, W. (1823) An elementary introduction to the knowledge of mineralogy... with accounts of the places and circumstances in which they are found; and especially the localities of British minerals. 3rd edition. Published by the author, London. 407 pp.; Lévy, A. (1837) Description d'une collection de minéraux formée par M. Henri Heuland et appartenant à M. Ch. Hampden Turner... London, 3 volumes and atlas.; Greg, R.P. and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of the mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. John Van Voorst, London, ix, 483 pp. [facsimile reprint, with addenda, by Lapidary Publications, Broadstairs, 1977].; Hall, T.M. (1868) The Mineralogist's Directory: or a guide to the principal mineral localities in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.; Finlayson, A.M. (1910) The ore-bearing pegmatites of Carrock Fell. Geological Magazine, 7, 19-28.; Hitchen, C.S. (1934) The Skiddaw granite and its residual products. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 90, 158-200.; Fortey, N.J. (1978) Mineral parageneses of the Harding vein tungsten deposit, Carrock Fell mine, Cumbria. Mineralogy Unit Report 228, Institute of Geological Sciences.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.;
Mottramite
Formula: PbCu(VO4)(OH)
Habit: minute globular patches and aggregates; well-formed but minute crystals; drusy botryoidal aggregates with fibrous structure.
Colour: yellowish green to dark olive green, greenish brown, brown, reddish brown to dark brown.
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Recently, in the form of minute sharp bipyramidal crystals of an unusually pale green colour on bayldonite (?) (P. Braithwaite Collection, det. BM(NH): XRD).
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1956) New occurrences of vanadium minerals (mottramite, descloizite, and vanadinite) in the Caldbeck area of Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(235), 289-295.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous Mineral Localities: Pyromorphite Group Minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121 (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1956).
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Fortey, N.J. (1978) Mineral parageneses of the Harding vein tungsten deposit, Carrock Fell mine, Cumbria. Mineralogy Unit Report n° 228, Institute of Geological Sciences.; Roberts, D.E. (1983) Metasomatism and the formation of greisen in Grainsgill, Cumbria, England. Geological Journal, 18, 43-52.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Fortey, 1978 and Roberts, 1983).
Muscovite var. Gilbertite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Hall, T.M. (1868) The Mineralogist's Directory: or a guide to the principal mineral localities in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Muscovite var. Illite
Formula: K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Reference: Ineson, P.R. and Mitchell, J.G. (1974) K-Ar isotopic age determinations from some Lake District mineral localities. Geological Magazine, 111, 521-537.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Ineson & Mitchell, 1974).
Muscovite var. Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Olivenite ?
Formula: Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
Habit: tufts of minute needles
Colour: very pale green
Description: Kingsbury reference. Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Small tufts of minute, very pale green needles in cavities in quartz from the dumps below the Harding vein (Kingsbury & Hartley, MS)."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1951 and Hartley, 1984).; BMS Database
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Harker, A. (1895) Carrock Fell: a study in the variation of igneous rock masses - part II The Carrock Fell Granophyre, part III the Grainsgill greisen. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 51, 125-148.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Harker, 1895).
Pectolite
Formula: NaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Reference: Melmore, S. (1920) The metamorphism of the Carrock Fell gabbro; with a note on the origin of the sulphide veins of the Caldbeck Fells. Geological Magazine, 57, 266-268.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Melmore, 1920).
Petitjeanite
Formula: Bi3(PO4)2O(OH)
Reference: Rumsey, M.S., et al., (2007): UK Journal of Mines & Minerals (28), 47-50
Pharmacosiderite
Formula: KFe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Description: T.F. Bridges (pers. comm., 1984).
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to T.F. Bridges).; BMS Database
Pitticite ?
Formula: (Fe, AsO4, H2O) (?)
Habit: resinous
Colour: dark reddish brown
Description: Kingsbury reference.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1951 and Hartley, 1984).
Plumbogummite ?
Formula: PbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Colour: pale yellowish green
Description: Based solely on a Kingsbury reference? Cooper & Stanley (1990): "A pale yellowish green crystalline mineral associated with lindgrenite from the east level gave an X-ray powder photograph close to that of the 'well-known pale blue Cumberland plumbogummite' (Kingsbury & Hartley, 1955: 724). Also recorded from the upper west level (Hartley, 1984)."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1955) On the occurrence of the rare copper molybdate, lindgrenite, at Brandy Gill, Carrock Fell, Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 30(230), 723-726.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1955 and Hartley, 1984).
Plumbojarosite
Formula: Pb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Young, 1987).
Powellite
Formula: Ca(MoO4)
Description: The first British occurrence (Hartley, 1984).
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).; BMS Database
Prehnite
Formula: Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Reference: Eastwood, T., Hollingworth, S.E., Rose, W.C.C., and Trotter, F.M. (1968) Geology of the country around Cockermouth and Caldbeck. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Eastwood et al., 1968).
Preisingerite
Formula: Bi3(AsO4)2O(OH)
Reference: Rumsey, M.S. (2007): UK Journal of Mines & Minerals (28), 51-53
'Psilomelane'
Formula: Mn, O
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Kitchen, C. S. (1934). The Skiddaw Granite and its residual products. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, 90(1-4), 158-200.
Pyrolusite
Formula: Mn4+O2
Reference: Day, F.H. (1928) Some notes on the minerals of the Caldbeck Fells. Transactions of the Carlisle Natural History Society, 4, 66-79.; Dunham, K.C. and Hollingworth, S.E. (1947) Excursion to Penrith and the north-west. Mineralogical Magazine, 28, 248-254.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Day, 1928 and Dunham & Hollingworth, 1947).
Pyromorphite
Formula: Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Habit: minutely crystalline crusts
Colour: (pale) green
Description: From an old trial at the foot of the Gill.
Reference: Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Davidson & Thomson, 1951 and Hartley, 1984).
'Pyroxene Group'
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe1-xS
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.
Quartz var. Rock Crystal
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Hall, T.M. (1868): The Mineralogist's Directory. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.
Rhodochrosite ?
Formula: MnCO3
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Listed by Fortey (1978) but Fortey & Bland (1979) state 'rhodochrosite may be present but has not yet been located by the present writer.' The occurrence is doubtful."
Reference: Fortey, N.J. (1978) Mineral parageneses of the Harding vein tungsten deposit, Carrock Fell mine, Cumbria. Mineralogy Unit Report 228, Institute of Geological Sciences.; Fortey, N.J. and Bland, D.J. (1979) Heavy mineral dispersion profiles in altered granite at Carrock Fell mine, Cumbria. Applied Mineralogy Unit Report No. 245, Institution of Geological Sciences.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Rooseveltite
Formula: Bi(AsO4)
Reference: Rumsey, M.S. (2007): UK Journal of Mines & Minerals (28), 51-53
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Hitchen, C.S. (1934) The Skiddaw granite and its residual products. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 90, 158-200.; Eastwood, T., Hollingworth, S.E., Rose, W.C.C., and Trotter, F.M. (1968) Geology of the country around Cockermouth and Caldbeck. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Eastwood et al., 1968).
Scheelite
Formula: Ca(WO4)
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.
Scorodite
Formula: Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Description: As an alteration of massive arsenopyrite.
Reference: Hitchen, C.S. (1934) The Skiddaw granite and its residual products. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 90, 158-200.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; BMS Database
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990: "From an unspecified site ('the only locality in the Lake District') with galena and cerussite (Wright, in Jenkinson, 1875: lxxxi)."
Reference: Jenkinson, H.I. (1875) Practical guide to the English Lake District, 4th ed. Carlisle [a chapter on 'Mineralogy' (pp. lxxi-xcii) was contributed by Bryce M. Wright Jr and was reprinted in all subsequent editions].; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Wright in Jenkinson, 1875).
'Sodic plagioclase'
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.
Stibnite
Formula: Sb2S3
Reference: Greg, R.P. and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of Mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland, London, p. 375.; Hall, T.M. (1868) The Mineralogist's Directory, London, p. 53.; Postlethwaite, J. (1913) Mines and mining in the Lake District, 3rd edition, Whitehaven, p. 60.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1956) Cosalite and other lead sulpho-salts at Grainsgill, Carrock Fell, Caldbeck, Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 31, n° 235, pp. 296-300.
Stilbite-Ca ?
Formula: NaCa4[Al9Si27O72] · nH2O
Description: Erroneous entry for stibnite (Hartley, 1984) (Hartley, pers. comm., 1988).
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; BMS Database
Stolzite
Formula: Pb(WO4)
Habit: plates; pseudocubic
Colour: orange-yellow
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "EPM analysis of several different habits of the 'wulfenite' well known from the E-W lead vein at the foot of Poddy Gill, showed considerable amounts of tungsten in all samples tested. The technique used did not, however, allow the detection of molybdenum and some specimens may be merely tungstatian wulfenite (M. Rothwell, pers. comm.). Follow-up EPM and XRD analysis at the BM(NH) on a specimen provided by N. Hubbard, bearing small orange-yellow pseudo-cubic crystals on pyromorphite-mimetite, showed the mineral in question to be almost pure stolzite. It is too early to say the proportion of stolzite to wulfenite that occurs here but a re-examination of the XRD film taken at the BM(NH) for Braithwaite et al. (1963) confirms that their specimen was wulfenite."
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Strengite
Formula: FePO4 · 2H2O
Description: D. McCallum pers. comm. (det. BM(NH): XRD).
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to D. McCallum).; BMS Database
Susannite
Formula: Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990) list it as "leadhillite-susannite" from the B. Yates Collection (det. BM(NH): XRD).
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Sylvanite ?
Formula: (Au,Ag)2Te4
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "The presence of sylvanite in 'grünlingite' is mentioned in a letter of 1943 from W. Hemingway to Anthony Wilson (leaseholder of the mine) preserved in the Cumbria Record Office, Carlisle (DX/955/3v.). No other reference can be found."
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; BMS Database
Talc
Formula: Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Reference: Hall, T.M. (1868): The Mineralogist's Directory. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.
Tetradymite ?
Formula: Bi2Te2S
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Specimens in the BM(NH) recently examined by CJS using optical and electron microprobe techniques show that those [specimens] labelled tetradymite contain mostly ingodite and joséite-B. [...] However, Clarke (1974) records an analysis (EPMA) of a Carrock mine sample that corresponds to tetradymite. Requires confirmation."
Reference: Greg, R.P. and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of the mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. John Van Voorst, London, ix, 483 pp. [facsimile reprint, with addenda, by Lapidary Publications, Broadstairs, 1977].; Hall, T.M. (1868) The Mineralogist's Directory: or a guide to the principal mineral localities in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.; Goodchild, J.G. (1882) Contributions towards a list of minerals occurring in Cumberland and Westmorland [part 1]. Transactions of the Cumberland Association for the Advancement of Literature and Science, 7 (for 1881-1882), 101-126.; Day, F.H. (1928) Some notes on the minerals of the Caldbeck Fells. Transactions of the Carlisle Natural History Society, 4, 66-79.; Clarke, G.M. (1974) The mineralogy and geochemistry of tellurium with special reference to the bismuth sulphotellurides. Unpublished MSc thesis, University College, Cardiff.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
'Tetrahedrite Subgroup'
Formula: Cu6(Cu4X2+2)Sb4S12S
Description: As inclusions in iron-rich sphalerite (Thimmaiah, 1956).
Reference: Thimmaiah, T. (1956) Mineralisation of the Caldbeck Fells area, Cumberland. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of London.; Ewart, A. (1957) The Carrock Fell wolfram deposit. Unpublished MSc thesis, University of London.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Thimmaiah, 1956 and Ewart, 1957).; BMS Database
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Reference: Eastwood, T., Hollingworth, S.E., Rose, W.C.C., and Trotter, F.M. (1968) Geology of the country around Cockermouth and Caldbeck. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Eastwood et al., 1968).;
Topaz
Formula: Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Reference: Thimmaiah, T. (1956) Mineralisation of the Caldbeck Fells area, Cumberland. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of London.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Thimmaiah, 1956).
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: No reference listed
Tremolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Harker, A. (1894) Carrock Fell: a study in the variation of igneous rock masses - part I. The Gabbro. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 50, 311-337.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Harker, 1894).
Tungstite
Formula: WO3 · H2O
Habit: powdery
Colour: yellow
Description: alteration product of wolframite.
Reference: Greg, R.P. and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of the mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. John Van Voorst, London, ix, 483 pp. [facsimile reprint, with addenda, by Lapidary Publications, Broadstairs, 1977].; Goodchild, J.G. (1884) Contributions towards a list of minerals occurring in Cumberland and Westmorland [part 2]. Transactions of the Cumberland Association for the Advancement of Literature and Science, 8 (for 1882-1883), 189-204.; Rudler, F.W. (1905) A handbook to a collection of the minerals of the British Islands ... in the Museum of Practical Geology ... London. H.M.S.O. London, x, 241 pp.; Finlayson, A.M. (1910) The ore-bearing pegmatites of Carrock Fell. Geological Magazine, 7, 19-28.; Hitchen, C.S. (1934) The Skiddaw granite and its residual products. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 90, 158-200.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; BMS Database
Uraninite
Formula: UO2
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Found as minute grains (0.01 - 0.20mm) in the greisen wall-rock of a vein 'immediately west of the former smithy serving Carrock Mine'. Since radioactivity was restricted to the vicinity of the vein, the authors (Dawson & Harrison, 1966) suggested that the uraninite was associated with the vein mineralization."
Reference: Dawson, J. and Harrison, R.K. (1966) Uraninite in the Grainsgill Greisen, Cumberland. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Great Britain, 25, 91.; Ball, T.K., Fortey, N.J., and Shepherd, T.J. (1985) Mineralisation at the Carrock Fell Tungsten Mine, N. England: Paragenetic, fluid inclusion and geochemical study. Mineralium Deposita, 20, 57-65.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; BMS Database
Vanadinite
Formula: Pb5(VO4)3Cl
Habit: short-prismatic or barrel-shaped crystals or globular aggregates; radiating fibrous crystals
Colour: cream to grey; pale buff to reddish brown
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990 and 1991) mention (apart from the Kingsbury finds) a single specimen collected by T. Wolloxall from Brandy Gill Lead mine which has been identified by XRD at the BM(NH).
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1956) New occurrences of vanadium minerals (mottramite, descloizite, and vanadinite) in the Caldbeck area of Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(235), 289-295.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous Mineral Localities: Pyromorphite-Group Minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. The Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.
'Wolframite'
Formula: (Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.
Wulfenite
Formula: Pb(MoO4)
Habit: thick rectangular (pseudocubic) and often elongated (bar-shaped) tablets; bipyramidal; up to 2 mm in length.
Colour: orange-yellow
Description: From a small weathered dump at the foot of Poddy Gill.
Reference: Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Braithwaite, R.S.W., Greenland, T.B., and Ryback, G. (1963) Wulfenite from Poddy Gill, Caldbeck Fells. Mineralogical Magazine, 33(263), 720.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Davidson & Thomson, 1951 and Braithwaite et al., 1963).
Xenotime-(Y)
Formula: Y(PO4)
Reference: Dawson, J. and Harrison, R.K. (1966) Uraninite in the Greinsgill greisen, Cumberland. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Great Britain, 25, 91.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Dawson & Harrison, 1966).
Zinkenite ?
Formula: Pb9Sb22S42
Habit: minute acicular crystals or fibres, tufts or wool-like aggregates, or small fibrous patches.
Colour: dark grey
Description: Kingsbury reference.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1956) Cosalite and other lead sulpho-salts at Grainsgill, Carrock Fell, Caldbeck, Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 31, n° 235, 296-300.; Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols (1990) Handbook of Mineralogy, vol. 1 (http://www.handbookofmineralogy.org/pdfs/zinkenite.pdf states the occurrence of zinkenite at Carrock Fell, but not specifically from Grainsgill).
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Reference: Harker, A. (1895) Carrock Fell: a study in the variation of igneous rock masses - part II The Carrock Fell Granophyre, part III the Grainsgill greisen. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 51, 125-148.; Holmes, A. (1917) Albite granophyre and quartz-porphyry from Brandy Gill, Carrock Fell. Geological Magazine, decade 6, 4, 403-407.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Harker, 1895 and Holmes, 1917).;

Gallery:

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Bismuth1.CA.05Bi
Gold1.AA.05Au
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Aikinite ?2.HB.05aPbCuBiS3
Arsenopyrite2.EB.20FeAsS
Bismuthinite2.DB.05Bi2S3
Bornite2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
Boulangerite ?2.HC.15Pb5Sb4S11
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Cosalite2.JB.10Pb2Bi2S5
Covellite2.CA.05aCuS
Cubanite2.CB.55aCuFe2S3
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Hedleyite2.DC.05Bi7Te3
Ingodite2.DC.05Bi2TeS
Jamesonite ?2.HB.15Pb4FeSb6S14
Joséite-B2.DC.05Bi4Te2S
Krupkaite2.HB.05aPbCuBi3S6
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Molybdenite2.EA.30MoS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe1-xS
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Stibnite2.DB.05Sb2S3
Sylvanite ?2.EA.05(Au,Ag)2Te4
Tetradymite ?2.DC.05Bi2Te2S
'Tetrahedrite Subgroup'2.GB.05Cu6(Cu4X2+2)Sb4S12S
Zinkenite ?2.JB.35aPb9Sb22S42
Group 3 - Halides
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Anatase4.DD.05TiO2
Bismite4.CB.60Bi2O3
Brookite4.DD.10TiO2
Cassiterite4.DB.05SnO2
Chromite4.BB.05Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Columbite-(Mn)4.DB.35Mn2+Nb2O6
Corundum4.CB.05Al2O3
Cuprite4.AA.10Cu2O
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Hübnerite4.DB.30MnWO4
Ilmenite4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Pyrolusite4.DB.05Mn4+O2
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var. Rock Crystal4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Tungstite4.FJ.10WO3 · H2O
Uraninite4.DL.05UO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Ankerite5.AB.10Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Aragonite5.AB.15CaCO3
Azurite ?5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Bismutite5.BE.25(BiO)2CO3
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
var. Iron-bearing Dolomite5.AB.10Ca(Mg,Fe)(CO3)2
Hydrocerussite ?5.BE.10Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2
Leadhillite5.BF.40Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Rhodochrosite ?5.AB.05MnCO3
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Susannite5.BF.40Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Alunite ?7.BC.10KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Anglesite7.AD.35PbSO4
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Beaverite-(Cu) ?7.BC.10Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Brochantite ?7.BB.25Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Caledonite ?7.BC.50Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Crocoite ?7.FA.20PbCr6+O4
Devilline ?7.DD.30CaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Ferrimolybdite7.GB.30Fe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Jarosite ?7.BC.10KFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Linarite7.BC.65PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Lindgrenite ?7.GB.05Cu3(MoO4)2(OH)2
Plumbojarosite7.BC.10Pb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Powellite7.GA.05Ca(MoO4)
Scheelite7.GA.05Ca(WO4)
Stolzite7.GA.05Pb(WO4)
Wulfenite7.GA.05Pb(MoO4)
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Agardite-(La)8.DL.15LaCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
Arseniosiderite ?8.DH.30Ca2Fe3+3(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Bayldonite8.BH.45PbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
Beudantite8.BL.05PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Carminite8.BH.30PbFe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2
Chenevixite8.DD.05Cu2Fe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)4
Conichalcite8.BH.35CaCu(AsO4)(OH)
Descloizite ?8.BH.40PbZn(VO4)(OH)
Duftite8.BH.35PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
var. Calcio-duftite8.BH.35(Pb,Ca)CuAsO4(OH)
var. Duftite-β8.BH.35PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Fluorapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
Hedyphane8.BN.05Ca2Pb3(AsO4)3Cl
Mimetite8.BN.05Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Mottramite8.BH.40PbCu(VO4)(OH)
Olivenite ?8.BB.30Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
Petitjeanite8.BO.10Bi3(PO4)2O(OH)
Pharmacosiderite8.DK.10KFe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Pitticite ?8.DB.05(Fe, AsO4, H2O) (?)
Plumbogummite ?8.BL.10PbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Preisingerite8.BO.10Bi3(AsO4)2O(OH)
Pyromorphite8.BN.05Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Rooseveltite8.AD.50Bi(AsO4)
Scorodite8.CD.10Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Strengite8.CD.10FePO4 · 2H2O
Vanadinite8.BN.05Pb5(VO4)3Cl
Xenotime-(Y)8.AD.35Y(PO4)
Group 9 - Silicates
Actinolite9.DE.10☐Ca2(Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5)Si8O22OH2
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
var. Oligoclase9.FA.35(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Allophane9.ED.20(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Almandine9.AD.25Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Andradite9.AD.25Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Anorthite9.FA.35Ca(Al2Si2O8)
var. Labradorite9.FA.35(Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si2O8]
'Anorthoclase'9.FA.30(Na,K)AlSi3O8
Augite9.DA.15(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Beryl ?9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Carpholite ?9.DB.05Mn2+Al2(Si2O6)(OH)4
Chloritoid9.AF.85(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Chrysocolla9.ED.20Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Clinochlore9.EC.55Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Cordierite9.CJ.10(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Enstatite9.DA.05Mg2Si2O6
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Grossular9.AD.25Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Hedenbergite9.DA.15CaFe2+Si2O6
Hisingerite9.ED.10Fe3+2(Si2O5)(OH)4 · 2H2O
Microcline9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var. Gilbertite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var. Illite9.EC.15K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
var. Sericite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Orthoclase9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Pectolite9.DG.05NaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Prehnite9.DP.20Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Stilbite-Ca ?9.GE.10NaCa4[Al9Si27O72] · nH2O
Talc9.EC.05Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Topaz9.AF.35Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Tremolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Agardite'-
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Apatite Group'-
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Bismuth Ochre'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'-
'Duftite-alpha'-PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
'Feldspar Group'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Grünlingite' ?-
'Hornblende'-
'Hypersthene'-(Mg,Fe)SiO3
'Joséite'-Bi4TeS2
Joséite-A-Bi4TeS2
'Mica Group'-
'Mimetite-Pyromorphite Series'-
'Psilomelane'-Mn, O
'Pyroxene Group'-
'Sodic plagioclase'-
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'Wolframite'-(Fe2+)WO4to (Mn2+)WO4

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Semi-metals and non-metals
Bismuth1.3.1.4Bi
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 4:3
Hedleyite2.6.3.3Bi7Te3
'Joséite'2.6.2.1Bi4TeS2
Joséite-B2.6.2.2Bi4Te2S
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Ingodite2.8.20.4Bi2TeS
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe1-xS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
Cubanite2.9.13.1CuFe2S3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Bismuthinite2.11.2.3Bi2S3
Stibnite2.11.2.1Sb2S3
Tetradymite ?2.11.7.1Bi2Te2S
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Molybdenite2.12.10.1MoS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Sylvanite ?2.12.13.3(Au,Ag)2Te4
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
3 <ø < 4
'Tetrahedrite Subgroup'3.3.6.1Cu6(Cu4X2+2)Sb4S12S
ø = 3
Aikinite ?3.4.5.1PbCuBiS3
Krupkaite3.4.5.2PbCuBi3S6
2.5 < ø < 3
Boulangerite ?3.5.2.1Pb5Sb4S11
Cosalite3.5.9.1Pb2Bi2S5
2 < ø < 2.49
Jamesonite ?3.6.7.1Pb4FeSb6S14
1 < ø < 2
Zinkenite ?3.8.1.1Pb9Sb22S42
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
A2X3
Bismite4.3.10.2Bi2O3
Corundum4.3.1.1Al2O3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
AX2
Anatase4.4.4.1TiO2
Brookite4.4.5.1TiO2
Cassiterite4.4.1.5SnO2
Pyrolusite4.4.1.4Mn4+O2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
AX3
Tungstite4.5.2.1WO3 · H2O
Group 5 - OXIDES CONTAINING URANIUM OR THORIUM
AXO2·xH2O
Uraninite5.1.1.1UO2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Chromite7.2.3.3Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 8 - MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
AB2O6
Columbite-(Mn)8.3.2.4Mn2+Nb2O6
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Rhodochrosite ?14.1.1.4MnCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
AB(XO3)2
Ankerite14.2.1.2Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite ?16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Hydrocerussite ?16a.2.2.1Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2
Bismutite16a.3.5.1(BiO)2CO3
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 17 - COMPOUND CARBONATES
Miscellaneous
Leadhillite17.1.2.1Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Susannite17.1.3.1Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anglesite28.3.1.3PbSO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Brochantite ?30.1.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Alunite ?30.2.4.1KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Beaverite-(Cu) ?30.2.5.7Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Jarosite ?30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Linarite30.2.3.1PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Plumbojarosite30.2.5.6Pb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)5(XO4)2Zq·xH2O
Devilline ?31.6.1.1CaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Group 32 - COMPOUND SULFATES
Anhydrous Compound Sulfates containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Caledonite ?32.3.2.1Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Group 35 - ANHYDROUS CHROMATES
AXO4
Crocoite ?35.3.1.1PbCr6+O4
Group 38 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, AND VANADATES
AXO4
Rooseveltite38.4.4.1Bi(AsO4)
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
(AB)5(XO4)2·xH2O
Scorodite40.4.1.3Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Strengite40.4.1.2FePO4 · 2H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Bayldonite41.5.14.1PbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
Conichalcite41.5.1.2CaCu(AsO4)(OH)
Descloizite ?41.5.2.1PbZn(VO4)(OH)
Duftite41.5.1.4PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
'Duftite-alpha'41.5.2.5PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Mottramite41.5.2.2PbCu(VO4)(OH)
A2(XO4)Zq
Olivenite ?41.6.6.1Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
Hedyphane41.8.2.1Ca2Pb3(AsO4)3Cl
Mimetite41.8.4.2Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pyromorphite41.8.4.1Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Vanadinite41.8.4.3Pb5(VO4)3Cl
(AB)3(XO4)2Zq
Carminite41.10.6.1PbFe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2
Petitjeanite41.10.10.1Bi3(PO4)2O(OH)
Preisingerite41.10.9.1Bi3(AsO4)2O(OH)
Group 42 - HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Chenevixite42.7.10.1Cu2Fe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)4
Plumbogummite ?42.7.3.5PbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
(AB)5(XO4)3Zq·xH2O
Arseniosiderite ?42.8.4.3Ca2Fe3+3(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Pharmacosiderite42.8.1a.1KFe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Group 43 - COMPOUND PHOSPHATES, ETC.
Anhydrous Compound Phosphates, etc·, Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Beudantite43.4.1.1PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Hydrated Compound Phosphates, etc·, Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Pitticite ?43.5.3.1(Fe, AsO4, H2O) (?)
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Hübnerite48.1.1.1MnWO4
Powellite48.1.2.2Ca(MoO4)
Scheelite48.1.2.1Ca(WO4)
Stolzite48.1.3.2Pb(WO4)
Wulfenite48.1.3.1Pb(MoO4)
Basic Anhydrous Molybdates and Tungstates
Lindgrenite ?48.3.1.1Cu3(MoO4)2(OH)2
Group 49 - HYDRATED MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
Hydrated Normal Molybdates and Tungstates
Ferrimolybdite49.2.1.1Fe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Almandine51.4.3a.2Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Andradite51.4.3b.1Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Grossular51.4.3b.2Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] coordination only
Chloritoid52.3.3.1(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Topaz52.3.1.1Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
Beryl ?61.1.1.1Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Six-Membered Rings with Al substituted rings
Cordierite61.2.1.1(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Augite65.1.3a.3(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Carpholite ?65.1.5.1Mn2+Al2(Si2O6)(OH)4
Enstatite65.1.2.1Mg2Si2O6
Hedenbergite65.1.3a.2CaFe2+Si2O6
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=3
Pectolite65.2.1.4aNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Tremolite66.1.3a.1☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Allophane71.1.5.1(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Hisingerite71.1.5.2Fe3+2(Si2O5)(OH)4 · 2H2O
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var. Illite71.2.2d.2K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Talc71.2.1.3Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Clinochlore71.4.1.4Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Group 72 - PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 4-membered rings
Prehnite72.1.3.1Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Group 74 - PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
Modulated Layers with joined strips
Chrysocolla74.3.2.1Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
'Anorthoclase'76.1.1.6(Na,K)AlSi3O8
Microcline76.1.1.5K(AlSi3O8)
Orthoclase76.1.1.1K(AlSi3O8)
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
Stilbite-Ca ?77.1.4.3NaCa4[Al9Si27O72] · nH2O
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Actinolite-☐Ca2(Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5)Si8O22OH2
'Agardite'-
Agardite-(La)-LaCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
Albite
var. Oligoclase
-(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Anorthite-Ca(Al2Si2O8)
var. Labradorite-(Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si2O8]
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Apatite Group'-
Aragonite-CaCO3
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Bismuth Ochre'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'-
Dolomite
var. Iron-bearing Dolomite
-Ca(Mg,Fe)(CO3)2
Duftite
var. Calcio-duftite
-(Pb,Ca)CuAsO4(OH)
var. Duftite-β-PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
'Feldspar Group'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Grünlingite' ?-
'Hornblende'-
'Hypersthene'-(Mg,Fe)SiO3
Joséite-A-Bi4TeS2
'Mica Group'-
'Mimetite-Pyromorphite Series'-
Muscovite
var. Gilbertite
-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var. Sericite-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
'Psilomelane'-Mn, O
'Pyroxene Group'-
Quartz
var. Rock Crystal
-SiO2
'Sodic plagioclase'-
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'Wolframite'-(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
Xenotime-(Y)-Y(PO4)

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
H Chloritoid(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
H Actinolite☐Ca2(Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5)Si8O22OH2
H BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
H PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
H TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
H Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
H Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
H ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
H FerrimolybditeFe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
H ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
H StrengiteFePO4 · 2H2O
H TungstiteWO3 · H2O
H PreisingeriteBi3(AsO4)2O(OH)
H PetitjeaniteBi3(PO4)2O(OH)
H Muscovite var. GilbertiteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
H Muscovite var. SericiteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Muscovite var. IlliteK0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
H BayldonitePbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
H BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
H Duftite var. Calcio-duftite(Pb,Ca)CuAsO4(OH)
H CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
H ChenevixiteCu2Fe23+(AsO4)2(OH)4
H ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)
H DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H HisingeriteFe23+(Si2O5)(OH)4 · 2H2O
H LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
H MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
H PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
H SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
H Agardite-(La)LaCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
H Duftite-alphaPbCu(AsO4)(OH)
H Duftite var. Duftite-βPbCu(AsO4)(OH)
H Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
H AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
H CarpholiteMn2+Al2(Si2O6)(OH)4
H ArseniosideriteCa2Fe33+(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
H HydrocerussitePb3(CO3)2(OH)2
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
H Stilbite-CaNaCa4[Al9Si27O72] · nH2O
H Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
H BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
H CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
H DescloizitePbZn(VO4)(OH)
H DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
H Pitticite(Fe, AsO4, H2O) (?)
H PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
H LindgreniteCu3(MoO4)2(OH)2
BeBeryllium
Be BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
BBoron
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C CerussitePbCO3
C AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
C Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C AragoniteCaCO3
C Dolomite var. Iron-bearing DolomiteCa(Mg,Fe)(CO3)2
C LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
C SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
C SideriteFeCO3
C HydrocerussitePb3(CO3)2(OH)2
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
C RhodochrositeMnCO3
C CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
OOxygen
O ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
O ScheeliteCa(WO4)
O QuartzSiO2
O CalciteCaCO3
O Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
O Chloritoid(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
O HedenbergiteCaFe2+Si2O6
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
O CorundumAl2O3
O Actinolite☐Ca2(Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5)Si8O22OH2
O AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
O AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
O Anorthoclase(Na,K)AlSi3O8
O Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
O BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
O EnstatiteMg2Si2O6
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
O HematiteFe2O3
O Hypersthene(Mg,Fe)SiO3
O Anorthite var. Labradorite(Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si2O8]
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O Albite var. Oligoclase(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
O OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
O PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
O PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
O Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
O AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
O HübneriteMnWO4
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O RutileTiO2
O BrookiteTiO2
O AnataseTiO2
O ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)
O CerussitePbCO3
O LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
O PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
O StolzitePb(WO4)
O WulfenitePb(MoO4)
O Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
O AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
O BaryteBaSO4
O BismiteBi2O3
O Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
O CassiteriteSnO2
O ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O FerrimolybditeFe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
O MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
O PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
O PowelliteCa(MoO4)
O ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
O StrengiteFePO4 · 2H2O
O TungstiteWO3 · H2O
O UraniniteUO2
O AragoniteCaCO3
O PreisingeriteBi3(AsO4)2O(OH)
O RooseveltiteBi(AsO4)
O PetitjeaniteBi3(PO4)2O(OH)
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O Quartz var. Rock CrystalSiO2
O Muscovite var. GilbertiteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
O Muscovite var. SericiteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Dolomite var. Iron-bearing DolomiteCa(Mg,Fe)(CO3)2
O Columbite-(Mn)Mn2+Nb2O6
O Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
O Muscovite var. IlliteK0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
O AnglesitePbSO4
O BayldonitePbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
O BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
O Duftite var. Calcio-duftite(Pb,Ca)CuAsO4(OH)
O CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
O ChenevixiteCu2Fe23+(AsO4)2(OH)4
O ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)
O CupriteCu2O
O DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O HedyphaneCa2Pb3(AsO4)3Cl
O HisingeriteFe23+(Si2O5)(OH)4 · 2H2O
O LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
O MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
O PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
O PsilomelaneMn, O
O SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
O VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
O Agardite-(La)LaCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
O Duftite-alphaPbCu(AsO4)(OH)
O Duftite var. Duftite-βPbCu(AsO4)(OH)
O Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
O PyrolusiteMn4+O2
O SideriteFeCO3
O AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
O CarpholiteMn2+Al2(Si2O6)(OH)4
O ArseniosideriteCa2Fe33+(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
O HydrocerussitePb3(CO3)2(OH)2
O CrocoitePbCr6+O4
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
O OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
O Stilbite-CaNaCa4[Al9Si27O72] · nH2O
O Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
O RhodochrositeMnCO3
O BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
O CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
O DescloizitePbZn(VO4)(OH)
O DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
O Pitticite(Fe, AsO4, H2O) (?)
O PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
O LindgreniteCu3(MoO4)2(OH)2
FFluorine
F ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
F BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
F TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
F FluoriteCaF2
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
F Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na Anorthoclase(Na,K)AlSi3O8
Na Anorthite var. Labradorite(Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si2O8]
Na Albite var. Oligoclase(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Na PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Na Stilbite-CaNaCa4[Al9Si27O72] · nH2O
MgMagnesium
Mg Chloritoid(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Mg Actinolite☐Ca2(Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5)Si8O22OH2
Mg Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Mg BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Mg EnstatiteMg2Si2O6
Mg Hypersthene(Mg,Fe)SiO3
Mg Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Mg AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Mg Dolomite var. Iron-bearing DolomiteCa(Mg,Fe)(CO3)2
Mg Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
AlAluminium
Al Chloritoid(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al CorundumAl2O3
Al AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al Anorthoclase(Na,K)AlSi3O8
Al BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Al Anorthite var. Labradorite(Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si2O8]
Al Albite var. Oligoclase(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Al OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Al PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Al TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Al AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Al Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Al ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Al MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Al Muscovite var. GilbertiteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Muscovite var. SericiteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Al Muscovite var. IlliteK0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Al ChenevixiteCu2Fe23+(AsO4)2(OH)4
Al Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Al AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Al CarpholiteMn2+Al2(Si2O6)(OH)4
Al BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Al Stilbite-CaNaCa4[Al9Si27O72] · nH2O
Al PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
Si Chloritoid(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Si HedenbergiteCaFe2+Si2O6
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si Actinolite☐Ca2(Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5)Si8O22OH2
Si AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Si Anorthoclase(Na,K)AlSi3O8
Si Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Si BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Si EnstatiteMg2Si2O6
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Si Hypersthene(Mg,Fe)SiO3
Si Anorthite var. Labradorite(Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si2O8]
Si Albite var. Oligoclase(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Si OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Si PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Si PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Si Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
Si AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Si ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Si ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Si MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Si Quartz var. Rock CrystalSiO2
Si Muscovite var. GilbertiteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Si Muscovite var. SericiteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Si Muscovite var. IlliteK0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Si HisingeriteFe23+(Si2O5)(OH)4 · 2H2O
Si Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Si CarpholiteMn2+Al2(Si2O6)(OH)4
Si BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Si Stilbite-CaNaCa4[Al9Si27O72] · nH2O
PPhosphorus
P ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
P Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)
P PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
P StrengiteFePO4 · 2H2O
P PetitjeaniteBi3(PO4)2O(OH)
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
P PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
SSulfur
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S PyrrhotiteFe1-xS
S SphaleriteZnS
S GalenaPbS
S StibniteSb2S3
S BismuthiniteBi2S3
S PyriteFeS2
S LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
S BaryteBaSO4
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S ChalcociteCu2S
S CosalitePb2Bi2S5
S CovelliteCuS
S CubaniteCuFe2S3
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S IngoditeBi2TeS
S JoséiteBi4TeS2
S Joséite-BBi4Te2S
S KrupkaitePbCuBi3S6
S MarcasiteFeS2
S MolybdeniteMoS2
S Tetrahedrite SubgroupCu6(Cu4X22+)Sb4S12S
S Joséite-ABi4TeS2
S AnglesitePbSO4
S BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
S LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
S PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
S SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
S AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
S ZinkenitePb9Sb22S42
S AikinitePbCuBiS3
S JamesonitePb4FeSb6S14
S BoulangeritePb5Sb4S11
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
S TetradymiteBi2Te2S
S Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
S BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
S CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
S DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
ClChlorine
Cl ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Cl PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
Cl MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Cl HedyphaneCa2Pb3(AsO4)3Cl
Cl VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
Cl Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
KPotassium
K Anorthoclase(Na,K)AlSi3O8
K BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
K OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
K PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
K Muscovite var. GilbertiteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K Muscovite var. SericiteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K Muscovite var. IlliteK0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
K AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
CaCalcium
Ca ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Ca ScheeliteCa(WO4)
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca HedenbergiteCaFe2+Si2O6
Ca Actinolite☐Ca2(Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5)Si8O22OH2
Ca AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Ca Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Ca Anorthite var. Labradorite(Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si2O8]
Ca Albite var. Oligoclase(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Ca PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Ca PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ca Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca PowelliteCa(MoO4)
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
Ca Dolomite var. Iron-bearing DolomiteCa(Mg,Fe)(CO3)2
Ca Duftite var. Calcio-duftite(Pb,Ca)CuAsO4(OH)
Ca ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)
Ca HedyphaneCa2Pb3(AsO4)3Cl
Ca ArseniosideriteCa2Fe33+(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Ca Stilbite-CaNaCa4[Al9Si27O72] · nH2O
Ca DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
TiTitanium
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ti RutileTiO2
Ti BrookiteTiO2
Ti AnataseTiO2
Ti Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
VVanadium
V MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
V VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
V DescloizitePbZn(VO4)(OH)
CrChromium
Cr ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
Cr CrocoitePbCr6+O4
MnManganese
Mn Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
Mn Chloritoid(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Mn HübneriteMnWO4
Mn Columbite-(Mn)Mn2+Nb2O6
Mn PsilomelaneMn, O
Mn PyrolusiteMn4+O2
Mn CarpholiteMn2+Al2(Si2O6)(OH)4
Mn RhodochrositeMnCO3
FeIron
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe PyrrhotiteFe1-xS
Fe Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Fe Chloritoid(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Fe HedenbergiteCaFe2+Si2O6
Fe ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
Fe Actinolite☐Ca2(Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5)Si8O22OH2
Fe AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Fe AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Fe Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Fe BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe Hypersthene(Mg,Fe)SiO3
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe CubaniteCuFe2S3
Fe FerrimolybditeFe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Fe ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Fe StrengiteFePO4 · 2H2O
Fe Dolomite var. Iron-bearing DolomiteCa(Mg,Fe)(CO3)2
Fe Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Fe BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Fe CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
Fe ChenevixiteCu2Fe23+(AsO4)2(OH)4
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe HisingeriteFe23+(Si2O5)(OH)4 · 2H2O
Fe PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe JamesonitePb4FeSb6S14
Fe ArseniosideriteCa2Fe33+(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe Pitticite(Fe, AsO4, H2O) (?)
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu CubaniteCuFe2S3
Cu KrupkaitePbCuBi3S6
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu Tetrahedrite SubgroupCu6(Cu4X22+)Sb4S12S
Cu BayldonitePbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
Cu Duftite var. Calcio-duftite(Pb,Ca)CuAsO4(OH)
Cu ChenevixiteCu2Fe23+(AsO4)2(OH)4
Cu ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Cu MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
Cu Agardite-(La)LaCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
Cu Duftite-alphaPbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Cu Duftite var. Duftite-βPbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Cu AikinitePbCuBiS3
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Cu OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
Cu Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Cu BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
Cu CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Cu DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Cu LindgreniteCu3(MoO4)2(OH)2
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn DescloizitePbZn(VO4)(OH)
AsArsenic
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
As MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
As PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
As ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
As PreisingeriteBi3(AsO4)2O(OH)
As RooseveltiteBi(AsO4)
As BayldonitePbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
As BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
As Duftite var. Calcio-duftite(Pb,Ca)CuAsO4(OH)
As CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
As ChenevixiteCu2Fe23+(AsO4)2(OH)4
As ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)
As DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
As HedyphaneCa2Pb3(AsO4)3Cl
As Agardite-(La)LaCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
As Duftite-alphaPbCu(AsO4)(OH)
As Duftite var. Duftite-βPbCu(AsO4)(OH)
As ArseniosideriteCa2Fe33+(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
As OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
As Pitticite(Fe, AsO4, H2O) (?)
YYttrium
Y Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)
ZrZirconium
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)
NbNiobium
Nb Columbite-(Mn)Mn2+Nb2O6
MoMolybdenum
Mo WulfenitePb(MoO4)
Mo FerrimolybditeFe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
Mo MolybdeniteMoS2
Mo PowelliteCa(MoO4)
Mo LindgreniteCu3(MoO4)2(OH)2
AgSilver
Ag Sylvanite(Au,Ag)2Te4
SnTin
Sn CassiteriteSnO2
SbAntimony
Sb StibniteSb2S3
Sb Tetrahedrite SubgroupCu6(Cu4X22+)Sb4S12S
Sb ZinkenitePb9Sb22S42
Sb JamesonitePb4FeSb6S14
Sb BoulangeritePb5Sb4S11
TeTellurium
Te HedleyiteBi7Te3
Te IngoditeBi2TeS
Te JoséiteBi4TeS2
Te Joséite-BBi4Te2S
Te Joséite-ABi4TeS2
Te Sylvanite(Au,Ag)2Te4
Te TetradymiteBi2Te2S
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
LaLanthanum
La Agardite-(La)LaCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
WTungsten
W ScheeliteCa(WO4)
W Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
W HübneriteMnWO4
W StolzitePb(WO4)
W TungstiteWO3 · H2O
AuGold
Au GoldAu
Au Sylvanite(Au,Ag)2Te4
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb CerussitePbCO3
Pb LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Pb PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
Pb StolzitePb(WO4)
Pb WulfenitePb(MoO4)
Pb CosalitePb2Bi2S5
Pb KrupkaitePbCuBi3S6
Pb MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pb AnglesitePbSO4
Pb BayldonitePbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
Pb BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Pb Duftite var. Calcio-duftite(Pb,Ca)CuAsO4(OH)
Pb CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
Pb DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Pb HedyphaneCa2Pb3(AsO4)3Cl
Pb LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Pb MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
Pb PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
Pb SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Pb VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
Pb Duftite-alphaPbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Pb Duftite var. Duftite-βPbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Pb ZinkenitePb9Sb22S42
Pb AikinitePbCuBiS3
Pb JamesonitePb4FeSb6S14
Pb BoulangeritePb5Sb4S11
Pb HydrocerussitePb3(CO3)2(OH)2
Pb CrocoitePbCr6+O4
Pb Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Pb CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Pb DescloizitePbZn(VO4)(OH)
Pb PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
BiBismuth
Bi BismuthBi
Bi BismuthiniteBi2S3
Bi BismiteBi2O3
Bi Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
Bi CosalitePb2Bi2S5
Bi HedleyiteBi7Te3
Bi IngoditeBi2TeS
Bi JoséiteBi4TeS2
Bi Joséite-BBi4Te2S
Bi KrupkaitePbCuBi3S6
Bi PreisingeriteBi3(AsO4)2O(OH)
Bi RooseveltiteBi(AsO4)
Bi PetitjeaniteBi3(PO4)2O(OH)
Bi Joséite-ABi4TeS2
Bi AikinitePbCuBiS3
Bi TetradymiteBi2Te2S
UUranium
U UraniniteUO2

Geochronology

Mineralization age: Phanerozoic : 282 Ma to 197 Ma

Important note: This table is based only on rock and mineral ages recorded on mindat.org for this locality and is not necessarily a complete representation of the geochronology, but does give an indication of possible mineralization events relevant to this locality. As more age information is added this table may expand in the future. A break in the table simply indicates a lack of data entered here, not necessarily a break in the geologic sequence. Grey background entries are from different, related, localities.

Geologic TimeRocks, Minerals and Events
Phanerozoic
 Mesozoic
  Jurassic
   Early Jurassic
ⓘ Illite (youngest age)197 MaCarrock Mine, Mungrisdale, Eden, Cumbria, England, UK
    
  
 Paleozoic
  Permian
   Cisuralian
ⓘ Illite (oldest age)282 MaCarrock Mine, Mungrisdale, Eden, Cumbria, England, UK

References

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Greg, R.P. and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of the Mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. John van Voorst, London, ix. 483 pp. (p. 375 referring to antimonite (= stibnite) from Carrock Fells [sic]). [facsimile reprint, with addenda, by Lapidary Publications, Broadstairs, 1977.]
Hall, T.M. (1868) The Mineralogist's Directory: or a guide to the principal mineral localities in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp. (p. 53 referring to stibnite from Carrock Fell).
Goodchild, J.G. (1885) Contributions towards a list of minerals occurring in Cumberland and Westmorland [part 3]. Transactions of the Cumberland Association for the Advancement of Literature and Science, 9 (for 1883-1884), 175-199.
Harker, A. (1894) Carrock Fell: a study in the variation of igneous rock masses - part I. The Gabbro. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 50, 311-337.
Harker, A. (1895) Carrock Fell: a study in the variation of igneous rock masses - part II The Carrock Fell Granophyre, part III the Grainsgill greisen. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 51, 125-148.
Finlayson, A.M. (1910) The ore-bearing pegmatites of Carrock Fell. Geological Magazine, 7, 19-28.
Postlethwaite, J. (1913) Mines and mining in the Lake District, 3rd edition, Whitehaven, p. 60 (referring to stibnite from Carrock Fell).
Holmes, A. (1917) Albite granophyre and quartz-porphyry from Brandy Gill, Carrock Fell. Geological Magazine, decade 6, 4, 403-407.
Melmore, S. (1920) The metamorphism of the Carrock Fell gabbro; with a note on the origin of the sulphide veins of the Caldbeck Fells. Geological Magazine, 57, 266-268.
Hitchen, C.S. (1934) The Skiddaw granite and its residual products. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 90, 158-200.
Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1956) Cosalite and other lead sulpho-salts at Grainsgill, Carrock Fell, Caldbeck, Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(235), pp. 296-300 (referring to Greg and Lettsom (1858), Hall (1868) and Postlethwaite (1913)).
Thimmaiah, T. (1956) Mineralisation of the Caldbeck Fells area, Cumberland. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of London.
Eastwood, T., Hollingworth, S.E., Rose, W.C.C., and Trotter, F.M. (1968) Geology of the country around Cockermouth and Caldbeck. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.
Shepherd, T.J., Beckinsale, R.D., Rundle, C.C., and Durham, J. (1976) Genesis of Carrock Fell tungsten deposits, Cumbria: fluid inclusion and isotopic study. Transactions of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, 85, B63-73.
Anonymous (1977) Carrock Fell. Mining Magazine, 136, 169-175.
Firman, R.J. (1978) Epigenetic mineralization in the Lake District. pp. 226-241 in Moseley (Ed.), 1978.
Fortey, N.J. (1978) Mineral parageneses of the Harding vein tungsten deposit, Carrock Fell mine, Cumbria. Mineralogy Unit Report n° 228, Institute of Geological Sciences.
Moseley, F. (Ed.) (1978) The geology of the Lake District. Yorkshire Geological Society. Occasional Publication N° 3. viv, 284 pp.
Rundle, C.C. (1979) Ordovician intrusions in the English Lake District. Journal of the Geological Society of London, 136, 29-38.
O'Brien, C., Plant, J.A., Simpson, P.R., and Tarney, J. (1985) The geochemistry, metasomatism and petrogenesis of the granites of the English Lake District. Journal of the Geological Society of London, 142, 1139-1158.
Harris, P. and Dagger, G.W. (1987) The intrusion of the Carrock Fell Gabbro Series (Cumbria) as a sub-horizontal body. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 46, 371-380.
Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.
Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.
Stephenson, D., Bevins, R.E., Millward, D., Stone, P., Parsons, I., Highton, A.J., and Wadsworth, W.J. (2000) Caledonian Igneous Rocks of Great Britain. Geological Conservation Review, Volume 17, Joint Nature Conservancy Council.

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