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Casera Pramosio (Malga Pramosio)-Monte Avostanis/Blaustein area, Timau, Paluzza, Udine Province, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 46° 35' 23'' North , 13° 1' 42'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 46.58998,13.02848
Köppen climate type:Dfc : Subarctic climate
Name(s) in local language(s):Casera Pramosio (Malga Pramosio)-Monte Avostanis/Blaustein area, Timau, Paluzza, Provincia di Udine, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italia
Other regions containing this locality:The Alps, Europe

The area Casera Pramosio (Malga Pramosio)-Casera Malpasso-Monte Scarniz/Skarnitz-Monte Avostanis/Blaustein-Creta di Timau (Pizzo di Timau/Hocheck) is characterised by the presence of Cu-Pb-(Ag)-Zn mineralisations, exploited at least since the Late Middle Age, disseminated in the Devonian karstified limestones at the contact with transgressive clastic sediments of Hochwipfel formation.

In this area various pits and adits were excavated during the past centuries, but most of them were adapted for military use during World War I. Coppadoro (1902) mentioned a 40-m-long adit near Malga Pramosio and another adit at Pizzo Avostanis/Blaustein, near the lake along the path leading to Pal Grande. Nowadays, a medieval adit is still visitable at Malga Pramosio at about 1500 m a.s.l., near the limestone quarry operated by the company Bertacco Marmi, and it remains the only medieval mine in the Western Alps completely preserved in its original shape. Other ancient excavations are visible at Pizzo Avostanis/Blaustain, whose German name “Blaustein” is due to the abundace of outcropping azurite.

The mineralisations in this area consist of main chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite, and sphalerite with accessory galena, arsenopyrite, bornite, bournonite, chalcocite, covellite, pyrite, pyrargyrite, skutterudite, cuprite, tenorite, azurite, malachite, and antimony ochre in a calcareous-siliceous gangue. Accessory baryte and fluorite are also present. Bitumen, often transformed into graphite, is found in the more or less mineralised quartz-carbonate sediments as small masses and lenses. As a result of the recrystallisation during the diagenetic phase, bitumen often occurs in the intergranular spaces or along the cleavage plains of carbonates. Some sulfides, such as skutterudite, galena, and sphalerite, are preferentially associated with bitumen.

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

49 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

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Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

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201.3 - 252.17 Ma

ID: 1381956
Triassic sedimentary rocks

Age: Triassic (201.3 - 252.17 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Geological Survey of Canada. Generalized geological map of the world and linked databases. doi:10.4095/195142. Open File 2915d. [18]

Data and map coding provided by, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

Localities in this Region


This page contains all mineral locality references listed on This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.


Jervis, G. (1873): I tesori sotterranei dell'Italia. Vol. 1: Regioni delle Alpi. Ed. Loescher, Torino, 410 pp.

Taramelli, T. (1881): Spiegazione della Carta Geologica del Friuli. Tipogr. Fusi, Pavia, 187 pp.

Taramelli, T. (1882): Geologia delle Provincie Venete con carte geologiche e profili. Mem. R. Acc. Lincei, ser. 3, 13, 303-536.

Coppadoro, A. (1902) : Su le antiche miniere di Timau. In Alto, 13, 51-53.

Venerandi Pirri, I. (1977): Le paragenesi a Zn, Cu, Pb, Sb, Hg, Ni, As, fluorite, barite nel Devoniano della Catena Carnica. Rend. Soc. Ital. Mineral. Petrol., 33, 821-844.

Brigo, L. Omenetto, P. (1978): Metallogenese der Italienischen Ostalpen. In: Proceeding of the 3rd ISMIDA, Leoben, October 7-10, 1977, pages 75-92; Verh. Geol. B-A., Jg. 1978, 3, 249-266.

Kern, M. (1985): Vererzungen und Geochemie der Gesteine an der Grenze Devon/Karbon, im Gebiet des Pal Piccolo-Pal Grande und Pizzo di Timau (Karnische Alpen/Italien). Diploma thesis, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, 98 pp.

Zucchini, R. (1998): Miniere e mineralizzazioni nella provincia di Udine. Aspetti storici e mineralogici. Catalogo della collezione del Museo Friulano di Storia Naturale. Minerali Friulani. Comune di Udine, Edizione del Museo Friulano di Storia Naturale, Udine, pubblicazione n. 40, 147 pp.

Zucchini, R. (2002): Mineralizzazioni e miniere nelle Alpi orientali. In: Lazzari, C. (ed.), Mineralogia e ricerca mineraria dal Quattrocento ad oggi. Atti del Seminario, Venezia, 20 ottobre 2001. Museo civico di storia naturale di Venezia, Soc. Coop. Tipografica, Padova, 69-80.

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