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Knockormal Hill, South Ayrshire, Scotland, UKi
Regional Level Types
Knockormal HillHill
South AyrshireCouncil Area

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 55° 8' 59'' North , 4° 55' 48'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 55.15000,-4.93000
GeoHash:G#: gcu3xzf04
Locality type:Hill
Köppen climate type:Cfb : Temperate oceanic climate
Nearest Settlements:
Girvan6,650 (2017)11.3km
Dailly850 (2017)19.2km
Cairnryan3,757 (2011)20.7km
Maidens530 (2013)21.6km
Crosshill500 (2017)26.8km

No description has been added for this locality. Can you add one?

Regions containing this locality

Eurasian Plate (Eurasia Plate)Plate
British IslesGroup of Islands
Strathclyde, Scotland, UKRegion (Historical)

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

11 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

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Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Actinolite var: Smaragdite
Formula: Ca2(Mg,Fe2+,Cr)5Si8O22(OH)2
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
'Albite-Anorthite Series'
'Almandine-Pyrope Series'
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Augite var: Fassaite
Formula: (Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
'Chlorite Group'
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Formula: ⃞[Na2][Mg3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
Formula: {Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
'Pyroxene Group'
Formula: MgAl2O4
Spinel var: Ceylonite
Formula: MgAl2O4
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Formula: ☐(Ca2)(Mg3Al2)(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Formula: {Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
var: Ceylonite4.BB.05MgAl2O4
Group 9 - Silicates
var: Smaragdite9.DE.10Ca2(Mg,Fe2+,Cr)5Si8O22(OH)2
var: Fassaite9.DA.15(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Almandine-Pyrope Series'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Pyroxene Group'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
var: Smaragdite-Ca2(Mg,Fe2+,Cr)5Si8O22(OH)2
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Almandine-Pyrope Series'-
var: Fassaite
'Chlorite Group'-
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Pyroxene Group'-
var: Ceylonite

List of minerals for each chemical element

H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H Pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
H Actinolite (var: Smaragdite)Ca2(Mg,Fe2+,Cr)5Si8O22(OH)2
H Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H Glaucophane⃞[Na2][Mg3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
H Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H Tschermakite☐(Ca2)(Mg3Al2)(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
O Augite (var: Fassaite)(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
O Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
O Pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
O Spinel (var: Ceylonite)MgAl2O4
O SpinelMgAl2O4
O Actinolite (var: Smaragdite)Ca2(Mg,Fe2+,Cr)5Si8O22(OH)2
O Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O Glaucophane⃞[Na2][Mg3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
O Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O Tschermakite☐(Ca2)(Mg3Al2)(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
O DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Na Augite (var: Fassaite)(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na Pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Na Glaucophane⃞[Na2][Mg3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
Mg Augite (var: Fassaite)(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Mg Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Mg Pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Mg Spinel (var: Ceylonite)MgAl2O4
Mg SpinelMgAl2O4
Mg Actinolite (var: Smaragdite)Ca2(Mg,Fe2+,Cr)5Si8O22(OH)2
Mg Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg Glaucophane⃞[Na2][Mg3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
Mg Tschermakite☐(Ca2)(Mg3Al2)(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Mg DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Al Augite (var: Fassaite)(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al Pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Al Spinel (var: Ceylonite)MgAl2O4
Al SpinelMgAl2O4
Al Glaucophane⃞[Na2][Mg3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
Al Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al Tschermakite☐(Ca2)(Mg3Al2)(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Si Augite (var: Fassaite)(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Si Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
Si Pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Si Actinolite (var: Smaragdite)Ca2(Mg,Fe2+,Cr)5Si8O22(OH)2
Si Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si Glaucophane⃞[Na2][Mg3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
Si Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si Tschermakite☐(Ca2)(Mg3Al2)(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Si DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Ca Augite (var: Fassaite)(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Ca Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ca Pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Ca Actinolite (var: Smaragdite)Ca2(Mg,Fe2+,Cr)5Si8O22(OH)2
Ca Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca Tschermakite☐(Ca2)(Mg3Al2)(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Ca DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Ti Augite (var: Fassaite)(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Cr Actinolite (var: Smaragdite)Ca2(Mg,Fe2+,Cr)5Si8O22(OH)2
Fe Augite (var: Fassaite)(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Fe Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe Actinolite (var: Smaragdite)Ca2(Mg,Fe2+,Cr)5Si8O22(OH)2
Fe Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on

Ordovician - Cambrian
443.8 - 541 Ma

ID: 2034551
Cambrian And Ordovician Rocks (Undifferentiated)

Age: Paleozoic (443.8 - 541 Ma)

Lithology: Mafic lava and mafic tuff

Reference: British Geological Survey. DiGMapGB-625. British Geological Survey ©NERC. [23]

443.8 - 485.4 Ma

ID: 3188553
Paleozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks

Age: Ordovician (443.8 - 485.4 Ma)

Lithology: Mafic-intermediate undivided volcanic rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

443.8 - 485.4 Ma

ID: 3140383
Ordovician sandstone

Age: Ordovician (443.8 - 485.4 Ma)

Lithology: Major:{sandstone}, Minor{conglomerate,claystone}

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Data and map coding provided by, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License


Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Balsillie, D. (1937) Further observations on the Ballantrae Igneous Complex, South Ayrshire. Geological Magazine, 74, 20–33.
Bloxam, T.W. and Allen, J.B. (1959) Trans. R. Soc. Edinb. 64, 18. [M.A. 16, 217.]
Bloxam, T.W. and Allen, J.B. (1960) Glaucophane-schist, eclogite and associated rocks from Knockormal in the Girvan–Ballantrae Complex, south Ayrshire. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 64, 1–27.
White, A.J.R. (1964) Clinopyroxenes from eclogites and basic granulites. American Mineralogist, vol. 49, 883-888.
Church, W.R. and Gayer, R.A. (1973) The Ballantrae ophiolite. Geological Magazine, 110, 497–510.
Fettes, D.J. (1978) Caledonian and post-Caledonian metamorphism in the United Kingdom and Ireland. In Metamorphic map of Europe (1:2 500 000): explanatory text (eds H.J. Zwart, V.S. Sobolev and E. Niggli), UNESCO, pp. 75–83.
Bloxam, T.W. (1980) Amphibolite contact zones, amphibolite xenoliths, and blueschists associated with serpentinite in the Girvan–Ballantrae Complex, southwest Scotland. Archive des Sciences, 33, 291–9.
Spray, J.G. and Williams, G.D. (1980) The sub-ophiolite metamorphic rocks of the Ballantrae Igneous Complex, SW Scotland. Journal of the Geological Society of London, 137, 359–68.
Treloar, P.J., Bluck, B.J., Bowes, D.R., and Dudek, A. (1980) Hornblende-garnet metapyroxenite beneath serpentinite in the Ballantrae complex of SW Scotland and its bearing on the depth provenance of obducted oceanic lithosphere. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences, 71, 201–12.
Livingstone, A. and Macpherson, H.G. (1983) Fifth supplementary list of British minerals (Scottish). Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 47, n° 342, 99-105.
Hamilton, P.J., Bluck, B.J., and Halliday, A.N. (1984) Sm-Nd ages from the Ballantrae complex, SW Scotland. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences, 75, 183–7.
Smellie, J.L. and Stone, P. (1984) ‘Eclogite’ in the Ballantrae Complex: a garnet-clinopyroxenite segregation in mantle harzburgite? Scottish Journal of Geology, 20, 315–27.
Stone, P. (1999) Chapter 2: Early Ordovician volcanic rocks and associated ophiolitic assemblages of Scotland. Site: KNOCKORMAL (GCR ID: 2415). In Stephenson, D., Bevins, R.E., Millward, D., Highton, A.J., Parsons, I., Stone, P., and Wadsworth, W.J. (1999) Caledonian Igneous Rocks of Great Britain. Geological Conservation Review, vol. 17.

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