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Bollihope Smelt Mill (Bishopley) slag locality, Bollihope District, Co. Durham, England, UKi
Regional Level Types
Bollihope Smelt Mill (Bishopley) slag localitySlag Locality
Bollihope DistrictDistrict
Co. DurhamCounty
EnglandConstituent Country
UKCountry
Bollihope Smelt Mill (Bishopley) slag locality, Weardale, Co. Durham, England, UK

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Remnants of the millrace channel. Slag from the mill is now buried alongside the mill race and forms part of the Weardale Way hiking trail.

Bollihope Smelt Mill (Bishopley) slag locality, Bollihope District, Co. Durham, England, UK
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 54° 42' 44'' North , 1° 58' 34'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 54.71224,-1.97638
GeoHash:G#: gcwx700cg
Locality type:Slag Locality
Origin locality:Dirt Pot Lead Smelt Mill slag locality, Allendale, Northumberland, England, UK
Köppen climate type:Cfb : Temperate oceanic climate
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Frosterley636 (2017)1.9km
Stanhope1,602 (2017)4.9km
Wolsingham2,503 (2017)6.3km
Tow Law2,138 (2017)11.0km
Middleton in Teesdale934 (2017)11.8km


The original mill was built under licence from the bishop of Durham in 1667. By the 1740s it had a reported annual output of around 40 tons of lead, much of the ore coming from Lunedale until a closer mill was built in 1756. It was advertised for sale in 1831 when it had a roasting furnace, a smelting furnace, two smelting hearths, a slag hearth, a refining furnace and a reducing furnace. Three Pattinson pots, for de-silvering the lead, had been added by 1842.

Regions containing this locality

Weardale, Co. Durham, England, UKValley
Eurasian PlateTectonic Plate
EuropeContinent
British IslesGroup of Islands
The Pennines, England, UKRange of Mountains and Hills
North Pennines Area, England, UKArea of Outstanding Natural Beauty
Northern Pennine Orefield, England, UKOre Field

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


21 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Reference: Norman Wilson Personal Collection
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Norman Wilson collection
Blixite
Formula: Pb2(O,OH)2Cl
Reference: Norman Wilson collection
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Norman Wilson Personal Collection
Caledonite
Formula: Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Reference: Norman Wilson collection
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Reference: Norman Wilson Personal Collection
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Norman Wilson Personal Collection
Gearksutite
Formula: Ca[Al(F,OH)5(H2O)]
Reference: Norman Wilson Personal Collection
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Norman Wilson collection
Hydrocerussite
Formula: Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2
Reference: Norman Wilson Personal Collection
Lanarkite
Formula: Pb2(SO4)O
Reference: Norman Wilson Personal Collection
Laurionite
Formula: PbCl(OH)
Reference: Norman Wilson collection
Lead
Formula: Pb
Reference: Norman Wilson Personal Collection
Leadhillite
Formula: Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Reference: Norman Wilson collection
Litharge
Formula: PbO
Reference: Norman Wilson collection
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Norman Wilson Personal Collection
Matlockite
Formula: PbFCl
Reference: Norman Wilson collection
Mattheddleite
Formula: Pb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
Reference: Norman Wilson collection
Mimetite
Formula: Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Reference: Norman Wilson collection
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Reference: Norman Wilson Personal Collection
Susannite
Formula: Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Reference: Norman Wilson collection

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Lead1.AA.05Pb
Sulphur1.CC.05S8
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Group 3 - Halides
Blixite3.DC.50Pb2(O,OH)2Cl
Gearksutite3.CC.05Ca[Al(F,OH)5(H2O)]
Laurionite3.DC.05PbCl(OH)
Matlockite3.DC.25PbFCl
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Litharge4.AC.20PbO
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Aragonite5.AB.15CaCO3
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
Hydrocerussite5.BE.10Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2
Leadhillite5.BF.40Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Susannite5.BF.40Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Anglesite7.AD.35PbSO4
Caledonite7.BC.50Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Lanarkite7.BD.40Pb2(SO4)O
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Mimetite8.BN.05Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Group 9 - Silicates
Mattheddleite9.AH.25Pb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Lead1.1.1.4Pb
Semi-metals and non-metals
Sulphur1.3.5.1S8
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
AX
Litharge4.2.4.1PbO
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Matlockite9.2.11.1PbFCl
Group 10 - OXYHALIDES AND HYDROXYHALIDES
A(O,OH)Xq
Blixite10.2.4.1Pb2(O,OH)2Cl
Laurionite10.2.2.1PbCl(OH)
Group 11 - HALIDE COMPLEXES
Aluminofluorides - Isolated Octahedra
Gearksutite11.6.8.1Ca[Al(F,OH)5(H2O)]
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Hydrocerussite16a.2.2.1Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 17 - COMPOUND CARBONATES
Miscellaneous
Leadhillite17.1.2.1Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Susannite17.1.3.1Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anglesite28.3.1.3PbSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Lanarkite30.2.1.1Pb2(SO4)O
Group 32 - COMPOUND SULFATES
Anhydrous Compound Sulfates containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Caledonite32.3.2.1Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Mimetite41.8.4.2Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Mattheddleite52.4.9.6Pb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Aragonite-CaCO3

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H GearksutiteCa[Al(F,OH)5(H2O)]
H HydrocerussitePb3(CO3)2(OH)2
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
H LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
H MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
H CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
H LaurionitePbCl(OH)
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H BlixitePb2(O,OH)2Cl
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C CerussitePbCO3
C HydrocerussitePb3(CO3)2(OH)2
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C AragoniteCaCO3
C SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
C LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
C CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
OOxygen
O AnglesitePbSO4
O CalciteCaCO3
O CerussitePbCO3
O GearksutiteCa[Al(F,OH)5(H2O)]
O HydrocerussitePb3(CO3)2(OH)2
O LanarkitePb2(SO4)O
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O AragoniteCaCO3
O SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
O LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
O MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
O CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
O MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
O LaurionitePbCl(OH)
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O BlixitePb2(O,OH)2Cl
O LithargePbO
FFluorine
F GearksutiteCa[Al(F,OH)5(H2O)]
F MatlockitePbFCl
AlAluminium
Al GearksutiteCa[Al(F,OH)5(H2O)]
SiSilicon
Si MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
SSulfur
S AnglesitePbSO4
S GalenaPbS
S LanarkitePb2(SO4)O
S SulphurS8
S SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
S LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
S MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
S CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
ClChlorine
Cl MatlockitePbFCl
Cl MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
Cl MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Cl LaurionitePbCl(OH)
Cl BlixitePb2(O,OH)2Cl
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca GearksutiteCa[Al(F,OH)5(H2O)]
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
CuCopper
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
AsArsenic
As MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
PbLead
Pb AnglesitePbSO4
Pb CerussitePbCO3
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb HydrocerussitePb3(CO3)2(OH)2
Pb LanarkitePb2(SO4)O
Pb LeadPb
Pb SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Pb LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Pb MatlockitePbFCl
Pb MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
Pb CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Pb MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pb LaurionitePbCl(OH)
Pb BlixitePb2(O,OH)2Cl
Pb LithargePbO

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Late Carboniferous
298.9 - 323.2 Ma



ID: 3160982
Late Carboniferous sandstone

Age: Pennsylvanian (298.9 - 323.2 Ma)

Lithology: Major:{sandstone}, Minor{siltstone,mudstone}

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Bashkirian - Visean
315.2 - 346.7 Ma



ID: 2031508
Yoredale Group

Age: Carboniferous (315.2 - 346.7 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Yoredale Group

Lithology: Limestone with subordinate sandstone and argillaceous rocks

Reference: British Geological Survey. DiGMapGB-625. British Geological Survey ©NERC. [23]

Early Carboniferous
323.2 - 358.9 Ma



ID: 3186080
Paleozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Mississippian (323.2 - 358.9 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

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