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Awak Mas gold mine, Tana Toraja Regency, Sulawesi Selatan Province (South Sulawesi Province), Sulawesi (Celebes), Indonesia

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 3° 19' 59'' South , 120° 4' 59'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): -3.33333,120.08333
GeoHash:G#: qxmmh94jb
Locality type:Mine
Age:100.5 to 5.332 Ma
Geologic Time:Phanerozoic : Late Cretaceous to Miocene
Dating method:K/Ar, U-Pb
Reference for age:White, L. T., Hall, R., Armstrong, R. A., Barber, A. J., BouDagher Fadel, M., Baxter, A., Wakita, K., Manning, C. & Soesilo, J. (2017). The geological history of the Latimojong region of western Sulawesi. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 138 72-9
Köppen climate type:Af : Tropical rainforest climate

The Awak Mas gold deposits are situated in the Latimojong Metamorphic Complex, Sulawesi, Indonesia. These deposits are hosted in pumpellyite- to greenschist-facies metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks. Total estimated gold contents equals to 47.3 Mt at 1.4 ppm Au.

The deposits contain low amounts of fine-grained disseminated sulphide. Gold is usually associated with pyrite, chalcopyrite, and tetrahedrite-tennantite (arsenopyrite is absent). Accessory minerals include magnetite, hematite, covellite, and bornite, which are associated with quartz veins, silicification and brecciation zones. The alteration assemblage is characterised by the presence of albite, quartz, calcite, chlorite, epidote, zoisite, and sericite.

Mineral List

40 valid minerals.

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

66 - 252.17 Ma

ID: 3189205
Mesozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Mesozoic (66 - 252.17 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

This page contains all mineral locality references listed on mindat.org. This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in mindat.org without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.


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Hakim, A.Y.A. (2017) Genesis of orogenic gold in the Latimojong district, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. PhD dissertation. Montanuniversität Leoben.
Hakim, A.Y.A., Melcher, F., Prochaska, W, Bakker, R.J., Rantitsch, G. (2017) The origin and evolution of fluids associated with gold deposits in the basement of Sulawesi, Indonesia. Proceedings of the 14th SGA Biennial Meeting, 20-23 August 2017, Québec City, Canada:355–358. doi: 10.13140/RG.2.2.13179.41767.
Hakim, A.Y.A., Melcher, F. (2017) Timing of mineralization and origin of hydrothermal carbonate at the gold deposits within the Latimojong Complex, Indonesia. 2nd Postgraduate conference on Geology of Ore Deposits. Hannover.:22 (abstract).
Hakim, A.Y.A., Melcher, F. (2017) Magmatic chromian spinel in metabasite from the Latimojong Mountains, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Mineralogischen Gesellschaft 163:42 (abstract).
White, L.T., Hall, R., Armstrong, R.A., Barber, A.J., BouDagher Fadel, M., Baxter, A., Wakita, K., Manning, C., Soesilo, J. (2017) The geological history of the Latimojong region of western Sulawesi. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 138, 72-79.
Hakim, A.Y.A., Melcher, F. (2016) The composition of gold and mercurian rich tetrahedrite from the sedimentary hosted disseminated gold in Latimojong mountain, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. 1st Postgraduate conference on Geology of Ore Deposits. Freiberg:12.
Hakim, A.Y.A., Melcher, F. (2015) Mineralogical Study of the Awak Mas Deposit: A Contribution to the Ore Genesis of Disseminated Gold Deposits in South Celebes, Indonesia. Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Mineralogischen Gesellschaft 161:43 (abstract).
Harjanto, E., Meyer, F.M., Idrus, A. (2015) Geology and mineralization of Awak Mas gold deposit and challenges for new exploration targeting in the metamorphic rock terrain of eastern Indonesia. In: 13th Biennial SGA Meeting.
Harjanto, E., Meyer, F.M., Idrus, A., Widyanarko, H., Endrasari, N.L. (2016) An update of key characteristics of Awak Mas mesothermal gold deposit, Sulawesi Island, Indonesia. MGEI Annual Meeting 2016. 4-6 October 2016.
Harjanto, E., Meyer, F.M., Idrus, A. (2016) Hydrothermal alteration and gold mineralization of the meta-sedimentary rock hosted gold deposit Awak Mas, Sulawesi Island, Indonesia. In: 35TH International Geological Congress. Cape Town, South Africa.
Ernowo (2017) Hydrothermal alteration and gold mineralization of the Awak Mas gold deposit, Sulawesi Island, Indonesia. PhD Thesis. RWTH Aachen.
Querubin, C.D., Walters, S. (2012) Geology and Mineralization of Awak Mas: A Sedimentary Hosted Gold Deposit, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Majalah Geologi Indonesia 27:69–85.

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