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KEM JV Mine (Kimberley Ekapa Mining Joint Venture mine; Kimberley Underground mine), Kimberley, Francis Baard District, Northern Cape, South Africai
Regional Level Types
KEM JV Mine (Kimberley Ekapa Mining Joint Venture mine; Kimberley Underground mine)Mine (Active)
Kimberley- not defined -
Francis Baard DistrictDistrict
Northern CapeProvince
South AfricaCountry

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 28° 45' 49'' South , 24° 47' 28'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): -28.76383,24.79138
GeoHash:G#: kdcsk5sw9
Owned/operated by:Kimberley Ekapa Mining Joint Venture (24.1%) - a joint venture between Ekapa Mining (Pty) Ltd, and
Locality type:Mine (Active) - last checked 2018
Köppen climate type:BSh : Hot semi-arid (steppe) climate
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Kimberley142,089 (2012)4.5km
Ritchie9,960 (2014)35.6km
Barkly West11,621 (2012)36.6km


The Kimberley mines were at the heart of South Africa’s early diamond rush in Kimberley in the late 1800s, where the world’s first hard rock diamond deposits were discovered, hence the name ‘kimberlite’. The Kimberley mines were integral to the economic development of South Africa as their output effectively financed development of the nascent gold industry.

The Kimberley mines were amalgamated into De Beers by 1890. The Dutoitspan pipe was mined as an open pit to a depth of 122 metres and Wesselton and Bultfontein were mined as open pits to a depth of 76 metres. The mines were then converted to chambering (a combination of shrinkage stoping and sub-level caving) as an underground mining method during the period 1890 to 1950. In the 1950s underground mining converted to the more efficient and safer block caving methods, the mining method currently still being used to exploit reserves on all three of the mines.

The mines were closed by De Beers in August 2005 and subsequently Petra operated Kimberley Underground under care and maintenance from September 2007. Petra was given approval to operate the mines under De Beers’ licence, demonstrating the level of confidence the industry leader has in Petra’s overall ability to rehabilitate and operate deep underground diamond mines. This care and maintenance period enabled Petra to complete all the rehabilitation work required in order to ready the operation to recommence production. The acquisition of Kimberley Underground completed in May 2010.

In December 2015, Petra announced the acquisition of an interest in the remaining Kimberley Mine assets in South Africa from De Beers Consolidated Mines Proprietary Limited, in consortium with Ekapa Mining (Pty) Limited, an established Kimberley-based diamond tailings producer. The Kimberley Mines acquisition comprised of a number of tailings dumps in Kimberley and the high volume Central Treatment Plant, at a cost of ZAR102 million (ca. US$7.2 million).

Petra and Ekapa Mining then entered into a joint venture agreement in July 2016, in order to combine their respective operations under one business unit. The KEM JV is a joint venture between Petra and its partner Ekapa Mining and incorporates the Kimberley Underground mine (mining the Bultfontein, Dutoitspan and Wesselton kimberlite pipes), extensive tailings retreatment programmes (with total tailings resources of some 140.1 Mt) and the high volume Central Treatment Plant (“CTP”).

The Kimberley Underground mines have a history of producing large diamonds and fancy yellows, such as the Oppenheimer (253 carats rough). The largest diamond ever recovered at Kimberley Underground was +800 carats and the mine is also the source of the Kimberley Octahedral, at 616 carats, one of the largest uncut diamonds in the world.

Regions containing this locality

African PlateTectonic Plate

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Commodity List

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Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

54 valid minerals. 7 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

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Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

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Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Afwillite (TL)
Formula: Ca3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: [Mineralogical Magazine(1925) 20, 277-285; Clark, 1993 - "Hey's Mineral Index, 3rd Edition"]
'Apatite'
Aphthitalite
Formula: (K,Na)3Na(SO4)2
Reference: Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, V. S., Phillips, D., Kendrick, M. A., Wyatt, B. A., & Goemann, K. (2012). Nature of alkali-carbonate fluids in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Geology, 40(11), 967-970.
'Apophyllite'
Reference: Parry J, Williams A F, Wright F E (1932) On bultfonteinite, a new fluorine-bearing hydrous calcium silicate from South Africa, Mineralogical Magazine, 23, 145-162
Arcanite
Formula: K2SO4
Reference: Giuliani, A., Soltys, A., Phillips, D., Kamenetsky, V. S., Maas, R., Goemann, K., ... & Griffin, W. L. (2017). The final stages of kimberlite petrogenesis: petrography, mineral chemistry, melt inclusions and Sr-CO isotope geochemistry of the Bultfontein kimberlite (Kimberley, South Africa). Chemical Geology, 455, 342-356.
Armalcolite
Formula: (Mg,Fe2+)Ti2O5
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: S.E. Haggerty, J.R. Smyth, A.J. Erlank, R.S. Rickard, R.V. Danchin: Amer. Mineral. 68:494-505 (1983)
Bradleyite
Formula: Na3Mg(CO3)(PO4)
Reference: Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, V. S., Phillips, D., Kendrick, M. A., Wyatt, B. A., & Goemann, K. (2012). Nature of alkali-carbonate fluids in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Geology, 40(11), 967-970.; Giuliani, A., Soltys, A., Phillips, D., Kamenetsky, V. S., Maas, R., Goemann, K., ... & Griffin, W. L. (2017). The final stages of kimberlite petrogenesis: petrography, mineral chemistry, melt inclusions and Sr-CO isotope geochemistry of the Bultfontein kimberlite (Kimberley, South Africa). Chemical Geology, 455, 342-356.
Bultfonteinite (TL)
Formula: Ca2(HSiO4)F · H2O
Description: The mineral was first found by a miner named Cann in 1903 or 1904 on the 480-foot level of the Bultfontein mine at Kimberley. It occurred, associated with calcite, apophyllite, and natrolite, in a large 'horse' of dolerite and shale fragments enclosed in kimberlite, Parry et al (1932)
Reference: Parry J, Williams A F, Wright F E (1932) On bultfonteinite, a new fluorine-bearing hydrous calcium silicate from South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine 23, 145-162
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Celestine
Formula: SrSO4
Colour: Blue
Description: Large crystals found in the bultfontein diamond pipe.
Reference: Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 67.
'Chrome-Spinel (of Dana)'
Reference: S.E. Haggerty, J.R. Smyth, A.J. Erlank, R.S. Rickard, R.V. Danchin: Amer. Mineral. 68:494-505 (1983)
Chromite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2O4
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'
Corundum
Formula: Al2O3
Reference: Mathias, M., Siebert, J.C., and Rickwood, P.C. (1970): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 26, 75-123.
Cuspidine ?
Formula: Ca4(Si2O7)(F,OH)2
Reference: Giuliani, A., Soltys, A., Phillips, D., Kamenetsky, V. S., Maas, R., Goemann, K., ... & Griffin, W. L. (2017). The final stages of kimberlite petrogenesis: petrography, mineral chemistry, melt inclusions and Sr-CO isotope geochemistry of the Bultfontein kimberlite (Kimberley, South Africa). Chemical Geology, 455, 342-356.
Diamond
Formula: C
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Reference: S.E. Haggerty, J.R. Smyth, A.J. Erlank, R.S. Rickard, R.V. Danchin: Amer. Mineral. 68:494-505 (1983)
Diopside var: Chromian Diopside
Formula: Ca(Mg,Cr)Si2O6
Reference: S.E. Haggerty, J.R. Smyth, A.J. Erlank, R.S. Rickard, R.V. Danchin: Amer. Mineral. 68:494-505 (1983)
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, V. S., Phillips, D., Kendrick, M. A., Wyatt, B. A., & Goemann, K. (2012). Nature of alkali-carbonate fluids in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Geology, 40(11), 967-970.; Giuliani, A., Soltys, A., Phillips, D., Kamenetsky, V. S., Maas, R., Goemann, K., ... & Griffin, W. L. (2017). The final stages of kimberlite petrogenesis: petrography, mineral chemistry, melt inclusions and Sr-CO isotope geochemistry of the Bultfontein kimberlite (Kimberley, South Africa). Chemical Geology, 455, 342-356.
Eitelite
Formula: Na2Mg(CO3)2
Reference: Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, V. S., Phillips, D., Kendrick, M. A., Wyatt, B. A., & Goemann, K. (2012). Nature of alkali-carbonate fluids in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Geology, 40(11), 967-970.
Enstatite
Formula: MgSiO3
Fairchildite
Formula: K2Ca(CO3)2
Reference: Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, V. S., Phillips, D., Kendrick, M. A., Wyatt, B. A., & Goemann, K. (2012). Nature of alkali-carbonate fluids in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Geology, 40(11), 967-970.
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'
Fluorapophyllite-(K)
Formula: KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Reference: Giuliani, A., Soltys, A., Phillips, D., Kamenetsky, V. S., Maas, R., Goemann, K., ... & Griffin, W. L. (2017). The final stages of kimberlite petrogenesis: petrography, mineral chemistry, melt inclusions and Sr-CO isotope geochemistry of the Bultfontein kimberlite (Kimberley, South Africa). Chemical Geology, 455, 342-356.
Freudenbergite
Formula: Na2(Ti,Fe)8O16
Reference: Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, V. S., Phillips, D., Kendrick, M. A., Wyatt, B. A., & Goemann, K. (2012). Nature of alkali-carbonate fluids in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Geology, 40(11), 967-970.
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Gregoryite
Formula: (Na2,K2,Ca)CO3
Reference: Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, V. S., Phillips, D., Kendrick, M. A., Wyatt, B. A., & Goemann, K. (2012). Nature of alkali-carbonate fluids in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Geology, 40(11), 967-970.
Halite
Formula: NaCl
Reference: Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, V. S., Phillips, D., Kendrick, M. A., Wyatt, B. A., & Goemann, K. (2012). Nature of alkali-carbonate fluids in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Geology, 40(11), 967-970.; Giuliani, A., Soltys, A., Phillips, D., Kamenetsky, V. S., Maas, R., Goemann, K., ... & Griffin, W. L. (2017). The final stages of kimberlite petrogenesis: petrography, mineral chemistry, melt inclusions and Sr-CO isotope geochemistry of the Bultfontein kimberlite (Kimberley, South Africa). Chemical Geology, 455, 342-356.
Hawthorneite (TL)
Formula: BaMgTi3Cr4Fe2+2Fe3+2O19
Type Locality:
Reference: Amer.Min.(1989), 74, 668-675; Minerals of South Africa
'Hypersthene'
Formula: (Mg,Fe)SiO3
Reference: Mathias, M., Siebert, J.C., and Rickwood, P.C. (1970): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 26, 75-123.
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Ilmenite var: Picroilmenite
Formula: (Fe2+,Mg)TiO3
Reference: Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, V. S., Phillips, D., Kendrick, M. A., Wyatt, B. A., & Goemann, K. (2012). Nature of alkali-carbonate fluids in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Geology, 40(11), 967-970.
Kalsilite
Formula: KAlSiO4
Reference: Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, V. S., Phillips, D., Kendrick, M. A., Wyatt, B. A., & Goemann, K. (2012). Nature of alkali-carbonate fluids in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Geology, 40(11), 967-970.
Kogarkoite
Formula: Na3(SO4)F
Reference: Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, V. S., Phillips, D., Kendrick, M. A., Wyatt, B. A., & Goemann, K. (2012). Nature of alkali-carbonate fluids in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Geology, 40(11), 967-970.
Lindsleyite (TL)
Formula: (Ba,Sr)(Zr,Ca)(Fe,Mg)2(Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38
Type Locality:
Reference: S.E. Haggerty, J.R. Smyth, A.J. Erlank, R.S. Rickard, R.V. Danchin: Amer. Mineral. 68:494-505 (1983)
Magnesioferrite
Formula: MgFe3+2O4
Reference: Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, V. S., Phillips, D., Kendrick, M. A., Wyatt, B. A., & Goemann, K. (2012). Nature of alkali-carbonate fluids in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Geology, 40(11), 967-970.
Magnesite
Formula: MgCO3
Reference: Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, V. S., Phillips, D., Kendrick, M. A., Wyatt, B. A., & Goemann, K. (2012). Nature of alkali-carbonate fluids in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Geology, 40(11), 967-970.; Giuliani, A., Soltys, A., Phillips, D., Kamenetsky, V. S., Maas, R., Goemann, K., ... & Griffin, W. L. (2017). The final stages of kimberlite petrogenesis: petrography, mineral chemistry, melt inclusions and Sr-CO isotope geochemistry of the Bultfontein kimberlite (Kimberley, South Africa). Chemical Geology, 455, 342-356.
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, V. S., Phillips, D., Kendrick, M. A., Wyatt, B. A., & Goemann, K. (2012). Nature of alkali-carbonate fluids in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Geology, 40(11), 967-970.
Mathiasite (TL)
Formula: (K, Ba, Sr)(Zr, Fe)(Mg,Fe)2 (Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38
Type Locality:
Reference: S.E. Haggerty, J.R. Smyth, A.J. Erlank, R.S. Rickard, R.V. Danchin: Amer. Mineral. 68:494-505 (1983)
Monticellite
Formula: CaMgSiO4
Reference: Giuliani, A., Soltys, A., Phillips, D., Kamenetsky, V. S., Maas, R., Goemann, K., ... & Griffin, W. L. (2017). The final stages of kimberlite petrogenesis: petrography, mineral chemistry, melt inclusions and Sr-CO isotope geochemistry of the Bultfontein kimberlite (Kimberley, South Africa). Chemical Geology, 455, 342-356.
Mountainite (TL)
Formula: KNa2Ca2[Si8O19(OH)] · 6H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Gard J A, Taylor H F W, Chalmers R A (1957) An investigation of two new minerals: rhodesite and mountainite. Mineralogical Magazine 31, 611-623
Nahcolite
Formula: NaHCO3
Reference: Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, V. S., Phillips, D., Kendrick, M. A., Wyatt, B. A., & Goemann, K. (2012). Nature of alkali-carbonate fluids in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Geology, 40(11), 967-970.
Natrite
Formula: Na2CO3
Reference: Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, V. S., Phillips, D., Kendrick, M. A., Wyatt, B. A., & Goemann, K. (2012). Nature of alkali-carbonate fluids in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Geology, 40(11), 967-970.
Natrolite
Formula: Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa; Parry J, Williams A F, Wright F E (1932) On bultfonteinite, a new fluorine-bearing hydrous calcium silicate from South Africa, Mineralogical Magazine, 23, 145-162
Nyerereite
Formula: Na2Ca(CO3)2
Reference: Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, V. S., Phillips, D., Kendrick, M. A., Wyatt, B. A., & Goemann, K. (2012). Nature of alkali-carbonate fluids in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Geology, 40(11), 967-970.
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'
Pectolite
Formula: NaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Reference: Cairncross photo ID 738550
Pentlandite
Formula: (FexNiy)Σ9S8
Reference: Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, V. S., Phillips, D., Kendrick, M. A., Wyatt, B. A., & Goemann, K. (2012). Nature of alkali-carbonate fluids in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Geology, 40(11), 967-970.
Perovskite
Formula: CaTiO3
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Potassic-richterite
Formula: {K}{CaNa}{Mg5}Si8O22(OH)2
Reference: S.E. Haggerty, J.R. Smyth, A.J. Erlank, R.S. Rickard, R.V. Danchin: Amer. Mineral. 68:494-505 (1983)
Priderite
Formula: K(Ti4+7Fe3+)O16
Reference: Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, V. S., Phillips, D., Kendrick, M. A., Wyatt, B. A., & Goemann, K. (2012). Nature of alkali-carbonate fluids in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Geology, 40(11), 967-970.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Reference: Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, V. S., Phillips, D., Kendrick, M. A., Wyatt, B. A., & Goemann, K. (2012). Nature of alkali-carbonate fluids in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Geology, 40(11), 967-970.
Rhodesite (TL)
Formula: KHCa2Si8O19 · 5H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Mountain E D (1957) Rhodesite, a new mineral from the Bultfontein mine, Kimberley. Mineralogical Magazine 31, 607-610; Minerals of South Africa
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
'Serpentine Subgroup'
Formula: D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Shortite
Formula: Na2Ca2(CO3)3
Reference: Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, V. S., Phillips, D., Kendrick, M. A., Wyatt, B. A., & Goemann, K. (2012). Nature of alkali-carbonate fluids in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Geology, 40(11), 967-970.; Giuliani, A., Soltys, A., Phillips, D., Kamenetsky, V. S., Maas, R., Goemann, K., ... & Griffin, W. L. (2017). The final stages of kimberlite petrogenesis: petrography, mineral chemistry, melt inclusions and Sr-CO isotope geochemistry of the Bultfontein kimberlite (Kimberley, South Africa). Chemical Geology, 455, 342-356.
Spinel
Formula: MgAl2O4
Spinel var: Pleonaste
Formula: (Mg,Fe)Al2O4
Reference: Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, V. S., Phillips, D., Kendrick, M. A., Wyatt, B. A., & Goemann, K. (2012). Nature of alkali-carbonate fluids in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Geology, 40(11), 967-970.
Sylvite
Formula: KCl
Reference: Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, V. S., Phillips, D., Kendrick, M. A., Wyatt, B. A., & Goemann, K. (2012). Nature of alkali-carbonate fluids in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Geology, 40(11), 967-970.; Giuliani, A., Soltys, A., Phillips, D., Kamenetsky, V. S., Maas, R., Goemann, K., ... & Griffin, W. L. (2017). The final stages of kimberlite petrogenesis: petrography, mineral chemistry, melt inclusions and Sr-CO isotope geochemistry of the Bultfontein kimberlite (Kimberley, South Africa). Chemical Geology, 455, 342-356.
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Reference: S.E. Haggerty, J.R. Smyth, A.J. Erlank, R.S. Rickard, R.V. Danchin: Amer. Mineral. 68:494-505 (1983); Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, V. S., Phillips, D., Kendrick, M. A., Wyatt, B. A., & Goemann, K. (2012). Nature of alkali-carbonate fluids in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Geology, 40(11), 967-970.
Witherite
Formula: BaCO3
Reference: Giuliani, A., Soltys, A., Phillips, D., Kamenetsky, V. S., Maas, R., Goemann, K., ... & Griffin, W. L. (2017). The final stages of kimberlite petrogenesis: petrography, mineral chemistry, melt inclusions and Sr-CO isotope geochemistry of the Bultfontein kimberlite (Kimberley, South Africa). Chemical Geology, 455, 342-356.
Zemkorite
Formula: Na2Ca(CO3)2
Reference: Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, V. S., Phillips, D., Kendrick, M. A., Wyatt, B. A., & Goemann, K. (2012). Nature of alkali-carbonate fluids in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Geology, 40(11), 967-970.; Giuliani, A., Soltys, A., Phillips, D., Kamenetsky, V. S., Maas, R., Goemann, K., ... & Griffin, W. L. (2017). The final stages of kimberlite petrogenesis: petrography, mineral chemistry, melt inclusions and Sr-CO isotope geochemistry of the Bultfontein kimberlite (Kimberley, South Africa). Chemical Geology, 455, 342-356.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Diamond1.CB.10aC
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Pentlandite2.BB.15(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Group 3 - Halides
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Halite3.AA.20NaCl
Sylvite3.AA.20KCl
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Armalcolite4.CB.15(Mg,Fe2+)Ti2O5
Chromite4.BB.05Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Corundum4.CB.05Al2O3
Freudenbergite4.CC.10Na2(Ti,Fe)8O16
Hawthorneite (TL)4.CC.45BaMgTi3Cr4Fe2+2Fe3+2O19
Ilmenite4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
var: Picroilmenite4.CB.05(Fe2+,Mg)TiO3
Lindsleyite (TL)4.CC.40(Ba,Sr)(Zr,Ca)(Fe,Mg)2(Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38
Magnesioferrite4.BB.05MgFe3+2O4
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Mathiasite (TL)4.CC.40(K, Ba, Sr)(Zr, Fe)(Mg,Fe)2 (Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38
Perovskite4.CC.30CaTiO3
Priderite4.DK.05bK(Ti4+7Fe3+)O16
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Spinel4.BB.05MgAl2O4
var: Pleonaste4.BB.05(Mg,Fe)Al2O4
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Bradleyite5.BF.10Na3Mg(CO3)(PO4)
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Eitelite5.AC.05Na2Mg(CO3)2
Fairchildite5.AC.20K2Ca(CO3)2
Gregoryite5.AA.10(Na2,K2,Ca)CO3
Magnesite5.AB.05MgCO3
Nahcolite5.AA.15NaHCO3
Natrite5.AA.10Na2CO3
Nyerereite5.AC.10Na2Ca(CO3)2
Shortite5.AC.25Na2Ca2(CO3)3
Witherite5.AB.15BaCO3
Zemkorite5.AC.10Na2Ca(CO3)2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Aphthitalite7.AC.35(K,Na)3Na(SO4)2
Arcanite7.AD.05K2SO4
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Celestine7.AD.35SrSO4
Kogarkoite7.BD.15Na3(SO4)F
Group 9 - Silicates
Afwillite (TL)9.AG.75Ca3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2O
Bultfonteinite (TL)9.AG.80Ca2(HSiO4)F · H2O
Cuspidine ?9.BE.17Ca4(Si2O7)(F,OH)2
Diopside9.DA.15CaMgSi2O6
var: Chromian Diopside9.DA.15Ca(Mg,Cr)Si2O6
Enstatite9.DA.05MgSiO3
Fluorapophyllite-(K)9.EA.15KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
Kalsilite9.FA.05KAlSiO4
Monticellite9.AC.10CaMgSiO4
Mountainite (TL)9.GG.10KNa2Ca2[Si8O19(OH)] · 6H2O
Natrolite9.GA.05Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Pectolite9.DG.05NaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Phlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Potassic-richterite9.DE.20{K}{CaNa}{Mg5}Si8O22(OH)2
Rhodesite (TL)9.EB.05KHCa2Si8O19 · 5H2O
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-
'Apophyllite'-
'Chrome-Spinel (of Dana)'-
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Hypersthene'-(Mg,Fe)SiO3
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'-
'Serpentine Subgroup'-D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Semi-metals and non-metals
Diamond1.3.6.1C
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 9:8
Pentlandite2.7.1.1(FexNiy)Σ9S8
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Corundum4.3.1.1Al2O3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
Perovskite4.3.3.1CaTiO3
AX2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Chromite7.2.3.3Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Magnesioferrite7.2.2.1MgFe3+2O4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Spinel7.2.1.1MgAl2O4
AB12X19
Hawthorneite (TL)7.4.1.3BaMgTi3Cr4Fe2+2Fe3+2O19
AB2X5
Armalcolite7.7.1.2(Mg,Fe2+)Ti2O5
AB8X16
Freudenbergite7.9.3.1Na2(Ti,Fe)8O16
Priderite7.9.4.1K(Ti4+7Fe3+)O16
Group 8 - MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
AB21O38
Lindsleyite (TL)8.5.1.8(Ba,Sr)(Zr,Ca)(Fe,Mg)2(Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38
Mathiasite (TL)8.5.1.7(K, Ba, Sr)(Zr, Fe)(Mg,Fe)2 (Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX
Halite9.1.1.1NaCl
Sylvite9.1.1.2KCl
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 13 - ACID CARBONATES
Miscellaneous
Nahcolite13.1.1.1NaHCO3
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Gregoryite14.1.2.2(Na2,K2,Ca)CO3
Magnesite14.1.1.2MgCO3
Witherite14.1.3.2BaCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
A2B(XO3)2
Eitelite14.3.2.1Na2Mg(CO3)2
Fairchildite14.3.3.1K2Ca(CO3)2
Nyerereite14.3.4.1Na2Ca(CO3)2
Zemkorite14.3.3.2Na2Ca(CO3)2
Miscellaneous
Shortite14.4.1.1Na2Ca2(CO3)3
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
A2XO4
Aphthitalite28.2.2.1(K,Na)3Na(SO4)2
Arcanite28.2.1.2K2SO4
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Celestine28.3.1.2SrSO4
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Kogarkoite30.1.6.1Na3(SO4)F
Group 43 - COMPOUND PHOSPHATES, ETC.
Anhydrous Normal Compound Phosphates, etc·
Bradleyite43.2.1.1Na3Mg(CO3)(PO4)
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with all cations in octahedral [6] coordination
Monticellite51.3.2.1CaMgSiO4
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Afwillite (TL)52.4.7.1Ca3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2O
Bultfonteinite (TL)52.4.7.2Ca2(HSiO4)F · H2O
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and/or >[4] coordination
Cuspidine ?56.2.4.3Ca4(Si2O7)(F,OH)2
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Diopside65.1.3a.1CaMgSi2O6
Enstatite65.1.2.1MgSiO3
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=3
Pectolite65.2.1.4aNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 72 - PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 3-, 4-, or 5-membered rings and 8-membered rings
Fluorapophyllite-(K)72.3.1.1KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with corrugated and complex layers
Rhodesite (TL)72.5.1.1KHCa2Si8O19 · 5H2O
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework Feldspathoids and related species
Kalsilite76.2.1.1KAlSiO4
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
Natrolite77.1.5.1Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Zeolite group - related species
Mountainite (TL)77.2.3.1KNa2Ca2[Si8O19(OH)] · 6H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Apatite'-
'Apophyllite'-
'Chrome-Spinel (of Dana)'-
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'-
Diopside
var: Chromian Diopside
-Ca(Mg,Cr)Si2O6
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Hypersthene'-(Mg,Fe)SiO3
Ilmenite
var: Picroilmenite
-(Fe2+,Mg)TiO3
Natrite-Na2CO3
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'-
Potassic-richterite-{K}{CaNa}{Mg5}Si8O22(OH)2
'Serpentine Subgroup'-D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Spinel
var: Pleonaste
-(Mg,Fe)Al2O4

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H AfwilliteCa3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2O
H MountainiteKNa2Ca2[Si8O19(OH)] · 6H2O
H RhodesiteKHCa2Si8O19 · 5H2O
H BultfonteiniteCa2(HSiO4)F · H2O
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Potassic-richterite{K}{CaNa}{Mg5}Si8O22(OH)2
H Fluorapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
H NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
H Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
H PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
H NahcoliteNaHCO3
H CuspidineCa4(Si2O7)(F,OH)2
CCarbon
C DiamondC
C CalciteCaCO3
C MagnesiteMgCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C FairchilditeK2Ca(CO3)2
C Gregoryite(Na2,K2,Ca)CO3
C NyerereiteNa2Ca(CO3)2
C NahcoliteNaHCO3
C ZemkoriteNa2Ca(CO3)2
C EiteliteNa2Mg(CO3)2
C ShortiteNa2Ca2(CO3)3
C NatriteNa2CO3
C BradleyiteNa3Mg(CO3)(PO4)
C WitheriteBaCO3
OOxygen
O AfwilliteCa3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2O
O MountainiteKNa2Ca2[Si8O19(OH)] · 6H2O
O Lindsleyite(Ba,Sr)(Zr,Ca)(Fe,Mg)2(Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38
O Mathiasite(K, Ba, Sr)(Zr, Fe)(Mg,Fe)2 (Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38
O HawthorneiteBaMgTi3Cr4Fe22+Fe23+O19
O RhodesiteKHCa2Si8O19 · 5H2O
O BultfonteiniteCa2(HSiO4)F · H2O
O CelestineSrSO4
O CalciteCaCO3
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O PerovskiteCaTiO3
O Diopside (var: Chromian Diopside)Ca(Mg,Cr)Si2O6
O RutileTiO2
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O Potassic-richterite{K}{CaNa}{Mg5}Si8O22(OH)2
O DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O SpinelMgAl2O4
O BaryteBaSO4
O Fluorapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
O NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
O Armalcolite(Mg,Fe2+)Ti2O5
O EnstatiteMgSiO3
O ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
O Hypersthene(Mg,Fe)SiO3
O CorundumAl2O3
O Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
O PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
O Ilmenite (var: Picroilmenite)(Fe2+,Mg)TiO3
O KalsiliteKAlSiO4
O MagnesiteMgCO3
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O FreudenbergiteNa2(Ti,Fe)8O16
O FairchilditeK2Ca(CO3)2
O Gregoryite(Na2,K2,Ca)CO3
O NyerereiteNa2Ca(CO3)2
O NahcoliteNaHCO3
O PrideriteK(Ti74+Fe3+)O16
O ZemkoriteNa2Ca(CO3)2
O EiteliteNa2Mg(CO3)2
O ShortiteNa2Ca2(CO3)3
O NatriteNa2CO3
O MagnesioferriteMgFe23+O4
O Aphthitalite(K,Na)3Na(SO4)2
O BradleyiteNa3Mg(CO3)(PO4)
O KogarkoiteNa3(SO4)F
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O Spinel (var: Pleonaste)(Mg,Fe)Al2O4
O MonticelliteCaMgSiO4
O ArcaniteK2SO4
O WitheriteBaCO3
O CuspidineCa4(Si2O7)(F,OH)2
FFluorine
F BultfonteiniteCa2(HSiO4)F · H2O
F Fluorapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
F KogarkoiteNa3(SO4)F
F FluoriteCaF2
F CuspidineCa4(Si2O7)(F,OH)2
NaSodium
Na MountainiteKNa2Ca2[Si8O19(OH)] · 6H2O
Na Potassic-richterite{K}{CaNa}{Mg5}Si8O22(OH)2
Na NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Na PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Na FreudenbergiteNa2(Ti,Fe)8O16
Na Gregoryite(Na2,K2,Ca)CO3
Na NyerereiteNa2Ca(CO3)2
Na NahcoliteNaHCO3
Na ZemkoriteNa2Ca(CO3)2
Na EiteliteNa2Mg(CO3)2
Na ShortiteNa2Ca2(CO3)3
Na NatriteNa2CO3
Na Aphthitalite(K,Na)3Na(SO4)2
Na BradleyiteNa3Mg(CO3)(PO4)
Na KogarkoiteNa3(SO4)F
Na HaliteNaCl
MgMagnesium
Mg Lindsleyite(Ba,Sr)(Zr,Ca)(Fe,Mg)2(Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38
Mg Mathiasite(K, Ba, Sr)(Zr, Fe)(Mg,Fe)2 (Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38
Mg HawthorneiteBaMgTi3Cr4Fe22+Fe23+O19
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Mg Diopside (var: Chromian Diopside)Ca(Mg,Cr)Si2O6
Mg Potassic-richterite{K}{CaNa}{Mg5}Si8O22(OH)2
Mg DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Mg SpinelMgAl2O4
Mg Armalcolite(Mg,Fe2+)Ti2O5
Mg EnstatiteMgSiO3
Mg Hypersthene(Mg,Fe)SiO3
Mg Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Mg Ilmenite (var: Picroilmenite)(Fe2+,Mg)TiO3
Mg MagnesiteMgCO3
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg EiteliteNa2Mg(CO3)2
Mg MagnesioferriteMgFe23+O4
Mg BradleyiteNa3Mg(CO3)(PO4)
Mg Spinel (var: Pleonaste)(Mg,Fe)Al2O4
Mg MonticelliteCaMgSiO4
AlAluminium
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al SpinelMgAl2O4
Al NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Al CorundumAl2O3
Al Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Al KalsiliteKAlSiO4
Al Spinel (var: Pleonaste)(Mg,Fe)Al2O4
SiSilicon
Si AfwilliteCa3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2O
Si MountainiteKNa2Ca2[Si8O19(OH)] · 6H2O
Si RhodesiteKHCa2Si8O19 · 5H2O
Si BultfonteiniteCa2(HSiO4)F · H2O
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Diopside (var: Chromian Diopside)Ca(Mg,Cr)Si2O6
Si Potassic-richterite{K}{CaNa}{Mg5}Si8O22(OH)2
Si DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si Fluorapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
Si NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Si EnstatiteMgSiO3
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
Si Hypersthene(Mg,Fe)SiO3
Si Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Si PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Si KalsiliteKAlSiO4
Si MonticelliteCaMgSiO4
Si CuspidineCa4(Si2O7)(F,OH)2
PPhosphorus
P BradleyiteNa3Mg(CO3)(PO4)
SSulfur
S CelestineSrSO4
S BaryteBaSO4
S PyriteFeS2
S Aphthitalite(K,Na)3Na(SO4)2
S Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S KogarkoiteNa3(SO4)F
S ArcaniteK2SO4
ClChlorine
Cl SylviteKCl
Cl HaliteNaCl
KPotassium
K MountainiteKNa2Ca2[Si8O19(OH)] · 6H2O
K Mathiasite(K, Ba, Sr)(Zr, Fe)(Mg,Fe)2 (Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38
K RhodesiteKHCa2Si8O19 · 5H2O
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K Potassic-richterite{K}{CaNa}{Mg5}Si8O22(OH)2
K Fluorapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
K KalsiliteKAlSiO4
K FairchilditeK2Ca(CO3)2
K PrideriteK(Ti74+Fe3+)O16
K Aphthitalite(K,Na)3Na(SO4)2
K SylviteKCl
K ArcaniteK2SO4
CaCalcium
Ca AfwilliteCa3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2O
Ca MountainiteKNa2Ca2[Si8O19(OH)] · 6H2O
Ca Lindsleyite(Ba,Sr)(Zr,Ca)(Fe,Mg)2(Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38
Ca Mathiasite(K, Ba, Sr)(Zr, Fe)(Mg,Fe)2 (Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38
Ca RhodesiteKHCa2Si8O19 · 5H2O
Ca BultfonteiniteCa2(HSiO4)F · H2O
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca PerovskiteCaTiO3
Ca Diopside (var: Chromian Diopside)Ca(Mg,Cr)Si2O6
Ca Potassic-richterite{K}{CaNa}{Mg5}Si8O22(OH)2
Ca DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ca Fluorapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
Ca PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca FairchilditeK2Ca(CO3)2
Ca NyerereiteNa2Ca(CO3)2
Ca ZemkoriteNa2Ca(CO3)2
Ca ShortiteNa2Ca2(CO3)3
Ca MonticelliteCaMgSiO4
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca CuspidineCa4(Si2O7)(F,OH)2
TiTitanium
Ti Lindsleyite(Ba,Sr)(Zr,Ca)(Fe,Mg)2(Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38
Ti Mathiasite(K, Ba, Sr)(Zr, Fe)(Mg,Fe)2 (Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38
Ti HawthorneiteBaMgTi3Cr4Fe22+Fe23+O19
Ti PerovskiteCaTiO3
Ti RutileTiO2
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ti Armalcolite(Mg,Fe2+)Ti2O5
Ti Ilmenite (var: Picroilmenite)(Fe2+,Mg)TiO3
Ti FreudenbergiteNa2(Ti,Fe)8O16
Ti PrideriteK(Ti74+Fe3+)O16
CrChromium
Cr Lindsleyite(Ba,Sr)(Zr,Ca)(Fe,Mg)2(Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38
Cr Mathiasite(K, Ba, Sr)(Zr, Fe)(Mg,Fe)2 (Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38
Cr HawthorneiteBaMgTi3Cr4Fe22+Fe23+O19
Cr Diopside (var: Chromian Diopside)Ca(Mg,Cr)Si2O6
Cr ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
MnManganese
Mn Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
FeIron
Fe Lindsleyite(Ba,Sr)(Zr,Ca)(Fe,Mg)2(Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38
Fe Mathiasite(K, Ba, Sr)(Zr, Fe)(Mg,Fe)2 (Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38
Fe HawthorneiteBaMgTi3Cr4Fe22+Fe23+O19
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe Armalcolite(Mg,Fe2+)Ti2O5
Fe ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
Fe Hypersthene(Mg,Fe)SiO3
Fe Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Fe Ilmenite (var: Picroilmenite)(Fe2+,Mg)TiO3
Fe FreudenbergiteNa2(Ti,Fe)8O16
Fe PrideriteK(Ti74+Fe3+)O16
Fe MagnesioferriteMgFe23+O4
Fe Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe Spinel (var: Pleonaste)(Mg,Fe)Al2O4
NiNickel
Ni Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Ni Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
ZnZinc
Zn Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
SrStrontium
Sr Lindsleyite(Ba,Sr)(Zr,Ca)(Fe,Mg)2(Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38
Sr CelestineSrSO4
ZrZirconium
Zr Lindsleyite(Ba,Sr)(Zr,Ca)(Fe,Mg)2(Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38
Zr Mathiasite(K, Ba, Sr)(Zr, Fe)(Mg,Fe)2 (Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38
BaBarium
Ba Lindsleyite(Ba,Sr)(Zr,Ca)(Fe,Mg)2(Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38
Ba HawthorneiteBaMgTi3Cr4Fe22+Fe23+O19
Ba BaryteBaSO4
Ba WitheriteBaCO3

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Quaternary
0 - 2.588 Ma



ID: 3308871

Age: Pleistocene (0 - 2.588 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary

Reference: Thiéblemont, D. (ed.). New edition of the 1:10,000,000 geological map of Africa. CGMW-BRGM. [190]

Permian
251.902 - 298.9 Ma



ID: 2230572
Prince Albert Formation of Ecca Group of Karoo Supergroup

Age: Phanerozoic (251.902 - 298.9 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Prince Albert Formation

Description: Dark-grey mudrock

Reference: Council for Geoscience. Geologic map of South Africa, 1:1M. National Science Councils of South Africa. [41]

Permian
251.902 - 298.9 Ma



ID: 3189153
Paleozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Phanerozoic (251.902 - 298.9 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Karoo Supergroup

Comments: Karoo Basin

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

Localities in this Region
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