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Songwe Hill REE Project (Songwe Hill carbonatite), Phalombe District, Malawi

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This section contains information provided by the site operator.

About Mkango Resources Ltd


Mkango Resources Ltd. (TSX-V / AIM: MKA) is a Canadian dual TSX-V and AIM listed mineral exploration and development company focused on rare earth elements (REE) and associated minerals in the Republic of Malawi, a country whose hospitable people have earned it a reputation as "the warm heart of Africa"

Please click here to visit our website.

Social Responsibility


Mkango has begun implementing a successful early-stage social responsibility program, which is focused on empowerment, education, reducing poverty and hunger.


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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 15° 42' 5'' South , 35° 49' 17'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): -15.70155,35.82150
GeoHash:G#: kv1qxjs7v
Owned/operated by:Mkango Resources (100%)
Locality type:Project
Köppen climate type:Cwa : Monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate


Carbonatite deposit that lies on the north-facing slopes of Songwe Hill (990 m).

Located approximately 70 km from the former capital, Zomba.

Songwe Hill is interpreted as a volcanic vent that is expressed as a steep-sided hill approximately 800m in diameter. Information from surface mapping and drill core indicates that the vent complex consists of a multi-phase intrusion characterised by diverse carbonatites and breccias. The carbonatite is best exposed along the north-eastern slope of Songwe Hill. The vent complex cuts the western end of the large Mauze nepheline syenite intrusion, but the external contacts on the western and northwestern sides of the vent are hidden beneath recent surficial eluvial deposits.

The principal lithologies that comprise the Songwe Hill vent complex are carbonatite, fenite and breccia. The carbonatites are dominantly grey calcic carbonatites, although subordinate ferro-carbonatites are present. The fenites comprise dominantly K-feldspar rocks and appear to form an aureole around the carbonatite. They are interpreted to have formed through metasomatism related to the carbonatite intrusion. The breccias range from clearly abraded pebble-sized fragments (pebble dykes) to angular blocks that are metres in diameter and include significant volumes of breccia in which the fragments appear to have undergone little or no movement.

The principal zone of REE mineralisation outcrops along the northeastern slope of Songwe Hill. REE mineralisation is present in carbonatites, fenites and breccias, which are exposed intermittently over a surface area of approximately 350m by 100m. The REE mineralisation is untested to the northeast and southwest beyond the limits of the present drilling and below the deepest vertical intersection of approximately 350m below the surface of Songwe Hill and there is additional regional exploration potential in the Songwe and other carbonatites. The mineralised body is interpreted to be a carbonatite plug with essentially sub-vertical margins. In plan view, it is elongated in a northeast-southwest direction.

The dominant REE-bearing minerals are synchysite and apatite. The apatite is anomalously enriched in the HREO's compared to apatites in most carbonatite deposits. The REE mineralisation is closely associated with strontianite and baryte and is interpreted to have formed through sub-solidus hydrothermal alteration following the carbonatite intrusion.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


8 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

'Apatite'
Reference: http://www.mkango.ca/s/songwe.asp; Sam Broom-Fendley, Aoife E. Brady, Frances Wall, Gus Gunn, William Dawes (2017): REE minerals at the Songwe Hill carbonatite, Malawi: HREE-enrichment in late-stage apatite. Ore Geology Reviews, 81, 23-41.
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: http://www.mkango.ca/s/songwe.asp; Sam Broom-Fendley, Aoife E. Brady, Frances Wall, Gus Gunn, William Dawes (2017): REE minerals at the Songwe Hill carbonatite, Malawi: HREE-enrichment in late-stage apatite. Ore Geology Reviews, 81, 23-41.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Sam Broom-Fendley, Aoife E. Brady, Frances Wall, Gus Gunn, William Dawes (2017): REE minerals at the Songwe Hill carbonatite, Malawi: HREE-enrichment in late-stage apatite. Ore Geology Reviews, 81, 23-41.
'Calcite-carbonatite'
Reference: http://www.mkango.ca/s/songwe.asp
'Carbonatite'
Reference: Sam Broom-Fendley, Aoife E. Brady, Frances Wall, Gus Gunn, William Dawes (2017): REE minerals at the Songwe Hill carbonatite, Malawi: HREE-enrichment in late-stage apatite. Ore Geology Reviews, 81, 23-41.
'Fenite'
Reference: http://www.mkango.ca/s/songwe.asp; Sam Broom-Fendley, Aoife E. Brady, Frances Wall, Gus Gunn, William Dawes (2017): REE minerals at the Songwe Hill carbonatite, Malawi: HREE-enrichment in late-stage apatite. Ore Geology Reviews, 81, 23-41.
'Ferrocarbonatite'
Reference: http://www.mkango.ca/s/songwe.asp
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Reference: Sam Broom-Fendley, Aoife E. Brady, Frances Wall, Gus Gunn, William Dawes (2017): REE minerals at the Songwe Hill carbonatite, Malawi: HREE-enrichment in late-stage apatite. Ore Geology Reviews, 81, 23-41.
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Reference: Sam Broom-Fendley, Aoife E. Brady, Frances Wall, Gus Gunn, William Dawes (2017): REE minerals at the Songwe Hill carbonatite, Malawi: HREE-enrichment in late-stage apatite. Ore Geology Reviews, 81, 23-41.
Parisite-(Ce)
Formula: CaCe2(CO3)3F2
Reference: Sam Broom-Fendley, Aoife E. Brady, Frances Wall, Gus Gunn, William Dawes (2017): REE minerals at the Songwe Hill carbonatite, Malawi: HREE-enrichment in late-stage apatite. Ore Geology Reviews, 81, 23-41.
'commodity:Rare Earths'
Reference:  
Strontianite
Formula: SrCO3
Reference: http://www.mkango.ca/s/songwe.asp; Sam Broom-Fendley, Aoife E. Brady, Frances Wall, Gus Gunn, William Dawes (2017): REE minerals at the Songwe Hill carbonatite, Malawi: HREE-enrichment in late-stage apatite. Ore Geology Reviews, 81, 23-41.
'Synchysite'
Reference: http://www.mkango.ca/s/songwe.asp
Synchysite-(Ce)
Formula: CaCe(CO3)2F
Reference: Sam Broom-Fendley, Aoife E. Brady, Frances Wall, Gus Gunn, William Dawes (2017): REE minerals at the Songwe Hill carbonatite, Malawi: HREE-enrichment in late-stage apatite. Ore Geology Reviews, 81, 23-41.
Xenotime-(Y)
Formula: Y(PO4)
Reference: Sam Broom-Fendley, Aoife E. Brady, Frances Wall, Gus Gunn, William Dawes (2017): REE minerals at the Songwe Hill carbonatite, Malawi: HREE-enrichment in late-stage apatite. Ore Geology Reviews, 81, 23-41.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 3 - Halides
'Fluorite'3.AB.25CaF2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
'Calcite'5.AB.05CaCO3
'Parisite-(Ce)'5.BD.20bCaCe2(CO3)3F2
'Strontianite'5.AB.15SrCO3
'Synchysite-(Ce)'5.BD.20cCaCe(CO3)2F
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
'Baryte'7.AD.35BaSO4
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
'Fluorapatite'8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
'Xenotime-(Y)'8.AD.35Y(PO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-
'Calcite-carbonatite'-
'Carbonatite'-
'Fenite'-
'Ferrocarbonatite'-
'Synchysite'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Strontianite14.1.3.3SrCO3
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Parisite-(Ce)16a.1.5.1CaCe2(CO3)3F2
Synchysite-(Ce)16a.1.3.1CaCe(CO3)2F
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-
'Calcite-carbonatite'-
'Carbonatite'-
'Fenite'-
'Ferrocarbonatite'-
'Synchysite'-
Xenotime-(Y)-Y(PO4)

List of minerals for each chemical element

CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C Parisite-(Ce)CaCe2(CO3)3F2
C StrontianiteSrCO3
C Synchysite-(Ce)CaCe(CO3)2F
OOxygen
O BaryteBaSO4
O CalciteCaCO3
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O Parisite-(Ce)CaCe2(CO3)3F2
O StrontianiteSrCO3
O Synchysite-(Ce)CaCe(CO3)2F
O Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)
FFluorine
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
F FluoriteCaF2
F Parisite-(Ce)CaCe2(CO3)3F2
F Synchysite-(Ce)CaCe(CO3)2F
PPhosphorus
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
P Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)
SSulfur
S BaryteBaSO4
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca Parisite-(Ce)CaCe2(CO3)3F2
Ca Synchysite-(Ce)CaCe(CO3)2F
SrStrontium
Sr StrontianiteSrCO3
YYttrium
Y Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
CeCerium
Ce Parisite-(Ce)CaCe2(CO3)3F2
Ce Synchysite-(Ce)CaCe(CO3)2F

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Quaternary
0 - 2.588 Ma



ID: 3311711

Age: Pleistocene (0 - 2.588 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary

Reference: Thiéblemont, D. (ed.). New edition of the 1:10,000,000 geological map of Africa. CGMW-BRGM. [190]

Stenian - Ectasian
1000 - 1400 Ma



ID: 3184723
Mesoproterozoic crystalline metamorphic rocks

Age: Mesoproterozoic (1000 - 1400 Ma)

Lithology: Migmatite; orthogneiss/paragneiss

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

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Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Sam Broom-Fendley, Aoife E. Brady, Frances Wall, Gus Gunn, William Dawes (2017): REE minerals at the Songwe Hill carbonatite, Malawi: HREE-enrichment in late-stage apatite. Ore Geology Reviews, 81, 23-41.

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