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Fiano tuff quarries, Nocera Inferiore, Salerno Province, Phlegrean Volcanic Complex, Campania, Italy

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 40° 47' 17'' North , 14° 38' 57'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 40.78833,14.64944
Köppen climate type:Csa : Hot-summer Mediterranean climate
Name(s) in local language(s):Cave di tufo di Fiano (Tufare di Fiano), Nocera Inferiore, Provincia di Salerno, Complesso vulcanico flegreo, Campania, Italia

Old tuff quarries (locally known as Tufare) located to the north of the town of Nocera Inferiore, southwest of the village of Fiano (Nocera Inferiore municipality), and to the south of Lavorate (Sarno municipality).

Quarry operations evidenced metamorphosed xenoliths containg F-, B-, and Mg-rich minerals. The parental rocks of these xenoliths are Mesozoic sedimentary carbonates of the Campanian Apennines, whose fragments were randomly embedded in the pyroclastic flow during its emplacement at the Fiano site (ca. 50 km far from the eruption source). The Campanian Ignimbrite pyroclastic flow emplaced at Fiano had a temperature range of 300-500°C and underwent hydrothermal processes during its cooling.

The F-rich xenoliths within the Campanian Ignimbrite at Fiano were first described by Scacchi (1881, 1885, and 1890), vom Rath (1887), and Zambonini (1913 and 1919). The authors detected various newly formed phases, some of which subsequently discredited: it is the case of "nocerite" (Scacchi, 1881) recognised to be equal to fluoborite (Brisi & Eitel, 1957), "grothine" (Zambonini, 1913) recognised to be equal to norbergite (White, 1981), and "fluosiderite" (Scacchi, 1885) recognised to be equal to chondrodite (Balassone et al., 1995 and 2002).
The Fiano mineral assemblage is mainly represented by halides, F-, Mg- and Ca-bearing silicates, carbonates, and oxides, with subordinate borates, arsenates, and vanadates. The xenoliths exhibit different dimensions, ranging from few millimetres to several centimeters (Carati, 1987). An exceptional occurrence of a block of 2.3x1.4x0.7 m in size was described by Scacchi (1885 and 1890). According to Carati (1987), the xenoliths were initially grouped into "micaceous clasts", "fluoriferous geodes", and "weakly metamorphosed carbonate rocks". The micaceous xenoliths (1-35 cm in size) have friable mica-bearing crusts, brown to honey -yellow in colour. These rocks were considered as derived from limestone protoliths, metamorphosed to a varying extent, and often characterised by one or more crusts and a core constituted by calcite, as a relict of the primary limestone. Fluorite is widespread and pervasive, fluoborite and chondrodite are also common in the various coatings. The "fluoriferous geodes" represent the final product of the metamorphic process affecting the limestone (Masi & Turi, 1972), and are mostly composed of microcrystalline fluorite and rare calcite. The "weakly metamorphosed carbonate rocks” have variable dimensions, and can locally show fluorite-rich veinlets and voids and/or rare silicates as thin external coatings.

Mineral List

26 valid minerals. 2 erroneous literature entries.

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

201.3 - 252.17 Ma

ID: 1381723
Triassic sedimentary rocks

Age: Triassic (201.3 - 252.17 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Geological Survey of Canada. Generalized geological map of the world and linked databases. doi:10.4095/195142. Open File 2915d. [18]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

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Scacchi, A. (1881): Notizie preliminari intorno ai proietti vulcanici di Nocera e Sarno. Atti della R. Accademia dei Lincei, serie 3, Transunti, 5 (1880-81), 270-273.
Scacchi, A. (1885): La regione vulcanica fluorifera della Campania. Atti della R. Accademia delle Scienze fisiche e matematiche di Napoli, serie 2, 2 (1888), 108 pp.
vom Rath, G. (1887): Mineralien von Monte Poni, … , Vesuv, Nocera. Verhandlungen des Naturhistorischen Vereins der Preussischen Rheinlande und Westfalens, 1887, 130-148.
Scacchi, A. (1890): La regione vulcanica fluorifera della Campania. Memorie del R. Comitato Geologico Italiano, 4, 1-52.
Zambonini, F. (1913): Grothina, un nuovo minerale. Atti della Reale Accademia dei Lincei, serie 5, Rendiconti, Classe di scienze fisiche, matematiche e naturali, 22, 1, 801-803.
Zambonini, F. (1919): Il tufo piperinoide della Campania e i suoi minerali. Memorie per servire alla descrizione della Carta geologica d'Italia, 7, 2, 130 pp.
Brisi, C., Eitel, W. (1957): Identity of nocerite and fluoborite. American Mineralogist, 42, 288-293.
Flamini, A. (1966): Sulla composizione chimica della nocerite. Periodico di Mineralogia, 35, 205-222.
Di Girolamo, P. (1968): Petrografia dei tufi campani: il processo di pipernizzazione. Rendiconto dell'Accademia delle Scienze fisiche e matematiche di Napoli, serie 4, 35, 70 pp.
Masi, U., Turi, B. (1972): Frazionamento isotopico del carbonio e dell'ossigeno negli inclusi calcarei metamorfosati del "Tufo grigio campano" Auct. di Fiano (Salerno). Periodico di Mineralogia, 41, 291-310.
Del Caldo, A., Moro, C., Gramaccioli, C.M., Boscardin, M. (1973): Guida ai minerali. Fratelli Fabbri Editori, Milano, 208 pp.
Aleksandrov, S.M. [Александров, С.М.] (1974): Geochemical peculiarities of the occurrences of endogenic borate mineralisation in Italy [Геохимические особенности проявления эндогенной боратной минерализации в Италии]. Geokhimiya, 10, 1440-1449 (in Russian).
White, J.S. (1981): Grothine discredited, equals norbergite. Mineralogical Record, 12, 6, 377-378.
Carati, M. (1988): I minerali degli inclusi metamorfosati nel Tufo Grigio Campano. Notiziario del Gruppo Mineralogico Geologico Napoletano, 18, 5-12.
Balassone, G., Franco, E., Mattia, C.A. (1995): Chondrodite from metamorphic carbonatic ejecta of Campanian Ignimbrite. Plinius, 14, 44-45.
Cámara, F., Ottolini, L. (2000): New data on the crystal-chemistry of fluoborite by means of SREF, SIMS, and EMP analysis. American Mineralogist, 85, 103-108.
Balassone, G., Franco, E., Mattia, C.A., Petti, C., Puliti, R. (2002): Re-examination of fluosiderite, an unknown mineral from southern Italy: equal to fluorine-rich chondrodite. European Journal of Mineralogy, 14, 151-155.
Lacalamita, M., Balassone, G., Schingaro, E., Mesto, E., Mormone, A., Piochi, M., Ventruti, G., Joachimski, M., (2016): Fluorophlogopite-bearing and carbonate 1 metamorphosed xenoliths from the Campanian Ignimbrite (Fiano, southern Italy): crystal chemical, geochemical and volcanological insights. Mineralogical Magazine, Prepublication; http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/minsoc/mag/pre-prints/content-minmag-1290;jsessionid=2etf74elfv6x4.x-ic-live-02

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