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Bushveld Complex, South Africa

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Locality type:Complex

The Bushveld complex is a (65,000 km2) layered intrusive. It contains many magmatic ores, pegmatitic and hydrothermal ore deposits and has metamorphosed the floor rocks of the intrusive. The major deposits are of platinum group elements, chrome, nickel, vanadium and uranium.
It is a large complex covering a major area of the province formerly known as the Transvaal which has since been divided up and the Bushveld Igneous Complex now occurs in the following Provinces: North West, Gauteng, for the western limb and Limpopo and Mpumalanga for the eastern limb.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

1 valid mineral. 1 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Maghemite (TL)
Formula: Fe3+2O3
Reference: Wagner P A (1927) Changes in the oxidation of iron in magnetite, Economic Geology 22, 845-846
'Unnamed (Ir-Ni Alloy I)'
Formula: Ir-Fe
Reference: Kinloch, E.D. (1982): Economic Geology 77, 1328-1347.
'Unnamed (Ir-Os-Rh-Pd-Cu-Fe-Ni Sulphide)'
Reference: Kinloch, E.D. (1982): Economic Geology 77, 1328-1347.
'Unnamed (Ir-Os Sulphide III)'
Reference: McLaren, C.H., and de Villiers, J.P.R. (1982): Economic Geology 77, 1348-1366.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Maghemite' (TL)4.BB.15Fe3+2O3
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Unnamed (Ir-Ni Alloy I)'-Ir-Fe
'Unnamed (Ir-Os Sulphide III)'-
'Unnamed (Ir-Os-Rh-Pd-Cu-Fe-Ni Sulphide)'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Maghemite (TL)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Unnamed (Ir-Ni Alloy I)'-Ir-Fe
'Unnamed (Ir-Os Sulphide III)'-
'Unnamed (Ir-Os-Rh-Pd-Cu-Fe-Ni Sulphide)'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

O MaghemiteFe23+O3
Fe MaghemiteFe23+O3
Fe Unnamed (Ir-Ni Alloy I)Ir-Fe
Ir Unnamed (Ir-Ni Alloy I)Ir-Fe


Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Hall, A.L. and Humphrey, A.W. (1908) On the occurrence of chromite deposits along the southern and eastern margins of the Bushveld plutonic complex. Geological Society of South Africa Transactions: 11: 69-77.
Cawthorn, R.G. and McCarthy, TS. (1980) Variations in Cr content of magnetite from the upper zone of the Bushveld complex - Evidence for heterogeneity and convection currents in magma chambers. Earth and Planetary Science Letters: 46: 335-343.
Kinloch, E.D. (1982): Regional trends in platinum-group mineralogy of the Critical Zone of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Economic Geology 77, 1328-1347.
McLaren, C.H., and de Villiers, J.P.R. (1982): The platinum-group chemistry and mineralogy of the UG2 chromitite layer of the Bushveld Complex. Economic Geology 77, 1348-1366.
McCarthy, T.S. and Cawthorn, R.G. (1983) The geochemistry of vanadiferous magnetite in the Bushveld complex: Implications for crystallization mechanisms in layered complexes. Mineralium Deposita: 18: 505-518.
Reynolds, I.M. (1985) The nature and origin of titaniferous magnetite-rich layers in the upper zone of the Bushveld complex: A review and synthesis. Economic Geology: 80: 1089-1108.
Von Gruenewaldt, G., Hatton, C.J., Merkle, R.K.W., and Gain, S.B. (1986) Platinum-group element - chromitite associations in the Bushveld complex. Economic Geology: 81: 1067-1079.
Harney, D.M.W. and von Gruenewaldt, G. (1995) Ore-forming processes in the upper part of the Bushveld complex, South Africa. Journal of African Earth Sciences: 20(2): 77-89.
Cawthorn, R.G. Merkle, R.K.W., and Viljoen, M.J. (2002a) Platinum-group element deposits in the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. In The Geology, Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Mineral Beneficiation of Platinum-Group Elements (L.J. Cabri, editor) Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum, Special volume: 54: 389-429.
Cawthorn, R.G., Lee, C.A., Schouwstra, R.P., and Mellowship, P. (2002b) Relationship between PGE and PGM in the Bushveld Complex. Canadian Mineralogist: 40: 311-328.
Maier, W.D., de Klerk, L., Blaine, J., Manyeruke, T., Barnes, S.-J., Stevens, M.V.A., and Mavrogenes, J.A. (2008): Petrogenesis of contact-style PGE mineralization in the northern lobe of the Bushveld Complex: comparison of data from the farms Rooipoort, Townlands, Drenthe and Nonnenwerth. Mineralium Deposita 43, 255-280.
Cairncross, B., and Beukes, N. J., (2013) The Kalahari Manganese Field, the adventure continues. Struik Nature Publishers, Cape Town, South Africa.
Smith, J. W. (2014). The nature and origin of PGE mineralization in the Rooipoort area, northern Bushveld Complex, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Department of Geology).
Mathez, E.A. and Kinzler, R.J. (2017): Metasomatic chromitite seams in the Bushveld and Rum layered intrusions. Elements 13, 397-402.

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