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Alfenza Mine, Crodo, Antigorio Valley, Ossola Valley, Verbano-Cusio-Ossola Province, Piedmont, Italyi
Regional Level Types
Alfenza MineMine
Crodo- not defined -
Antigorio ValleyValley
Ossola ValleyValley
Verbano-Cusio-Ossola ProvinceProvince
PiedmontRegion
ItalyCountry

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Name(s) in local language(s):Miniera dell'Alfenza, Crodo, Valle Antigorio, Val d'Ossola, Provincia del Verbano-Cusio-Ossola, Piemonte, Italia
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 46° 13' 42'' North , 8° 19' 0'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 46.22839,8.31685
GeoHash:G#: u0jyvr85u
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:Dfc : Subarctic climate
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Cravegna190 (2014)1.3km
Crodo871 (2014)1.3km
Crino102 (2014)3.0km
Baceno420 (2014)3.6km
Premia376 (2014)4.7km


Old gold mine on the right bank of Rio Alfenza, about 1200 m from its confluence with the Toce River and 700 m NW of Crodo.

The Au-bearing ores are hosted in quartz dykes intruding NNW-SSE oriented fractures in garnet-biotite micaschists, partially covered by tillitic deposits.

Due to the presence of auriferous pyrite, the dykes were intensively mined during the XVIII century (the peak in the production of gold was recorded in the period 1771-74: 23.32 kg in 1771, approximately 19.5 kg in 1772, a little less than 22 kg in 1773, about 15.5 in 1774). After an alternance between exploitation and stop periods, the mine was definitively abandoned in 1941.

The ore mineralogy mainly consists of pyrite with subordinate arsenopyrite, bismuthinite and cosalite, scarsce chalcopyrite (bisphenoidal crystals up to 42 mm were found at level 4) and sporadic bornite. Gangue consists of compact or cavernous quartz with calcite, dolomite, and siderite. Bismuthinite is more abundant at level 1, while cosalite at level 4 (which was exploited from 1939 to 1941 only).

Interesting bismuthinite alteration products have been recently identified:
- cannonite, as straw-coloured crystalline aggregate (Orlandi, 1999) and radiating acicular aggregates of colourless elongated crystals (Capitani et al., 2014);
- a new phase consisting of white hemispherical ("hortensia-like") aggregates of pseudohexagonal platelets (up to 20 microns in size) of approximate composition Bi2O2(SO4) with cell parameters, as determined by automatic diffraction tomography, a = 22.0(4), b = 16.7(3), c = 15.9(3) Å, β = 102.9(5)°, and space group Pc or P2/c (Capitani et al., 2014);
- a second new phase, detected only by TEM, distinguishable by its random orientation on the TEM grid (i.e., absence of preferential parting), the higher resistance under the electron beam, and different cell parameters and structure, whereas the composition is similar (Bi/S ~ 2.2/1) to the previous phase, apart for the presence of tellurium up to ~6 cation %. The unit cell is hexagonal, space group P6̄2c, a = 9.5(2) and c = 15.4(3) Å. A structure model, obtained ab initio from electron diffraction data, shows that this mineral has a porous structure and looks like a "bismuth-zeolite" with one dimensional porosity (diameter of the channel ~7 Å) (Capitani et al., 2014).

Beryl, as colourless acicular crystals in association with quartz and pyrite, has been recently found (Guastoni et al., 2014).


Regions containing this locality

Eurasian PlateTectonic Plate
EuropeContinent
The Alps, EuropeMountain Range

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


25 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Reference: Capitani, G. C., Mugnaioli E., Rius J., Gentile P., Catelani T., Lucotti A., Kolb U. (2014): The Bi sulfates from the Alfenza Mine, Crodo, Italy: An automatic electron diffraction tomography (ADT) study. Am. Mineral., 99, 500–510.
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Reference: Ferraris G., Franchini Angela M., Roggiani A.G., (1970) - Cosalite nelle miniere aurifere del T. Afenza, (Crodo, Val 'Ossola) Per. Min., Roma, vol. 39, Fasc. 1, pp. 165-172 and M. Boscardin: Informazioni di Mineralogia Italiana: 43) Cosalite di Crodo (Ossola) - in Notizie del Gruppo Min. Lombardo - Milano - fasc. 3, Sept. 1974 - pag. 52
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Guastoni A., Sartori E., Sartori A., Nestola F., Gentile P., Pozzi A., Ronchi A. (2014): Berillo e bertrandite tra Domodossola e Agaro (Verbano-Cusio-Ossola). Riv. Mineral. Ital., 38, (2), 96-104.
Bismuthinite
Formula: Bi2S3
Reference: Ferraris G., Franchini Angela M., Roggiani A.G., (1970) - Cosalite nelle miniere aurifere del T. Afenza, (Crodo, Val 'Ossola) Per. Min., Roma, vol. 39, Fasc. 1, pp. 165-172 and M. Boscardin: Informazioni di Mineralogia Italiana: 43) Cosalite di Crodo (Ossola) - in Notizie del Gruppo Min. Lombardo - Milano - fasc. 3, Sept. 1974 - pag. 52
Bismutite
Formula: (BiO)2CO3
Reference: Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Reference: Ferraris G., Franchini Angela M., Roggiani A.G., (1970) - Cosalite nelle miniere aurifere del T. Afenza, (Crodo, Val 'Ossola) Per. Min., Roma, vol. 39, Fasc. 1, pp. 165-172 and M. Boscardin: Informazioni di Mineralogia Italiana: 43) Cosalite di Crodo (Ossola) - in Notizie del Gruppo Min. Lombardo - Milano - fasc. 3, Sept. 1974 - pag. 52
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
Cannonite
Formula: Bi2(SO4)O(OH)2
Reference: Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.; Capitani, G.C., Catelani, T., Gentile, P., Lucotti, A., Zema, M. (2013): Cannonite [Bi2O(SO4)(OH)2] from Alfenza (Crodo, Italy): crystal structure and morphology. Mineralogical Magazine, 77, 3067-3079; Capitani, G. C. et al. (2014): The Bi sulfates from the Alfenza Mine, Crodo, Italy: An automatic electron diffraction tomography (ADT) study. American Mineralogist, 99, 500–510.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Ferraris G., Franchini Angela M., Roggiani A.G., (1970) - Cosalite nelle miniere aurifere del T. Afenza, (Crodo, Val 'Ossola) Per. Min., Roma, vol. 39, Fasc. 1, pp. 165-172 and M. Boscardin: Informazioni di Mineralogia Italiana: 43) Cosalite di Crodo (Ossola) - in Notizie del Gruppo Min. Lombardo - Milano - fasc. 3, Sept. 1974 - pag. 52
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Reference: Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
Cosalite
Formula: Pb2Bi2S5
Reference: Ferraris G., Franchini Angela M., Roggiani A.G., (1970) - Cosalite nelle miniere aurifere del T. Afenza, (Crodo, Val 'Ossola) Per. Min., Roma, vol. 39, Fasc. 1, pp. 165-172 and M. Boscardin: Informazioni di Mineralogia Italiana: 43) Cosalite di Crodo (Ossola) - in Notizie del Gruppo Min. Lombardo - Milano - fasc. 3, Sept. 1974 - pag. 52
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: Ferraris G., Franchini Angela M., Roggiani A.G., (1970) - Cosalite nelle miniere aurifere del T. Afenza, (Crodo, Val 'Ossola) Per. Min., Roma, vol. 39, Fasc. 1, pp. 165-172 and M. Boscardin: Informazioni di Mineralogia Italiana: 43) Cosalite di Crodo (Ossola) - in Notizie del Gruppo Min. Lombardo - Milano - fasc. 3, Sept. 1974 - pag. 52
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
Gold
Formula: Au
Reference: Ferraris G., Franchini Angela M., Roggiani A.G., (1970) - Cosalite nelle miniere aurifere del T. Afenza, (Crodo, Val 'Ossola) Per. Min., Roma, vol. 39, Fasc. 1, pp. 165-172 and M. Boscardin: Informazioni di Mineralogia Italiana: 43) Cosalite di Crodo (Ossola) - in Notizie del Gruppo Min. Lombardo - Milano - fasc. 3, Sept. 1974 - pag. 52
Magnesite
Formula: MgCO3
Reference: Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
Melanterite
Formula: Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Reference: Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Reference: Mattioli V. (1979): Minerali Ossolani. Ed. Arti Grafiche Medesi, Milano, 268 pp.; Pipino G. (2003): Oro, Miniere, Storia. Miscellanea di giacimentologia e storia mineraria italiana. Ed. Museo Storico dell'Oro Italiano, Ovada, 510 pp.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Ferraris G., Franchini Angela M., Roggiani A.G., (1970) - Cosalite nelle miniere aurifere del T. Afenza, (Crodo, Val 'Ossola) Per. Min., Roma, vol. 39, Fasc. 1, pp. 165-172 and M. Boscardin: Informazioni di Mineralogia Italiana: 43) Cosalite di Crodo (Ossola) - in Notizie del Gruppo Min. Lombardo - Milano - fasc. 3, Sept. 1974 - pag. 52
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Ferraris G., Franchini Angela M., Roggiani A.G., (1970) - Cosalite nelle miniere aurifere del T. Afenza, (Crodo, Val 'Ossola) Per. Min., Roma, vol. 39, Fasc. 1, pp. 165-172 and M. Boscardin: Informazioni di Mineralogia Italiana: 43) Cosalite di Crodo (Ossola) - in Notizie del Gruppo Min. Lombardo - Milano - fasc. 3, Sept. 1974 - pag. 52
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Reference: Ferraris G., Franchini Angela M., Roggiani A.G., (1970) - Cosalite nelle miniere aurifere del T. Afenza, (Crodo, Val 'Ossola) Per. Min., Roma, vol. 39, Fasc. 1, pp. 165-172 and M. Boscardin: Informazioni di Mineralogia Italiana: 43) Cosalite di Crodo (Ossola) - in Notizie del Gruppo Min. Lombardo - Milano - fasc. 3, Sept. 1974 - pag. 52
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Pipino G. (2003): Oro, Miniere, Storia. Miscellanea di giacimentologia e storia mineraria italiana. Ed. Museo Storico dell'Oro Italiano, Ovada, 510 pp.
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Reference: Capitani, G. C., Mugnaioli E., Rius J., Gentile P., Catelani T., Lucotti A., Kolb U. (2014): The Bi sulfates from the Alfenza Mine, Crodo, Italy: An automatic electron diffraction tomography (ADT) study. Am. Mineral., 99, 500–510.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Gold1.AA.05Au
Sulphur1.CC.05S8
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Arsenopyrite2.EB.20FeAsS
Bismuthinite2.DB.05Bi2S3
Bornite2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Cosalite2.JB.10Pb2Bi2S5
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Molybdenite2.EA.30MoS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Aragonite5.AB.15CaCO3
Bismutite5.BE.25(BiO)2CO3
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Magnesite5.AB.05MgCO3
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Anglesite7.AD.35PbSO4
Cannonite7.BD.35Bi2(SO4)O(OH)2
Melanterite7.CB.35Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Beryl9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Chrysocolla9.ED.20Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Semi-metals and non-metals
Sulphur1.3.5.1S8
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Bismuthinite2.11.2.3Bi2S3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Molybdenite2.12.10.1MoS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
2.5 < ø < 3
Cosalite3.5.9.1Pb2Bi2S5
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Magnesite14.1.1.2MgCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Bismutite16a.3.5.1(BiO)2CO3
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anglesite28.3.1.3PbSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Melanterite29.6.10.1Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Cannonite30.2.9.1Bi2(SO4)O(OH)2
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
Beryl61.1.1.1Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Group 74 - PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
Modulated Layers with joined strips
Chrysocolla74.3.2.1Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Aragonite-CaCO3

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H CannoniteBi2(SO4)O(OH)2
H ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
BeBeryllium
Be BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
CCarbon
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C SideriteFeCO3
C AragoniteCaCO3
C Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
C CalciteCaCO3
C MagnesiteMgCO3
OOxygen
O QuartzSiO2
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O SideriteFeCO3
O AragoniteCaCO3
O Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
O CalciteCaCO3
O CannoniteBi2(SO4)O(OH)2
O ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O MagnesiteMgCO3
O MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
O AnglesitePbSO4
O BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
MgMagnesium
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg MagnesiteMgCO3
AlAluminium
Al ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Al BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
Si ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Si BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
SSulfur
S PyriteFeS2
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S BismuthiniteBi2S3
S CosalitePb2Bi2S5
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S CannoniteBi2(SO4)O(OH)2
S GalenaPbS
S MarcasiteFeS2
S MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
S AnglesitePbSO4
S SulphurS8
S SphaleriteZnS
S MolybdeniteMoS2
CaCalcium
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
Ca CalciteCaCO3
FeIron
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AsArsenic
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
MoMolybdenum
Mo MolybdeniteMoS2
AuGold
Au GoldAu
PbLead
Pb CosalitePb2Bi2S5
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb AnglesitePbSO4
BiBismuth
Bi BismuthiniteBi2S3
Bi CosalitePb2Bi2S5
Bi Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
Bi CannoniteBi2(SO4)O(OH)2

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Unknown
Ma



ID: 2357470
Metamorphe Gesteine, meist Metasedimente

Age: Anthropocene ( Ma)

Lithology: Gneiss and mica schist

Reference: Geological Institute. Geological Map of Switzerland 1:500,000. isbn: 3906723399. University of Bern. [49]

Late Paleozoic
251.902 - 358.9 Ma



ID: 3192871
Paleozoic intrusive rocks

Age: Phanerozoic (251.902 - 358.9 Ma)

Comments: Alps

Lithology: Intrusive igneous rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Paleozoic - Proterozoic
251.902 - 2500 Ma



ID: 3151199
basement

Age: to Triassic (251.902 - 2500 Ma)

Description: medium grade metamorphic

Lithology: Gneiss

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
- Barelli V. (1835): Cenni di statistica mineralogica degli Stati di S.M. il Re di Sardegna, ovvero Catalogo ragionato della Raccolta formatasi presso l'Azienda Generale dell'Interno. Tipogr. G. Fodratti, Torino, 686 pp.
- Jervis G. (1873): I tesori sotterranei dell'Italia. Vol. 1: Regioni delle Alpi. Ed. Loescher, Torino, 410 pp.
- Bianchi A. (1924): La bismutinite di Crodo in Val d'Ossola e le costanti cristallografiche della bismutinite. Rend. R. Accad. Lincei, Classe sc. fis. mat. e nat., serie 5, 33, 254-258.
- Roggiani A.G. (1940): Il regno minerale nell'Ossola. II. La bismutinite delle miniere aurifere di Crodo. Secondo ritrovamento. Tipogr. C. Antonioli, Domodossola, 11 pp.
- Stella A. (1943): I giacimenti auriferi delle Alpi Italiane. Mem. descr. Carta geol. d'Italia, 27, 134 pp.
- Roggiani A.G. (1946): Il regno minerale nell'Ossola. V. Le miniere aurifere del torrente Alfenza (Crodo). Elenco dei minerali. Tipogr. C. Antonioli, Domodossola, 30 pp.
- Roggiani A.G. (1948): Appunti per una descrizione della miniera aurifera dell'Alfenza in territorio di Crodo in Val d'Ossola. Natura, 39, 1, 9-21.
- Ferraris G., Franchini Angela M., Roggiani A.G. (1970): Cosalite nelle miniere aurifere del torrente Alfenza (Crodo, Val d'Ossola). Per. Minral., 39, 1, 165-172.
- Roggiani A.G. (1948): Appunti per una mineralogia dell'Ossola. Oro nativo e cosalite: due ulteriori conferme sulla validità scientifica dei giacimenti auriferi dell'Alfenza (Crodo). Illustrazione Ossolana, XII, 4, 104-112.
- Del Caldo A., Moro C., Gramaccioli C.M., Boscardin M. (1973): Guida ai minerali. Fratelli Fabbri Editori, Milano, 208 pp.
- Boscardin M. (1974): Informazioni di Mineralogia Italiana. 43) Cosalite di Crodo (Ossola). Notizie del Gruppo Mineralogico Lombardo, 3 (Sett. 1974), 52.
- Gramaccioli C.M. (1975): Minerali alpini e prealpini. Istituto Italiano Edizioni Atlas, Bergamo, 2 vol., 472 pp.
- Mattioli V. (1979): Minerali Ossolani. Ed. Arti Grafiche Medesi, Milano, 268 pp.
- Orlandi P. (1999): Zibaldone di mineralogia italiana [Cannonite]. Riv. Mineral. It., 23, (3), 170-175.
- Pipino G. (2003): Oro, Miniere, Storia. Miscellanea di giacimentologia e storia mineraria italiana. Ed. Museo Storico dell'Oro Italiano, Ovada, 510 pp.
- Piccoli G.C., Maletto G., Bosio P., Lombardo B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" di Alba, Ed., Alba, 607 pp.
- Capitani G.C., Catelani T., Gentile P., Lucotti A., Zema M. (2013): Cannonite [Bi2O(SO4)(OH)2] from Alfenza (Crodo, Italy): crystal structure and morphology . Mineralogical Magazine, 77, (8), 3067–3079.
- Capitani, G. C., Mugnaioli E., Rius J., Gentile P., Catelani T., Lucotti A., Kolb U. (2014): The Bi sulfates from the Alfenza Mine, Crodo, Italy: An automatic electron diffraction tomography (ADT) study. Am. Mineral., 99, 500–510.
- Guastoni A., Sartori E., Sartori A., Nestola F., Gentile P., Pozzi A., Ronchi A. (2014): Berillo e bertrandite tra Domodossola e Agaro (Verbano-Cusio-Ossola). Riv. Mineral. Ital., 38, (2), 96-104.


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