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Allerdale, Cumbria, England, UKi
Regional Level Types
AllerdaleDistrict
CumbriaCounty
EnglandConstituent Country
UKCountry

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Key
Locality type:
Largest Settlements:
PlacePopulation
Workington27,120 (2018)
Maryport9,555 (2018)
Cockermouth9,146 (2018)
Wigton5,831 (2018)
Keswick4,281 (2018)
Silloth2,906 (2018)
Other Languages:
French:
Allerdale, Cumbria, Angleterre, Royaume-Uni
German:
Allerdale, Cumbria, England, Vereinigtes Königreich
Italian:
Allerdale, Cumbria, Inghilterra, Regno Unito
Russian:
Олердейл, Камбрия, Англия, Великобритания
Simplified Chinese:
艾勒達爾, 坎布里亞郡, 英格兰, 英国
Spanish:
Allerdale, Cumbria, Inglaterra, Reino Unido
Asturian:
Allerdale, Cumbria, Inglaterra, Reinu Xuníu
Bulgarian:
Алърдейл, Къмбрия, Англия, Обединено кралство Великобритания и Северна Ирландия
Cebuano:
Allerdale District, Cumbria, Inglatera, Hiniusang Gingharian
Dutch:
Allerdale, Cumbria, Engeland, Verenigd Koninkrijk
Farsi/Persian:
الیردال, کامبریا, انگلستان, بریتانیا
Finnish:
Allerdale, Cumbria, Englanti, Yhdistynyt kuningaskunta
Greek:
Άλερντεϊλ, Κάμπρια, Αγγλία, Ηνωμένο Βασίλειο
Japanese:
アラーデール, カンブリア, イングランド, イギリス
Korean:
앨러데일, 컴브리아주, 잉글랜드, 영국
Norwegian:
Allerdale, Cumbria, England, Storbritannia
Polish:
Allerdale, Kumbria, Anglia, Wielka Brytania
Romanian:
Allerdale, Cumbria, Anglia, Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii și al Irlandei de Nord
Swedish:
Allerdale, Cumbria, England, Storbritannien
Ukrainian:
Олердейл, Камбрія, Англія, Велика Британія
Urdu:
الیرڈیل, کامبریا, انگلستان, مملکت متحدہ
Welsh:
Allerdale, Cumbria, Lloegr, Y Deyrnas Unedig


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Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded from this region.


Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

223 valid minerals. 1 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals. 2 erroneous literature entries.

Rock Types Recorded

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Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

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Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Acanthite
Formula: Ag2S
Actinolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Adamite
Formula: Zn2(AsO4)(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Adamite var: Cuprian Adamite
Formula: (Zn,Cu)2AsO4OH
'Agardite'
Agardite-(La)
Formula: LaCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
Reference: Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 4, 2000
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Albite var: Andesine
Formula: (Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
'Allanite Group'
Formula: {A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: BMS Database
Alloclasite
Formula: Co1-xFexAsS
Reference: BMS Database; Handbook of Mineralogy; R. A. Ixer, C. J. Stanley and D. J. Vaughan (1979) Cobalt-, Nickel-, and Iron-Bearing Sulpharsenides from the North of England. Mineralogical Magazine 43:389-395.
Allophane
Formula: (Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Alunite ?
Formula: KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Description: Small colourless rhombs and white massive from a vein in a dolerite sill. Given the fact that this is a Kingsbury reference, it is highly likely to be fraudulent.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. (1955) Mineralogical Magazine, 32, 418 (?, Volume 32 dates from 1959 to 1961); Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1958) Jarosite and natrojarosite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 31, n° 240, 813-815.; Embrey, P.G. (1978) Fourth supplementary list of British minerals. Mineralogical Magazine, vol.42, n° 322, 169-177. (referring to Kingsbury 1955).
Anatase
Formula: TiO2
Andalusite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Andalusite var: Chiastolite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Reference: BMS Database
Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Localities: Reported from at least 20 localities in this region.
Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Annabergite
Formula: Ni3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
'Anorthoclase'
Formula: (Na,K)AlSi3O8
Reference: Eastwood, T., Hollingworth, S.E., Rose, W.C.C., and Trotter, F.M. (1968) Geology of the country around Cockermouth and Caldbeck. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain. Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Eastwood et al., 1968).;
Antigorite
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: BMS Database
Antimony
Formula: Sb
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Antlerite
Formula: Cu3(SO4)(OH)4
'Apatite'
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Apatite Group'
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Arsendescloizite
Formula: PbZn(AsO4)(OH)
Reference: Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 9, 2006
Arseniosiderite
Formula: Ca2Fe3+3(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Localities: Reported from at least 26 localities in this region.
Arsentsumebite
Formula: Pb2Cu(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)
Reference: Trevor F. Bridges, David Green, Michael S. Rumsey and C. Michael Leppington (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine Journal of the Russell Society 14:3-23.
Asbolane
Formula: (Ni,Co)2-xMn4+(O,OH)4 · nH2O
Reference: Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 9, 2006
Atacamite
Formula: Cu2(OH)3Cl
Augite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Aurichalcite
Formula: (Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Bariopharmacosiderite
Formula: Ba0.5Fe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 5H2O
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Localities: Reported from at least 34 localities in this region.
Bayldonite
Formula: PbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Beaverite-(Cu)
Formula: Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Bechererite
Formula: Zn7Cu(OH)13[(SiO(OH)3(SO4)]
Beraunite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2O
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Listed by Hartley (1984). Young (1987) was wrong to suggest that Hartley's record was a misprint for braunite (J. Hartley, pers. comm.)."
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984 and Young, 1987).
Berthierite
Formula: FeSb2S4
Description: In the 'antimony vein' as crystals to 2 mm with other sulphosalts embedded in quartz (Fortey et al., 1984).
Reference: Fortey, N.J., Ingham, J.D., Skilton, B.R.H., Young, B., and Shepherd, T.J. (1984) Antimony mineralization at Wet Swine Gill, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 45(1-2), 59-65.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Fortey et al., 1984).
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: BMS Database
Beudantite
Formula: PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Localities: Reported from at least 17 localities in this region.
'Bindheimite'
Formula: Pb2Sb2O6O
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
'Biotite'
Formula: K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Bismuth
Formula: Bi
Bismuthinite
Formula: Bi2S3
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Boulangerite
Formula: Pb5Sb4S11
Bournonite
Formula: PbCuSbS3
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Braunite
Formula: Mn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Listed in error for beraunite in Young (1987)."
Reference: Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Young, 1987).
Breithauptite ?
Formula: NiSb
Description: Kingsbury reference. Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Specimens in the Kingsbury Collection, BM(NH) show breithauptite with galena and sphalerite in calcite. Kingsbury (MS1) suggests the specimens came from the 'old No. 1 cross-cut dumps', however, the occurrence was not known to his one-time colleague, J. Hartley (pers. comm., 1987).
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. (MS1) (1953 or later) Investigation of the minerals of the Lake District, especially the Caldbeck area, in collaboration with J. Hartley. List of minerals found by us at many localities examined 1947-.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury, 1953).
'Brewsterite' ?
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "The 'brewsterite' recorded by Hall (1868) as an associate of tenorite and chalcopyrite is unlikely to be the zeolitic brewsterite (of Brooke) as assumed by Young (1987). It is more likely to be the 'brewsterite' listed by Branston (1910) and Postlethwaite (1913) as 'protoxide of copper'. Although the latter is a synonym of cuprite, the name brewsterite in this context does not appear in any standard mineralogy or synonymy known to the authors and the precise definition of the term appears to be lost."
Reference: Hall, T.M. (1868) The Mineralogist's directory: or a guide to the principal mineral localities in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Edward Stanford, London, 168 pp.; Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Brianyoungite
Formula: Zn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Localities: Reported from at least 18 localities in this region.
Cacoxenite ?
Formula: Fe3+24AlO6(PO4)17(OH)12 · 75H2O
Habit: fibrous
Colour: yellow
Description: Kingsbury reference? Cooper & Stanley (1990): "This appears to be the first published British occurrence of the species, although long-known from localities in Cornwall. Specimens in the Kingsbury Collection, BM(NH), show yellow fibres of cacoxenite on a 'limonitic' matrix."
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 24 localities in this region.
Caledonite
Formula: Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Carminite
Formula: PbFe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 14 localities in this region.
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 31 localities in this region.
Cervantite
Formula: Sb3+Sb5+O4
Reference: No reference listed
Cesàrolite
Formula: Pb(Mn4+)3O6(OH)2
Chalcanthite ?
Formula: CuSO4 · 5H2O
Description: Kingsbury reference. Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Specimens labelled chalcanthite, showing thin bluish crusts on quartz-sulphide matrix, are preserved in the Kingsbury Collection (BM(NH)). Kingsbury (unpublished manuscript) comments on the occurrence: 'x-ray photo has since shown it to be an 'unidentified' sulphate'. The persistence of chalcanthite in an area of such high rainfall is doubtful."
Reference: Kingsbury (xxxx) Unpublished manuscript.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Chalcophyllite ?
Formula: Cu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
Habit: hexagonal
Colour: milky green
Description: Kingsbury reference. Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Specimens from the 'old No. 1 cross-cut dumps' are preserved in the Kingsbury Collection (BM(NH)), and show typical small hexagonal milky green crystals encrusting small pieces of matrix."
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to specimens in the Kingsbury Collection and Hartley, 1984).
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Localities: Reported from at least 45 localities in this region.
Chenite
Formula: Pb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6
Childrenite ?
Formula: Fe2+Al(PO4)(OH)2 · H2O
Description: Kingsbury reference.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G., Hartley, J. (1957) Childrenite from the Lake District, Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 31, n° 237, 498.; BMS Database.
Chlorargyrite ?
Formula: AgCl
Description: Kingsbury reference. Cooper & Stanley (1990): "In the vein outcrop workings (Hartley, 1984); 'traces' according to Kingsbury (MS1)."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS1) (1953 or later) Investigation of the minerals of the Lake District, especially the Caldbeck area, in collaboration with J. Hartley. List of minerals found by us at many localities examined 1947-.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury and Hartley, 153 and Hartley, 1984).
'Chlorite Group'
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Localities: Reported from at least 20 localities in this region.
Chrysotile
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Cinnabar
Formula: HgS
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Claudetite
Formula: As2O3
Reference: [J.Russell Soc. 1998:36]
Claudetite var: Antimonian Claudetite
Formula: (As,Sb)2O3
Reference: [J.Russell Soc. 1998:36]
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Clinozoisite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: BMS Database
Cobaltite
Formula: CoAsS
Conichalcite
Formula: CaCu(AsO4)(OH)
Connellite
Formula: Cu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Copper
Formula: Cu
'Copper Pitch Ore'
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Cordierite
Formula: (Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Corkite
Formula: PbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Cornubite ?
Formula: Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Habit: botryoidal
Colour: light to dark green
Description: Kingsbury reference. Cooper & Stanley (1990): "During the characterization of cornubite as a new species (Claringbull et al., 1959: 2) two specimens from Potts Gill were examined. They were both collected by Kingsbury and showed 'light and dark green botryoidal cornubite, with on the latter specimen a bluish skin of cornwallite'. Although visually different, the two cornubite varieties yielded identical x-ray powder photographs, the data for which was tabulated by Claringbull et al. (op. cit.)."
Reference: Claringbull, G.F., Hey, M.H., and Davis, R.J. (1959) Cornubite, a new mineral dimorphous with cornwallite. Mineralogical Magazine, 32, 1-5.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Claringbull et al., 1959).; Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (xxxx) Handbook of Mineralogy.
Cornwallite
Formula: Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Coronadite
Formula: Pb(Mn4+6Mn3+2)O16
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Crocoite
Formula: PbCrO4
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "'Chromate of Lead, or Crocoisite' from Roughton Gill was recorded by Branston (1910: 18) on the basis of a specimen in Carlisle Museum. This specimen has been examined by several mineralogists and all agree that it is typical of crocoite from Beresov, Siberia, and is incorrectly provenanced."
Reference: Branston, J.W. (1910) The minerals of Cumberland. Transactions of the Carlisle Natural History Society, 2, 14-29.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Cryptomelane
Formula: K(Mn4+7Mn3+)O16
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Localities: Reported from at least 15 localities in this region.
Cyanotrichite ?
Formula: Cu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
Habit: fibrous
Colour: pale blue
Description: Kingsbury reference. A small specimen in the Kingsbury Collection, BM(NH) shows small azurite crystals associated with ?jarosite and malachite embedded in pale blue matted cyanotrichite fibres from the "old No. 1 cross-cut dumps. Listed from here by Hartley (1984).
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).
Descloizite
Formula: PbZn(VO4)(OH)
Description: From the foot of an air shaft on Deer Hills (det. BM(NH); XRD, 1989, N. Thomson, pers. comm.).
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Devilline
Formula: CaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Dickite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Digenite
Formula: Cu9S5
Dioptase ?
Formula: CuSiO3 · H2O
Description: Kingsbury reference. Cooper & Stanley (1990): "The first British record of dioptase. Specimens in the Kingsbury Collection, BM(NH), collected in 1953 from the 'old No. 1 cross-cut' dumps show attractive prismatic crystals (< a millimetre or so) on small pieces of matrix."
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to specimens in the Kingsbury Collection and Hartley, 1984).
Djurleite
Formula: Cu31S16
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Localities: Reported from at least 18 localities in this region.
Dufrénite
Formula: Ca0.5Fe2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2O
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).
Duftite
Formula: PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Dundasite
Formula: PbAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · H2O
Elyite
Formula: Pb4Cu(SO4)O2(OH)4 · H2O
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Erythrite
Formula: Co3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
'Feldspar Group'
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Fraipontite
Formula: (Zn,Al)3((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Pluth, J. J., Steele, I. M., Kampf, A. R. & Green, D. I. (2005): Redgillite, Cu6(OH)10(SO4)•H2O, a new mineral from Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England: description and crystal structure. Mineralogical Magazine, 69, 973-980.
Fülöppite
Formula: Pb3Sb8S15
Habit: patches of fibrous crystals
Colour: dark grey metallic
Reference: Fortey, N.J., Ingham, J.D., Skilton, B.R.H., Young, B., and Shepherd, T.J. (1984) Antimony mineralization at Wet Swine Gill, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 45(1-2), 59-65.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Fortey et al., 1984).; Leppington, C.M. and Green, D.I. (1998) Antimonian claudetite from Wet Swine Gill, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 7(1), 36-37.; Green, D.I., Neall, T., and Tindle, A.G. (2005) The composition of fülöppite from Wet Swine Gill, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, 8(2), 101–102.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Localities: Reported from at least 48 localities in this region.
Galena var: Argentiferous Galena
Formula: PbS
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Reference: No Reference
Gersdorffite
Formula: NiAsS
Reference: Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 9, 2006
Glaucodot
Formula: (Co0.50Fe0.50)AsS
Reference: BMS Database; R. A. Ixer, C. J. Stanley and D. J. Vaughan (1979) Cobalt-, Nickel-, and Iron-Bearing Sulpharsenides from the North of England. Mineralogical Magazine 43:389-395.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 23 localities in this region.
Gold
Formula: Au
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Graphite
Formula: C
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 19 localities in this region.
Hemimorphite
Formula: Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Hidalgoite ?
Formula: PbAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Description: Embrey (1978): "A specimen of bluish-grey plumbogummite from Roughton Gill, Cumberland, appeared to be a mixcrystal of hinsdalite, plumbogummite, and hidalgoite. E. B. Förtsch (1967), Mineral. Mag. 36, 530." Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Supposedly a component of 'plumbogummite' (Förtsch 1967). However, the analysis of plumbogummite by Hartley (1900) - used by Förtsch - shows no sulphate and only trace amounts of arsenic."
Reference: Förtsch, E.B. (1967) ‘Plumbogummite’ from Roughten Gill, Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 36(280), 530-538.; Embrey, P.G. (1978) Fourth supplementary list of British minerals. Mineralogical Magazine, 42(322), 169-177.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Förtsch, 1967 and Embrey, 1978).
Hinsdalite
Formula: PbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
'Hornblende'
Hydrocerussite
Formula: Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Hydrozincite
Formula: Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Ianbruceite
Formula: [Zn2(OH)(H2O)(AsO4)](H2O)2
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Reference: BMS Database
'Iron oxide'
Jamesonite
Formula: Pb4FeSb6S14
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Localities: Reported from at least 15 localities in this region.
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Kermesite
Formula: Sb2S2O
Kintoreite
Formula: PbFe3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Kipushite ?
Formula: (Cu,Zn)5Zn(PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990) p. 100: "An old trial on the Low Pike vein above Potts Gill [320358] yielded small amounts of minutely crystalline philipsburgite containing considerable phosphate substituting for arsenate. The IR spectra of some samples (M.P. Cooper Collection) suggested that the substitution proportion might be sufficient to render the mineral kipushite [Braithwaite & Ryback, 1988]. However, specimens analysed by XRD (BM(NH)) are closer to philipsburgite and a well-crystallized sample, from the D. Hacker Collection, analysed semi-quantitatively by EPMA shows a somewhat higher arsenate: phosphate ratio than type philipsburgite. (det. Leicester Univ.)." Cooper & Stanley (1990) p. 115: "Although the high phosphate content of one specimen analysed by IR led Braithwaite & Ryback (1988) to suggest that it may, in fact, be a highly arsenatian kipushite this species has not so far been identified by XRD from Low Pike. Moreover, a semi-quantitative analysis of a well-crystallized sample shows an As/AS+P ratio slightly higher than type philipsburgite (det. J. Faithfull, Leicester Univ.: EPMA."
Reference: Braithwaite, R.S.W. and Ryback, G. (1988) Philipsburgite from the Caldbeck Fells and kipushite from Montana, and their infrared spectra. Mineralogical Magazine, 53, 529-533.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Braithwaite & Ryback, 1988).
Köttigite
Formula: Zn3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Reference: Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 9, 2006
Lanarkite
Formula: Pb2(SO4)O
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Langite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Lautenthalite
Formula: PbCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Reference: [UKJMM 18:9]; Green, D.I., McCallum, D. & Wood, M. (1997) Cu, Pb, Zn and Ag Minerals from Force Crag Mine, Coledale, Cumbria. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals 18: 10-14.
Lavendulan
Formula: NaCaCu5(AsO4)4Cl · 5H2O
Reference: Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 9, 2006
Leadhillite
Formula: Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Lepidocrocite
Formula: γ-Fe3+O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Leucoxene
Reference: BMS Database
Libethenite ?
Formula: Cu2(PO4)(OH)
Habit: pseudo-octahedral to short prismatic
Colour: dark olive-green
Description: Kingsbury reference. Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Very rare, known only from the dumps of the 'old No. 1 cross-cut' on specimens collected about 1949-1950 by Kingsbury and Hartley. Specimens in the Kingsbury Collection, BM(NH), show pseudo-octahedral to short prismatic, sparkling, dark olive-green crystals encrusting pseudomalachite. Listed by Hartley (1984).".
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1951, Hartley, 1984, and Young, 1987).
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Linarite
Formula: PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 25 localities in this region.
Liroconite ?
Formula: Cu2Al(AsO4)(OH)4 · 4H2O
Description: Kingsbury reference. Cooper & Stanley (1990): "From the 'No. 1 cross-cut' and 'new to Cumb[erland]' (Kingsbury, MS1). The occurrence is not mentioned in other Kingsbury MSS and is not known to his one-time colleague J. Hartley (pers. comm.). Requires confirmation."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. (MS1) (1953 or later) Investigation of the minerals of the Lake District, especially the Caldbeck area, in collaboration with J. Hartley. List of minerals found by us at many localities examined 1947-.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury, 1953).
Löllingite ?
Formula: FeAs2
Macphersonite
Formula: Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Habit: complex crystalline mass, 4mm across, in a cavity in quartz veinstone; prismatic with triangular cross-section
Colour: grey
Reference: Cooper, M.P., Green, D.I., and Braithwaite, R.S.W (1988) The occurrence of mattheddleite in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: a preliminary note. UK Journal of Mines and Minerals, 5, 21.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Cooper et al., 1988).; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47.
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 31 localities in this region.
'Manganese Oxides'
Manganite
Formula: Mn3+O(OH)
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Mattheddleite
Formula: Pb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Mawbyite
Formula: Pb(Fe3+,Zn)2(AsO4)2 · 2(OH,H2O)
Reference: Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 9, 2006
Mercury
Formula: Hg
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Mercury has been detected in ppm in the Wet Swine Gill 'antimony vein' (Fortey et al., 1984)."
Reference: Fortey, N.J., Ingham, J.D., Skilton, B.R.H., Young, B., and Shepherd, T.J. (1984) Antimony mineralization at Wet Swine Gill, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 45(1-2), 59-65.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Fortey et al., 1984).
Metavoltine
Formula: Na6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
Habit: minute platy crystals
Colour: vivid yellow.
Description: It occurs as patchy, vivid yellow efflorescent crusts coating areas up to 1.5 m across of the lowest two sandstone beds exposed in the quarry. Individual crusts, which are up to 10 cm across and 0.5 mm thick, consist of rounded aggregates up to 1 mm across composed of minute platy crystals. The two sandstone beds are separated by a 25 mm thick dark grey carbonaceous mudstone parting. In places small patches of metavoltine encrust this parting, or are concentrated on the sandstone within 10 cm above or below this level. Oxidation of pyrite within the mudstone parting together with diffusion of sulphate-rich fluids through the surface layers of the adjacent very porous sandstone have almost certainly provided the source of the metavoltine. a
Reference: BMS Database http://www.minersoc.org/pages/Archive-MM/Volume_56/56-384-431.pdf - Min Mag copy of: Young, B., Bolano, M.P., Hyslop, E.K. (1992) Metavoltine from Cockermouth, Cumbria, Mineralogical Magazine, September 1992, Vol 56, pp. 431-432
Millerite
Formula: NiS
Reference: BMS Database
Mimetite
Formula: Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Localities: Reported from at least 22 localities in this region.
Mimetite var: Campylite
Formula: Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
'Mimetite-Pyromorphite Series'
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Montetrisaite ?
Formula: Cu6(SO4)(OH)10 · 2H2O
Description: Green et al. (2008): "full confirmation (of redgillite vs. its dimorph montetrisaite) requires XRD for which there is insufficient material at present."
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Mottramite
Formula: PbCu(VO4)(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Muscovite var: Illite
Formula: K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Natrojarosite ?
Formula: NaFe3(SO4)2(OH)6
Olivenite
Formula: Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Ottrélite
Formula: (Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Reference: Rastall, R.H. (1910) The Skiddaw granite and its metamorphism. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 66, 116-141.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Rastall, 1910).
Palygorskite
Formula: (Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2O
Parahopeite ?
Formula: Zn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Description: Bridges et al. (2011): "Hartley (1984) noted the presence of parahopeite on a specimen Kingsbury claimed to have collected from the 60-fathom dumps. The specimen could not be found in the NHM and no other collector has found the mineral in the Caldbeck Fells. It has to be considered fraudulent."
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).; Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23.
Parasymplesite
Formula: Fe2+3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Reference: [J. Russell Soc. 2001 - 92]
Parnauite
Formula: Cu9(AsO4)2(SO4)(OH)10 · 7H2O
Reference: Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 9, 2006
Pectolite
Formula: NaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Reference: No reference listed
Pharmacolite
Formula: Ca(HAsO4) · 2H2O
Reference: BMS Database
Pharmacosiderite
Formula: KFe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Phaunouxite
Formula: Ca3(AsO4)2 · 11H2O
Reference: No reference listed
Philipsburgite
Formula: (Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Phosgenite ?
Formula: Pb2CO3Cl2
Phosphohedyphane
Formula: Ca2Pb3(PO4)3Cl
Habit: botryoidal crusts
Colour: pale to dark green
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Picropharmacolite
Formula: Ca4Mg(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 11H2O
Reference: BMS Database
Plancheite ?
Formula: Cu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2O
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Known only from two small specimens from the 30fm level dump (Kingsbury Collection, BM(NH); as a radiating fibrous mineral with chrysocolla. The first British occurrence. Listed by Kingsbury (MS1) but otherwise unpublished."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS1) (1953 or later) Investigation of the minerals of the Lake District, especially the Caldbeck area, in collaboration with J. Hartley. List of minerals found by us at many localities examined 1947-.; Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1953 and Young, 1987).
Plumbogummite
Formula: PbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Localities: Reported from at least 14 localities in this region.
Plumbojarosite
Formula: Pb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Posnjakite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · H2O
Prehnite ?
Formula: Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Habit: botryoidal
Colour: white
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "A specimen of white, botryoidal prehnite labelled Potts Gill is in the Kingsbury Collection (BM(NH)) (Young, 1987). The label is not in Kingsbury's hand and there is no record of the occurrence in any of his unpublished MSS in the BM(NH), nor is this occurrence known to Kingsbury's one-time colleague J. Hartley (pers. comm.)."
Reference: Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Young, 1987).
Pseudomalachite
Formula: Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
'Psilomelane'
Formula: Mn, O
Localities: Reported from at least 19 localities in this region.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Localities: Reported from at least 35 localities in this region.
Pyrolusite
Formula: Mn4+O2
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Pyromorphite
Formula: Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Localities: Reported from at least 32 localities in this region.
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 49 localities in this region.
Quartz var: Chalcedony
Formula: SiO2
Quartz var: Milky Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, vol. 11, 29-47.
Quartz var: Rock Crystal
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Hall, T.M. (1868): The Mineralogist's Directory. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.
Queitite
Formula: Pb4Zn2(SO4)(SiO4)(Si2O7)
Colour: white
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): This exceedingly rare mineral, previously reported only from Tsumeb, Namibia, was found on one small specimen collected from the No. 2 (Old Dutch) level dumps in 1987 by M. Rothwell. It forms thin, white, radiating-fibrous crusts with a minutely botryoidal surface on small susannite crystals in massive cerussite, associated with a scattering of later caledonite. Queitite was identified by XRD (BM(NH) and IR (UMIST). The habit is completely different from type material (Braithwaite et al., 1989)."
Reference: Braithwaite, R.S.W., Cooper, M.P., and Hart, A.D. (1989) Queitite, a mineral new to Britain, from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Mineralogical Magazine, 53(372), 508-509.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Braithwaite et al., 1989).; Jackson, B. (1990) Queitite, a first Scottish occurrence. Scottish Journal of Geology, 26(1), 57-58.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47.
Ramsbeckite
Formula: (Cu,Zn)15(SO4)4(OH)22 · 6H2O
Redgillite (TL)
Formula: Cu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
Habit: crystalline crusts
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): an 'unknown copper sulphate' on oxidized sulphides from the 'Golden Hugh' (D.R. Middleton Collection, det. BM(NH): XRD, 1987) and in an old ore pile on the west bank of the gill [NY29953415] (D.I. Green, pers. comm.)
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Pluth, J.J., Steele, I.M., Kampf, A.R., Green, D.I. (2005) Redgillite, Cu6(OH)10(SO4)·H2O, a new mineral from Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England, UK: Description and crystal structure. Mineralogical Magazine, 69, 973-980.; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, 11, 3-28.
Rhodochrosite
Formula: MnCO3
Reference: Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 8, 2003
Rhodonite
Formula: Mn2+SiO3
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Young (1987) quoted the label of a specimen in the Geological Museum."
Reference: Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Rockbridgeite ?
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+4(PO4)3(OH)5
Habit: drusy crusts
Colour: dark brown
Description: Kingsbury reference. In the Kingsbury Collection (BM(NH)).
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. (MS1) (1953 or later) Investigation of the minerals of the Lake District, especially the Caldbeck area, in collaboration with J. Hartley. List of minerals found by us at many localities 1947-.; Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury, 1953 and Young, 1987).
Romanèchite
Formula: (Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Rosasite
Formula: (Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Scheelite
Formula: Ca(WO4)
Schorl
Formula: Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Habit: brush-like clusters in quartz
Description: As 'brush-like clusters in quartz' (Hitchen, 1934: 186); in a vein at the foot of the gill (R.S.W. Braithwaite, pers. comm.).
Reference: Hitchen, C.S. (1934) The Skiddaw granite and its residual products. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 90, 158-200.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hitchen, 1934).
Schulenbergite
Formula: (Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
Schultenite
Formula: Pb(HAsO4)
Scorodite
Formula: Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 14 localities in this region.
Scotlandite
Formula: PbSO3
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Segnitite
Formula: PbFe3+3AsO4(AsO3OH)(OH)6
Semseyite
Formula: Pb9Sb8S21
Description: In the 'antimony vein' as tenuous coatings with fülöppite, and as rare, minute (< 20µm) grains in zinckenite (Fortey et al., 1984).
Reference: Fortey, N.J., Ingham, J.D., Skilton, B.R.H., Young, B., and Shepherd, T.J. (1984) Antimony mineralization at Wet Swine Gill, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 45(1-2), 59-65.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Fortey et al., 1984).
Senarmontite
Formula: Sb2O3
Serpierite
Formula: Ca(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Silver
Formula: Ag
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Skutterudite
Formula: CoAs3
'Smectite Group'
Formula: A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
Reference: Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Young, 1987).
Smithsonite
Formula: ZnCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Spangolite
Formula: Cu6Al(SO4)(OH)12Cl · 3H2O
Reference: No reference listed
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Localities: Reported from at least 34 localities in this region.
Sphalerite var: Marmatite
Formula: (Zn,Fe)S
Description: Shaw (1970: 67) records 'a small "lead" vein in the Endeavour level containing arsenopyrite, 'marmatite', and 'a very little galena'.
Reference: Shaw, W.T. (1970) Mining in the Lake Counties. Dalesman Books, Kendal. [2nd edition 1975 incorporating minor changes].; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Shaw, 1970).
'Stibiconite'
Formula: Sb3+Sb5+2O6(OH)
Stibnite
Formula: Sb2S3
Stolzite ?
Formula: Pb(WO4)
Description: Moulding et al. (2008): "Robert Philips Greg described "minute but measurable crystals, on macled crystals of black carbonate of lead from Force Craig lead mine near Keswick", and provided a chemical analysis and a crystal drawing to support his identification. Sir Arthur Russell (1944) cast doubt on the record following extensive research on the Allan-Greg collection, as it was not substantiated by either a specimen or a catalogue entry. His views are echoed by more recent workers (e.g. Cooper and Stanley, 1990)."
Reference: Greg, R.P. and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of the mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. John Van Voorst, London, ix, 483 pp. [facsimile reprint, with addenda, by Lapidary Publications, Broadstairs, 1977].; Hall, T.M. (1868) The Mineralogist's Directory: or a guide to the principal mineral localities in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.; Russell, A (1944) Notes on some minerals either new or rare to Britain. Mineralogical Magazine, 27(184), 1-10.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Palache, C., Berman, H., and Frondel, C. (1951)