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Morro do Ferro (Morro Alto e Consulta), Caldas, Poços de Caldas alkaline complex, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 21° 55' South , 46° 31' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): -21.91667,-46.51667
Köppen climate type:Cfa : Humid subtropical climate

Thorium deposit, consisting of magnetite stockworks in highly weathered alkaline rocks. The deposit was studied as a natural analogue for nuclear waste disposal. Once the world's largest baddeleyite deposit, but now depleted.

Originally known as "Morro Alto e Consulta".

Mineral List

47 valid minerals. 1 erroneous literature entry.

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on

1600 - 2500 Ma

ID: 1380908
Paleoproterozoic intrusive and metamorphic terranes

Age: Proterozoic (1600 - 2500 Ma)

Comments: Mixtures of metamorphic and intrusive or plutonic rocks, tracts known as crystalline, migmatitic terranes, moderately to highly metamorphosed rocks of unknown origin with or without intrusions. This classification is inherently prone to variable interpretation, as other compilers might distinguish some packages by their metamorphic or gneissic protoliths, and the associated age ranges may be more variable.

Lithology: Intrusive and metamorphic terranes

Reference: Geological Survey of Canada. Generalized geological map of the world and linked databases. doi:10.4095/195142. Open File 2915d. [18]

Data and map coding provided by, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

This page contains all mineral locality references listed on This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.


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BARETTO, P.M.C. & FUJIMORI, K. (1986) Natural analogue studies: geology and mineralogy of Moro do Ferro, Brazil. Chemical geology, 55, 297-312.
FRANCO, R.R. and LOEWENSTEIN, W. (1948) Zirconium from the region of Poços de Caldas. American Mineralogist, 33, 142-151.
FRONDEL, C., and MARVIN, U.B. (1959) Cerianite, CeO2, from Poços de Caldas, Brazil. American Mineralogist, 44, 882-884.
HUSSAK, E. and REITINGER, J. (1903) Xenotim, Senait und natürliches Zirkonoxyd aus Brasilien. Zeitschrift für Krystallographie und Mineralogie, 37, 566-574. (in German)
TOLBERT, G.E. (1966) The Uraniferous Zirconium Deposits of the Poços de Caldas Plateau, Brazil. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1185-C, 28 p. and maps.
WABER, N. (1991) Mineralogy, petrography and geochemistry of the Poços de Caldas analogue study sites, Minas Gerais, Brasil; Morro de Ferro. Universitats Bern, Mineralogisches - Petrographisches Institut, SKB Technical Report, No. 90-12, 110p.
Waber, N. (1992): The supergene thorium and rare-​earth element deposit at Morro do Ferro, Pocos de Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 45, 113-57.
WEDOW, H. (1961) Thorium and rare earths in the Poços de Caldas zirconium district, Brazil. U.S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper 424-D, 214-216.
WEDOW, H. (1961) Laterization of allanite in the Morro do Ferro rare-earth and thorium deposit, Poços de Caldas Plateau, Brazil. Economic Geology, 56, No. 7, 1315.
WEDOW, H. (1967) The Morro do Ferro thorium and rare earth deposits, Poços de Caldas district, Brazil. U.S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper 1185-D, 34 p.
SCHORSCHER, H.D., and SHEA, M.E. (1992) The regional geology of the Poços de Caldas alkaline complex: mineralogy and geochemistry of selected nepheline syenites and phonolites. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 45, 25-51.
Bonotto, D. M.; Fujimori, K.; Moreira-Nordemann, L. M. (2007): Determination of weathering rate of the Morro do Ferro Th-​REEs deposit, Brazil using U-​isotope method. Applied Radiation and Isotopes 65, 474-481.

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