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Morro do Ferro (Morro Alto e Consulta), Caldas, Poços de Caldas alkaline complex, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 21° 55' South , 46° 31' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): -21.91667,-46.51667
GeoHash:G#: 6ungm6pw5
Köppen climate type:Cfa : Humid subtropical climate

Thorium deposit, consisting of magnetite stockworks in highly weathered alkaline rocks. The deposit was studied as a natural analogue for nuclear waste disposal. Once the world's largest baddeleyite deposit, but now depleted.

Originally known as "Morro Alto e Consulta".

Mineral List

47 valid minerals. 1 erroneous literature entry.

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

541 - 1000 Ma

ID: 3187316
Neoproterozoic crystalline metamorphic rocks

Age: Neoproterozoic (541 - 1000 Ma)

Lithology: Medium-high grade unclassified metamorphic rock

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

This page contains all mineral locality references listed on mindat.org. This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in mindat.org without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.


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BARETTO, P.M.C. & FUJIMORI, K. (1986) Natural analogue studies: geology and mineralogy of Moro do Ferro, Brazil. Chemical geology, 55, 297-312.
FRANCO, R.R. and LOEWENSTEIN, W. (1948) Zirconium from the region of Poços de Caldas. American Mineralogist, 33, 142-151.
FRONDEL, C., and MARVIN, U.B. (1959) Cerianite, CeO2, from Poços de Caldas, Brazil. American Mineralogist, 44, 882-884.
HUSSAK, E. and REITINGER, J. (1903) Xenotim, Senait und natürliches Zirkonoxyd aus Brasilien. Zeitschrift für Krystallographie und Mineralogie, 37, 566-574. (in German)
TOLBERT, G.E. (1966) The Uraniferous Zirconium Deposits of the Poços de Caldas Plateau, Brazil. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1185-C, 28 p. and maps.
WABER, N. (1991) Mineralogy, petrography and geochemistry of the Poços de Caldas analogue study sites, Minas Gerais, Brasil; Morro de Ferro. Universitats Bern, Mineralogisches - Petrographisches Institut, SKB Technical Report, No. 90-12, 110p.
Waber, N. (1992): The supergene thorium and rare-​earth element deposit at Morro do Ferro, Pocos de Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 45, 113-57.
WEDOW, H. (1961) Thorium and rare earths in the Poços de Caldas zirconium district, Brazil. U.S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper 424-D, 214-216.
WEDOW, H. (1961) Laterization of allanite in the Morro do Ferro rare-earth and thorium deposit, Poços de Caldas Plateau, Brazil. Economic Geology, 56, No. 7, 1315.
WEDOW, H. (1967) The Morro do Ferro thorium and rare earth deposits, Poços de Caldas district, Brazil. U.S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper 1185-D, 34 p.
SCHORSCHER, H.D., and SHEA, M.E. (1992) The regional geology of the Poços de Caldas alkaline complex: mineralogy and geochemistry of selected nepheline syenites and phonolites. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 45, 25-51.
Bonotto, D. M.; Fujimori, K.; Moreira-Nordemann, L. M. (2007): Determination of weathering rate of the Morro do Ferro Th-​REEs deposit, Brazil using U-​isotope method. Applied Radiation and Isotopes 65, 474-481.

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