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Black Rock Mine, Black Rock, Kalahari manganese field, Northern Cape Province, South Africa

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 27° 7' 59'' South , 22° 49' 59'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): -27.13333,22.83333
Other regions containing this locality:Kalahari Desert, Africa
Köppen climate type:BSh : Hot semi-arid (steppe) climate

A manganese property owned by Associated Manganese Mines of South Africa, Ltd.

Note: Sturmanite an approved IMA mineral is erroneously reported from this mine, whilst it is said to be the type locality there must have been faulty labelling as it has never been found since with the associated minerals as described in the original paper whereas at least 5 pockets at Wessels mine between 1978 - 1982 have yielded crystals of similar habit. No specimens have ever been recorded from this mine and it was closed many years before. It is widely believed Black Rock is an erroneous locality and Wessels is the true locality. This has been checked against several references from Cairncross et al and von Bezing (Debbie Woolf).

Mineral List

24 valid minerals. 1 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals. 1 (FRL) - first recorded locality of unapproved mineral/variety/etc. 1 erroneous literature entry.

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on

0 - 66 Ma

ID: 2233217
Kalahari Group

Age: Cenozoic (0 - 66 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Kalahari Group

Description: Superficial deposits comprising gravels, clays, sandstone, silcrete, calcrete and aeolian sand

Reference: Council for Geoscience. Geologic map of South Africa, 1:1M. National Science Councils of South Africa. [41]

Data and map coding provided by, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

This page contains all mineral locality references listed on This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.


Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
de Villiers, P.R., Herbstein, F.H. (1968) Second occurrence of marokite. American Mineralogist: 53: 495.
Peacor, D.R., Dunn, P.J., Duggan, M. (1983) Sturmanite, a ferric iron, boron analogue of ettringite. Canadian Mineralogist: 21: 705-709.
Mining Annual review (1985) 90.
Hochleitner, R. (1986) Sturmanit und Ettringit aus den Kalahari-Manganfeldern. Lapis: 10(10): 19-24.
Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302.
Weiner, K.L., Hochleitner, R. (1994) Sturmanit - Steckbrief. Lapis: 19(2): 9-11.
Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa, Linden 2014, RSA.
Cairncross, B., Beukes, N., Gutzmer, J. (1997) The Manganese Adventure, The South African Manganese Fields. Associated Ore & Metal Corporation Limited, Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa.
Cairncross, B., Beukes, N.J. (2013) The Kalahari Manganese Field, the adventure continues. Struik Nature Publishers, Cape Town, South Africa.

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