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Somali Plate (Somalia Plate)i
Regional Level Types
Somali Plate (Somalia Plate)Tectonic Plate

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Locality type:
Largest Settlements:
PlacePopulation
Durban3,120,282 (2012)
Nairobi2,750,547 (2014)
Dar es Salaam2,698,652 (2016)
Mogadishu2,587,183 (2012)
Johannesburg2,026,469 (2015)
Soweto1,695,047 (2012)


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Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded from this region.


Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

968 valid minerals. 82 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals. 8 (FRL) - first recorded locality of unapproved mineral/variety/etc. 3 erroneous literature entries.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Afrikandite

Agglomerate

Albitized gneiss

Alkali-feldspar-syenite

Amphibolite

'Anabohitsite'

Andesite

'Ankaratrite'

Anorthosite

'Anyolite'

'Aplite'

'Argillite'

Banded iron formation

Basalt

Basanite

Bauxite

'Biotite gneiss'

'Biotite granite'

'Biotite schist'

Biotitite

Breccia

'Brecciated pseudotachylite'

Calc-silicate rock

Calcite-carbonatite

Carbonatite

'Charnockitic granite'

Chert

Chromitite

Clay

Clinopyroxenite

'Cordierite-garnet gneiss'

'Crocodile Jasper'

'Cumulate'

Dacite

'Diopsidite'

Diorite

'Dissogenite'

'Dolerite'

Dolomite-carbonatite

Dolostone

Dunite

EL6 chondrite meteorite

'Eucrite monomict breccia meteorite'

'Eucrite polymict breccia meteorite'

'Fasibitikite'

Fenite

Ferrocarbonatite

'Ferrogabbro'

Foidite

'Foyaite'

Gabbro

Gabbronorite

'Garnet-sillimanite-cordierite paragneiss'

Gneiss

Gossan

Granite

'Granitic gneiss'

Granitoid

Granodiorite

Granulite

'Graphic granite'

Greenschist

Greenstone

'Greywacke'

Guano

H chondrite meteorite

H5 chondrite meteorite

H6 chondrite meteorite

Harzburgite

'Hornblende-biotite gneiss'

Hornblendite

Hornfels

Howardite meteorite

'Hydrothermal breccia'

IID iron meteorite

IIIAB iron meteorite

Ijolite

'Iron ore'

Kimberlite

Komatiite

L5 chondrite meteorite

'L5/6 chondrite meteorite'

L6 chondrite meteorite

Lamproite

Lamprophyre

Laterite

'Leptynite'

'Leucogranite'

Limestone

'Malignite'

Marble

'Marl'

'Melanocratic nephelinolite'

Metabasalt

Metadiorite

Metagabbro

Metamudstone

'Mica schist'

'Microsyenite'

Migmatite

'Migmatitic-biotite-sillimanite paragneiss'

Monchiquite

Monzonite

Mudstone

Natrocarbonatite

Nepheline-syenite

Nephelinite

Norite

Obsidian

'Olivine basalt'

Olivine-pyroxenite

Orthogneiss

Orthopyroxenite

Paragneiss

'Pegmatite'

'Pegmatitic granite'

'Peralkaline alkali-feldspar-granite'

'Peralkaline syenite'

Peridotite

Phonolite

Phosphorite

Phyllite

Pseudotachylite

Pyroxenite

Quartz-alkali-feldspar-syenite

'Quartz-feldspar gneiss'

Quartzite

'R3.8-6 chondrite meteorite'

Rhyodacite

Rhyolite

Sandstone

Saprolite

Schist

Serpentinite

Shale

Siltstone

Skarn

Slag

Slate

Syenite

Søvite

'Tholeiitic basalt'

Tonalite

Trachyte

Tuff

'Ultramafic-rock'

'Ungrouped C2 chondrite meteorite'

'Ungrouped iron meteorite'

Websterite

Wehrlite

Detailed Mineral List:

Acanthite
Formula: Ag2S
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Actinolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 32 localities in this region.
Adamite
Formula: Zn2(AsO4)(OH)
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Adamite var: Cuprian Adamite
Formula: (Zn,Cu)2AsO4OH
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Aegirine
Formula: NaFe3+Si2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 42 localities in this region.
Aegirine-augite
Formula: (NaaCabFe2+cMgd)(Fe3+eAlfFe2+gMgh)Si2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Aenigmatite
Formula: Na4[Fe2+10Ti2]O4[Si12O36]
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
'Aeschynite Group'
Formula: AD2O6
Reference: Knut Edvard Larsen collection # M-519
Aeschynite-(Y)
Formula: (Y,Ln,Ca,Th)(Ti,Nb)2(O,OH)6
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Aikinite
Formula: PbCuBiS3
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Ajoite
Formula: (K,Na)Cu7AlSi9O24(OH)6 · 3H2O
Åkermanite
Formula: Ca2Mg(Si2O7)
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Alabandite
Formula: MnS
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 136 localities in this region.
Albite var: Andesine
Formula: (Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Albite var: Cleavelandite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 25 localities in this region.
Albite var: Oligoclase
Formula: (Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Albite var: Pericline
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Pezzotta F., 1999: Madagaskar. Ein Paradies voll mit Mineralien und Edelsteinen. Extra Lapis nr. 17, pp.78-79
'Albite-Anorthite Series'
Localities: Reported from at least 68 localities in this region.
'Alkali Feldspar'
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Allanite-(Ce)
Formula: {CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
'Allanite Group'
Formula: {A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 30 localities in this region.
Allophane
Formula: (Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Reference: Martini, J.E.J. et al (1997) "Mbobo Mkulu Cave, South Africa", in "Cave Minerals of the World" (1997).; Handbook of Mineralogy.
Alluaudite
Formula: (Na,Ca)Mn2+(Fe3+,Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)2(PO4)3
'Alluaudite-Na□'
Formula: 4Na4Mn2+4Fe3+8(PO4)12
Reference: Van King
Almandine
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Localities: Reported from at least 21 localities in this region.
'Almandine-Pyrope Series'
'Almandine-Spessartine Series'
Localities: Reported from at least 14 localities in this region.
'Aloisiite'
Formula: Na2(Ca,Fe,Mg)5Si2O10 · 2H2O
Reference: Heys Mineral Index 3rd ed.
Altaite
Formula: PbTe
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Aluminite
Formula: Al2(SO4)(OH)4 · 7H2O
Aluminocerite-(Ce)
Formula: (Ce,La,Ca)9(Al,Fe3+)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3
Reference: Atanasova, M., Cairncross, B. and Windisch, W.R. (2016) Microminerals of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Popular Geoscience Series 6, Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa, pg 181
Alum-(K)
Formula: KAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
Reference: Martini, J.E.J. et al (1997), "Mbobo Mkulu Cave, South Africa", in "Cave Minerals of the World" (1997)
Alumoåkermanite (TL)
Formula: (Ca,Na)2(Al,Mg,Fe2+)(Si2O7)
Type Locality:
Reference: Wiedenmann, D., Zaitsev A.N., Britvin S.N., Krivovichev, S.V., Keller, J. (2009): Alumoåkermanite, (Ca,Na)2(Al,Mg,Fe2+)(Si2O7), a new mineral from the active carbonatite-nephelinite-phonolite volcano Oldoinyo Lengai, northern Tanzania. Mineralogical Magazine, 73, 373-384.; Mattsson, H. B., & Reusser, E. (2010). Mineralogical and geochemical characterization of ashes from an early phase of the explosive September 2007 eruption of Oldoinyo Lengai (Tanzania). Journal of African Earth Sciences, 58(5), 752-763.; Victoria Sekisova, Victor Victorovich Sharygin, A. N. Zaitsev, Stanislav Strekopytov (2015) Liquid Immiscibility Геология и геофизика, 2015, т. 56, № 12, с. 2173—2197
'Alumotungstite'
Formula: 2W2O6(H2O)
Alunite
Formula: KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Alunogen
Formula: Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
'Ambatoarinite' (FRL)
Formula: Sr5(Ce,La,Dy)10(CO3)17O3 ?
Type Locality:
Colour: grey, rose
Reference: Lacroix, A. (1915) : Sur un nouveau minéral [ambatoarinite] de Madagascar. Bulletin de la Société francaise de Minéralogie, Paris. 38, 265-271 ; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 293.
Amblygonite
Formula: LiAl(PO4)F
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
'Amblygonite-Montebrasite Series'
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Amesite
Formula: Mg2Al(AlSiO5)(OH)4
Reference: Lefevre & Thomas (1998): Les pegmatites de la vallée de la Sahatany, Madagascar. La Règne Minéral, nr 19, 15-28
'Ammonite'
Reference: Karel Bal Collection
'Ammonite var: Ammolite'
Reference: Karel Bal Collection
'Amphibole Supergroup'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Localities: Reported from at least 37 localities in this region.
'Amphibole Supergroup var: Byssolite'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Analcime
Formula: Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 29 localities in this region.
Anatase
Formula: TiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 28 localities in this region.
Anatase var: Niobian Anatase
Formula: (Ti,Nb)O2
Reference: Wolfgang Hampel (2011), fieldwork/studies
Anatase var: Xanthitane
Formula: TiO2
Andalusite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Localities: Reported from at least 18 localities in this region.
Andalusite var: Chiastolite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Andradite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Andradite var: Demantoid
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Reference: Pezzotta, F. (2009). Demantoide e Topazolite: nuovo ritrovamento in Madgascar. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, n.3-2009, 198-200; Pezzotta, F. (2010): Demantoid und Topazolith aus Antetezambato, Nordmadagaskar. Lapis, 35 (10), 31-39; 90; Hintze, J. (2010): Eine Reise zu den Demantoiden von Antetezambato. Lapis, 35 (10), 40-43 (in German).
Andradite var: Melanite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Andradite var: Topazolite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Reference: Pezzotta, F. (2009). Demantoide e Topazolite: nuovo ritrovamento in Madgascar. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, n.3-2009, 198-200; Pezzotta, F. (2010): Demantoid und Topazolith aus Antetezambato, Nordmadagaskar. Lapis, 35 (10), 31-39; 90; Hintze, J. (2010): Eine Reise zu den Demantoiden von Antetezambato. Lapis, 35 (10), 40-43 (in German).
'Andradite-Grossular Series'
Description: as inclusions in gemmy meionite
Reference: Superchi, M., Pezzotta, F., Gambini, E. and Castaman, E. (2010): Yellow Scapolite from Ihosy, Madagascar. Gems & Gemology. 46 (4), 274-279.
'Andradite-Schorlomite Series'
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3 - Ca3Ti4+2(SiO4)3
Reference: Zaitseva, E.O. (2012): Mineralogy and geochemistry of the Sadiman volcano, Crater Highlands, northern Tanzania. Eifel-Symposium 2012, "Variability and complexity of minerals and their synthetic analogues of the Vulkaneifel and related provinces”, Christian Albrechts University, Kiel, 23.04. - 30.04.2012.
Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Anhydrite
Formula: CaSO4
Localities: Reported from at least 14 localities in this region.
Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Localities: Reported from at least 20 localities in this region.
Annabergite
Formula: Ni3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Annite
Formula: KFe2+3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Anorthite
Formula: Ca(Al2Si2O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 45 localities in this region.
Anorthite var: Bytownite
Formula: (Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si2O8]
Anorthite var: Labradorite
Formula: (Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si2O8]
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
'Anorthoclase'
Formula: (Na,K)AlSi3O8
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Antarcticite
Formula: CaCl2 · 6H2O
Reference: J. W. Anthony et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3 (1997)
Anthoinite
Formula: AlWO3(OH)3
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Anthophyllite
Formula: ☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Antigorite
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Antimony
Formula: Sb
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Antlerite
Formula: Cu3(SO4)(OH)4
Anzaite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce3+ 4Fe2+Ti6O18 (OH)2
Reference: Giebel, R.J., Gauert, C.D.K., Marks, M.A.W., Costin, G. and Markl, G. (2017): Multi-stage formation of REE minerals in the Palabora Carbonatite Complex, South Africa. American Mineralogist 102, 1218-1233.
'Apatite'
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 172 localities in this region.
'Apatite var: Carbonate-rich Apatite'
Reference: Hurai, V., Paquette, J. L., Huraiová, M., Slobodník, M., Hvožďara, P., Siegfried, P., ... & Milovská, S. (2017). New insights into the origin of the Evate apatite-iron oxide-carbonate deposit, Northeastern Mozambique, constrained by mineralogy, textures, thermochronometry, and fluid inclusions. Ore Geology Reviews, 80, 1072-1091.
Aphthitalite
Formula: (K,Na)3Na(SO4)2
Apjohnite (TL)
Formula: Mn2+Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 528; Mineralogical Magazine (1976): 40: 599.
'Apophyllite'
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 30 localities in this region.
Aragonite var: Ctypéite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
Arcanite
Formula: K2SO4
Reference: Handbook of Mineralogy (2005)
Ardealite
Formula: Ca2(HPO4)(SO4) · 4H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Arfvedsonite
Formula: [Na][Na2][Fe2+4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Argentojarosite
Formula: AgFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Atanasova, M., Cairncross, B. and Windisch, W.R. (2016) Microminerals of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Popular Geoscience Series 6, Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa, 435 pp
Argentopentlandite
Formula: Ag(Fe,Ni)8S8
Armalcolite
Formula: (Mg,Fe2+)Ti2O5
Reference: MCDONALD I., HOLWELL D.A. & ARMITAGE P.E.B. (2005). Geochemistry and mineralogy of the Platreef and ìCritical Zoneî cumulates of the Northern limb of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa: implications for Bushveld stratigraphy and the development of PGE mineralization. Miner. Deposita, 40, 526-549.
Armenite
Formula: BaCa2Al6Si9O30 · 2H2O
Reference: Roerdink, D. L., Mason, P. R., Whitehouse, M. J., & Brouwer, F. M. (2016). Reworking of atmospheric sulfur in a Paleoarchean hydrothermal system at Londozi, Barberton Greenstone Belt, Swaziland. Precambrian Research, 280, 195-204.
Arrojadite-(BaFe)
Formula: {Ba◻}{Fe2+◻}{Ca}{Na2◻}{Fe2+13}{Al}(PO4)11(HPO4)(OH)2
Reference: von Knorring, O. (1969) A note on the phosphate mineralisation at the Buranga pegmatite, Rwanda. Bulletin du Service Geologique de la Republique du Rwanda: 5: 42-45.; Daltry, V.D.C. and von Knorring, O. (1998) Type-mineralogy of Rwanda with particular reference to the Buranga pegmatite. Geologica Belgica: 1: 9-15.; Chopin, C., Oberti, R., Camara, F. (2006) The arrojadite enigma: II. Compositional space, new members, and nomenclature of the group. American Mineralogist: 91: 1260-1270.
'Arrojadite Group'
Formula: A2 E2CaNa2+xM13R (HPO4)1-x(PO4)11W2
Description: Both a Ba-free arrojadite and a barian arrojadite (arrojadite-(BaFe)) were found at Buranga by von Knorring (see Daltry & von Knorring 1998).
Reference: Daltry, V.D.C. and von Knorring, O. (1998) Type-mineralogy of Rwanda with particular reference to the Buranga pegmatite. Geologica Belgica: 1: 9-15.
Arsenbrackebuschite
Formula: Pb2Fe3+(AsO4)2(OH)
Reference: Atanasova, M., Cairncross, B. and Windisch, W.R. (2016) Microminerals of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Popular Geoscience Series 6, Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa, pg 181
Arsenic
Formula: As
Reference: Pezzotta, F. (1999): Madagaskar. Das Paradies der Mineralien und Edelsteine. Extra Lapis nr 17, pp 53-54 (german edition)
Arsenolamprite
Formula: As
Reference: Thomas, R., Davidson, P. (2010): Hambergite-rich melt inclusions in morganite crystals from the Muiane pegmatite, Mozambique and some remarks on the paragenesis of hambergite. - Mineralogy and Petrology, 100, 3-4, 227-23
Arsenolite
Formula: As2O3
Arsenopalladinite
Formula: Pd8(As,Sb)3
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Localities: Reported from at least 43 localities in this region.
'Asbestos'
Asbolane ?
Formula: (Ni,Co)2-xMn4+(O,OH)4 · nH2O
Description: Investigated with a qualitative analysis by Behier (1960), may be a cobaltian asbolane or a heterogenite.
Reference: Behier, J. (1960): Travaux mineralogiques. In Rapport Annuel du Service Geologique pour 1960. Republique Madagascar, Tananarive. 181-199
'Ashanite'
Formula: (Nb,Ta,U,Fe,Mn)4O8
Reference: Ranorosoa, N. (1986): Etude mineralogique des pegmatites du champ de la Sahatany, Madagascar. These de Doctorat de l`Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse
Astrophyllite
Formula: K2NaFe2+7Ti2Si8O28(OH)4F
Atacamite
Formula: Cu2(OH)3Cl
Atheneite
Formula: Pd2As0.75Hg0.25
Atokite (TL)
Formula: (Pd,Pt)3Sn
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Can Min 13 (1975), 146
Attakolite
Formula: (Ca,Sr)Mn(Al,Fe)4(HPO4,PO4)3(SiO4,PO4)(OH)4
Reference: Bertossa, A. (1968) Inventaire des minéraux du Rwanda. Bulletin du Service Géologique de Rwanda: 4: 25-45.; Daltry, V.D.C. and von Knorring, O. (1998) Type-mineralogy of Rwanda with particular reference to the Buranga pegmatite. Geologica Belgica: 1: 9-15.
Augelite
Formula: Al2(PO4)(OH)3
Augite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 38 localities in this region.
Augite var: Fassaite
Formula: (Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Augite var: Ferroaugite
Reference: Reid, A. M. (1974) The Macibini Meteorite and some thoughts on the Origin of Basaltic Achondrites: Meteoritics 9(4): 398-399. (Dec 1974); Mason B., Jarosewich E. & Nelen J. A. (1979) The pyroxene-plagioclase achondrites. Smithson. Contrib. Earth Sci. 22: 27-45.
Augite var: Titanian Augite
Formula: (Ca,Na)(Mg,Ti, Fe,Al,)(Si,Al)2O6
Description: In olivine melilite lava.
Reference: Lee, C.T., Rudnick, R.L., McDonough, W.F., Horn, I. (2000) Petrologic and geochemical investigation of carbonates in peridotite xenoliths from northeastern Tanzania. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 139, 470-484.
Aurichalcite
Formula: (Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Auricupride
Formula: Cu3Au
Aurorite
Formula: (Mn2+,Ag,Ca)Mn4+3O7 · 3H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Aurostibite
Formula: AuSb2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Autunite
Formula: Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Awaruite
Formula: Ni3Fe
Reference: Guenther, C., & Gauert, C. (2012), September. Mineral characterization of the metallurgically detrimental talc-carbonate-pyrite schist in ultramafic rocks of the Nkomati Ni-Cu-PGE (-Co-Cr) Mine, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. In European Mineralogical Conference (pp. 2-6).
'Axinite Group'
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Axinite-(Mg) (TL)
Formula: Ca2MgAl2BSi4O15OH
Fluorescence: Red
Reference: P Bongaerts collection; Mineralogical Record (2009) 40: 347-408; Jaszczak, John (2014), Mineralogical Miracles at Merelani, presentation to the 41st. Rochester Mineralogical Symposium, April 25, 2014.
Axinite-(Mn)
Formula: Ca2Mn2+Al2BSi4O15(OH)
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 32 localities in this region.
Baddeleyite
Formula: ZrO2
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Barbosalite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2
Bariopharmacosiderite
Formula: Ba0.5Fe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 5H2O
Barylite
Formula: Be2Ba(Si2O7)
Habit: platy
Colour: colorless
Description: < 2 cm long crystals
Reference: Demartin, F.; Guastoni, A. & Pezzotta, F. (2003): Barylith, Niobophyllit & yttriumreicher Milarit- Neufunde aus den Pegmatiten von Zomba-Malosa, Malawi. Lapis 28 (1), 18-21; American Mineralogist, Volume 94, pages 1216–1222, 2009
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Localities: Reported from at least 79 localities in this region.
Baryte var: Hokutolite
Formula: (Ba,Pb)SO4
Reference: Armitage, P. E. B., McDonald, I., Edwards, S. J., & Manby, G. M. (2002). Platinum-group element mineralization in the Platreef and calc-silicate footwall at Sandsloot, Potgietersrus District, South Africa. Applied Earth Science: Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy: Section B, 111(1), 36-45.
Barytolamprophyllite
Formula: (Ba,Na)2(Na,Ti,Fe3+)4Ti2(Si2O7)2O(OH,F)
Reference: Zaitsev, A. N., Marks, M. A. W., Wenzel, T., Spratt, J., Sharygin, V. V., Strekopytov, S., & Markl, G. (2012). Mineralogy, geochemistry and petrology of the phonolitic to nephelinitic Sadiman volcano, Crater Highlands, Tanzania. Lithos, 152, 66-83.
'Bastnäsite'
Localities: Reported from at least 20 localities in this region.
Bastnäsite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce(CO3)F
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Bastnäsite-(La)
Formula: La(CO3)F
Reference: Wolfgang Hampel (2011), fieldwork/studies
Bastnäsite-(Y)
Formula: Y(CO3)F
Reference: Atanasova, M., Cairncross, B. and Windisch, W.R. (2016) Microminerals of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Popular Geoscience Series 6, Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa, pg 181
Bavenite
Formula: Ca4Be2Al2Si9O26(OH)2
Reference: Pezzotta, F. (2005): La pegmatite di Ambatovita, un giacimento ricco di micro-minerali. Rivista Mineralogical Italiana. 30 (2): 100-101
Beaverite-(Cu)
Formula: Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Becquerelite
Formula: Ca(UO2)6O4(OH)6 · 8H2O
Béhierite (TL)
Formula: (Ta5+,Nb5+)(BO4)
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Habit: Octahedral crystals
Colour: Grayish-pink
Reference: Mrose, M.E. & Rose jr, J. (1961): Behierite, (Ta, Nb)BO4, a new mineral from Manjaka, Madagascar. Geol.Soc.Am, Abstracts 1961 Ann. Meetings, p 111A
Beidellite
Formula: (Na,Ca0.5)0.3Al2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Berdesinskiite (TL)
Formula: V3+2TiO5
Reference: Bernhardt, H.J., Schmetzer, K., Medenbach, O. (1983) Berdesinskiite, V₂TiO5, a new mineral from Kenya and additional data for schreyerite, V2Ti3O9. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte, 3, 110 - 118.
Berlinite
Formula: AlPO4
Bermanite
Formula: Mn2+Mn3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
Berthierite
Formula: FeSb2S4
Bertossaite (TL)
Formula: (Li,Na)2(Ca,Fe2+,Mn2+)Al4(PO4)4(OH,F)4
Habit: massive
Colour: Faintly pink
Description: Associated with amblygonite, lazulite-scorzalite, augelite, brazilianite, apatite, and crandallite. Masses of bertossaite up to 50kg have been recovered from the Buranga deposit.
Reference: von Knorring, O. (1965) Notes on some pegmatite minerals from Rwanda. Bulletin du Service Géologique de la République du Rwanda: 2: 11-14.; von Knorring, O. and Mrose, M.E. (1966) Bertossaite (Li,Na)2(Ca,Fe,Mn)Al4 (PO4)(OH,F)4, a new mineral from Rwanda (Africa). (Abstr.) Canadian Mineralogist: 8: 668.; Daltry, V.D.C. and von Knorring, O. (1998) Type-mineralogy of Rwanda with particular reference to the Buranga pegmatite. Geologica Belgica: 1: 9-15.
Bertrandite
Formula: Be4(Si2O7)(OH)2
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Localities: Reported from at least 289 localities in this region.
Beryl var: Alkali-beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Beryl var: Aquamarine
Formula: Be3Al2Si6O18
Localities: Reported from at least 30 localities in this region.
Beryl var: Emerald
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Localities: Reported from at least 33 localities in this region.
Beryl var: Heliodor
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Beryl var: Morganite
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Beudantite
Formula: PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
'Bindheimite'
Formula: Pb2Sb2O6O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
'Biotite'
Formula: K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Localities: Reported from at least 158 localities in this region.
Bismite
Formula: Bi2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Bismoclite
Formula: BiOCl
Reference: Armitage, P. E. B., McDonald, I., Edwards, S. J., & Manby, G. M. (2002). Platinum-group element mineralization in the Platreef and calc-silicate footwall at Sandsloot, Potgietersrus District, South Africa. Applied Earth Science: Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy: Section B, 111(1), 36-45.
Bismuth
Formula: Bi
Localities: Reported from at least 29 localities in this region.
Bismuthinite
Formula: Bi2S3
Localities: Reported from at least 25 localities in this region.
Bismutite
Formula: (BiO)2CO3
Localities: Reported from at least 42 localities in this region.
Bismutoferrite
Formula: Fe3+2Bi(SiO4)2(OH)
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
'Bismutomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)' (FRL)
Reference: Am Min 62 (1977), 403; HB3 (1997)
Bismutotantalite (TL)
Formula: Bi(Ta,Nb)O4
Reference: Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 65
Bityite (TL)
Formula: LiCaAl2(AlBeSi2O10)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Habit: pseudohexagonal barrelshaped aggregates with curved top (polysyntetic twins)up to 2 mm long; fine lamelles
Colour: white; whith-yellowish
Description: The typematerial of bityite was found in a pegmatite dike situated about 300 m N of the Maharitra workings (Behier (1960) Found on tourmaline or quartz
Reference: Lacroix, A. (1922): Mineralogie de Madagascar, Tome I. Géologie-Minéralogie descriptive. A.Challamel (Éditeur), Paris. pp 398-400 + planche 18 / Behier, J. (1960): Contribution á la Minéralogie de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar XXIX, Tananarive, 78p.
Bixbyite
Formula: Mn3+2O3
Reference: www.min.uni-kiel.de/petrographie/schenk/projekte/tansania/mautia/dmg_mautia.pdf.
Bjarebyite
Formula: (Ba,Sr)(Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)2Al2(PO4)3(OH)3
Colour: pistachio green to dark green
Description: intergrown with bertossaite.
Reference: von Knorring, O. (1969) A note on the phosphate mineralisation at the Buranga pegmatite, Rwanda. Bulletin du Service Geologique de la Republique du Rwanda: 5: 42-45.; von Knorring, O. (1973) Notes on pegmatite minerals from Rwanda, Uganda and South West Africa. 17th annual Report Res. Inst. afr. Geol., Univ. Leeds, 72-73.; von Knorring, O. and Fransolet, A.-M. (1975) An occurrence of bjarebyite in the Buranga pegmatite, Rwanda. Schweizerische Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen: 55: 9-18.; Daltry, V.D.C. and von Knorring, O. (1998) Type-mineralogy of Rwanda with particular reference to the Buranga pegmatite. Geologica Belgica: 1: 9-15.
Blödite
Formula: Na2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2O
Reference: Bowell, R. J., Warren, A., & Redmond, I. (1996). Formation of cave salts and utilization by elephants in the Mount Elgon region, Kenya. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 113(1), 63-79.
Bobierrite
Formula: Mg3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Reference: Handbook of Mineralogy
Böhmite
Formula: AlO(OH)
Bonaccordite (TL)
Formula: Ni2Fe3+(BO3)O2
Type Locality:
Reference: [Trans.Geol.Soc.S.Afr.(1974) 77, 373; Nickel & Nichols, 1991 - "Mineral Reference Manual, p25]
Boralsilite
Formula: Al16B6Si2O37
Reference: Novák, M., Cempírek, J., Gadas, P., Škoda, R., Galiová, M. V., Pezzotta, F. and Groat, L. A. (2015): Boralsilite and Li, Be-bearing "Boron Mullite" Al8B2Si2O19, Breakdown products of spodumene from the Manjaka pegmatite, Sahatany valley, Madagascar. Canadian Mineralogist. 53: 357-374
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Localities: Reported from at least 28 localities in this region.
Botallackite
Formula: Cu2(OH)3Cl
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Boulangerite
Formula: Pb5Sb4S11
Bournonite
Formula: PbCuSbS3
Bowieite
Formula: (Rh,Ir,Pt)2S3
Reference: The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 43, pp. 1711-1734 (2005)
Bradleyite
Formula: Na3Mg(CO3)(PO4)
Reference: Kamenetsky, V. S., Belousova, E. A., Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, M. B., Goemann, K., & Griffin, W. L. (2014). Chemical abrasion of zircon and ilmenite megacrysts in the Monastery kimberlite: Implications for the composition of kimberlite melts. Chemical Geology, 383, 76-85.
Braggite
Formula: (Pt,Pd,Ni)S
Localities: Reported from at least 23 localities in this region.
Brannerite
Formula: UTi2O6
Braunite
Formula: Mn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
'Bravoite'
Formula: (Fe,Ni)S2
Brazilianite
Formula: NaAl3(PO4)2(OH)4
Breithauptite
Formula: NiSb
'Brewsterite'
Description: Recorded from amygdales.
Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa, 191 pp.
Brianyoungite
Formula: Zn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
Description: Slag
Reference: Glass, J. (2006). The environmental impact of the abandoned Edendale lead mine near Tshwane, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, University of Johannesburg).
Britholite-(Ce)
Formula: (Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Brockite
Formula: (Ca,Th,Ce)PO4 · H2O
Reference: Dr.Federico Pezzotta analysis
Brookite
Formula: TiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Brucite
Formula: Mg(OH)2
Brushite
Formula: Ca(HPO4) · 2H2O
Buchwaldite
Formula: NaCa(PO4)
Reference: Kracher, A., Gramstad, S. D. & Kurat, G. (1998) Soroti and the Origin of Sulfide-rich Meteorites: Meteoritics & Planetary Science (abstract) 33 (4, Supplement): pp. A88-A89 (July 1998)
Bunsenite
Formula: NiO
Reference: Am. Min. 61, 502 (1976); O'Driscoll, B., Clay, P. L., Cawthorn, R. G., Lenaz, D., Adetunji, J., & Kronz, A. (2014). Trevorite: Ni-rich spinel formed by metasomatism and desulfurization processes at Bon Accord, South Africa?. Mineralogical Magazine, 78(1), 145-163.
Burangaite (TL)
Formula: NaFe2+Al5(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2O
Type Locality:
Habit: replacement product of scorzalite; radiating prismatic crystals
Colour: Bluish to bluish-green, hourglass zoned
Description: Found in corroded aggregates of bertossaite, trolleite, apatite, scorzalite, bjarebyite, wardite, and quartz.
Reference: von Knorring, O., Lehtinen, M., and Sahama, T.G. (1977) Burangaite, a new phosphate mineral from Rwanda. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland: 49: 33-36.; Daltry, V.D.C. and von Knorring, O. (1998) Type-mineralogy of Rwanda with particular reference to the Buranga pegmatite. Geologica Belgica: 1: 9-15.; HB4 (2000)(?);
Burkeite
Formula: Na6(CO3)(SO4)2
Cabriite
Formula: Pd2CuSn
Cacoxenite
Formula: Fe3+24AlO6(PO4)17(OH)12 · 75H2O
'Calamine'
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 228 localities in this region.
Calcite var: Manganoan Calcite
Formula: (Ca,Mn)CO3
Calcite var: Mg-rich Calcite
Formula: (Ca,Mg)CO3
Description: Microinclusions in quartz and emerald of the Maria emerald deposit.
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine, Feb. 2002, V. 66, N° 1, pp. 201-213.
Caledonite
Formula: Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Calzirtite
Formula: CaZr3TiO9
Cancrinite
Formula: (Na,Ca,☐)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
Carlsbergite
Formula: CrN
Reference: Buchwald, V. F., & Scott, E. R. (1971): First nitride (CrN) in iron meteorites. Nature Phys. Soc., 233, 113-114.
Carminite
Formula: PbFe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2
Carnotite
Formula: K2(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 3H2O
Cassedanneite
Formula: Pb5(CrO4)2(VO4)2 · H2O
Reference: Atanasova, M., Cairncross, B. and Windisch, W.R. (2016) Microminerals of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Popular Geoscience Series 6, Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa, 435 pp
Cassiterite
Formula: SnO2
Localities: Reported from at least 72 localities in this region.
Catapleiite
Formula: Na2Zr(Si3O9) · 2H2O
Cavoite
Formula: CaV4+3O7
Description: On-line version of Handbook page (http://rruff.info/doclib/hom/cavoite.pdf) is in fact that of cerianite-(Ce).
Reference: Handbook of Mineralogy
Caysichite-(Y)
Formula: Ca2Y2Si4O10(CO3)3 · 4H2O
Reference: Massanek, A. (1999): Neu aus Malawi: Caysichit-(Y), Lapis 24 (4),33; Cairncross, B. (2002). Aegirine and Associated Minerals from Mount Malosa, Malawi. Rocks & Minerals, 77(1), 31-37.
Cebollite
Formula: Ca5Al2(SiO4)3(OH)4
Celadonite
Formula: K(Mg,Fe2+)Fe3+(Si4O10)(OH)2
Celestine
Formula: SrSO4
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Celsian
Formula: Ba(Al2Si2O8)
Reference: Roerdink, D. L., Mason, P. R., Whitehouse, M. J., & Brouwer, F. M. (2016). Reworking of atmospheric sulfur in a Paleoarchean hydrothermal system at Londozi, Barberton Greenstone Belt, Swaziland. Precambrian Research, 280, 195-204.
Cerianite-(Ce)
Formula: (Ce4+,Th)O2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Cerite-(Ce)
Formula: (Ce,Ca)9(Mg,Fe)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3
Cerite-(La)
Formula: (La,Ce,Ca)9(Fe,Ca,Mg)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3
Ceruleite
Formula: Cu2Al7(AsO4)4(OH)13 · 11.5H2O
Reference: Rick Turner
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 22 localities in this region.
Cervantite
Formula: Sb3+Sb5+O4
Cesiokenopyrochlore (TL)
Formula: □Nb2(O,OH)6Cs1−x (x ∼ 0.20)
Type Locality:
Reference: Agakhanov, A.A., Kasatkin, A.V., Britvin, S.N., Siidra, O.I., Pautov, L.A., Pekov, I.V. and Karpenko, V.Y. (2017) Cesiokenopyrochlore, IMA 2016-104. CNMNC Newsletter No. 36, April 2017, page 406; Mineralogical Magazine, 81, 403–409.
'Chabazite'
Localities: Reported from at least 26 localities in this region.
'Chabazite var: Phacolite'
Reference: JM Johannet collection
Chabazite-Ca
Formula: (Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Chabazite-Na
Formula: (Na2,K2,Ca,Sr,Mg)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Chalcanthite
Formula: CuSO4 · 5H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Chalcoalumite
Formula: CuAl4(SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2O
Reference: Martini, J.E.J. et al (1997), "Mbobo Mkulu Cave, South Africa", in "Cave Minerals of the World" (1997)
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Localities: Reported from at least 29 localities in this region.
Chalcophyllite
Formula: Cu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Localities: Reported from at least 126 localities in this region.
Chalcostibite
Formula: CuSbS2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Chamosite
Formula: (Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Chantalite
Formula: CaAl2(SiO4)(OH)4
Reference: Cairncross, B. & Dixon, R. (1995). Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa: Linden; Heron. H.D.C. (2004). Barite occurrences at Clairwood Quarries in Durban, Natal, South Africa. S.A. Lapidary Magazine, 36(3): 5-25.
Chapmanite
Formula: Fe3+2Sb3+(Si2O5)O3(OH)
Reference: Sabine MC. Verryn & Paul MPB Meulenbe(e)ld (2000) A new locality for Chapmanite (Sb(OH)Fe2(SiO4)2) at a lead-silver-zinc deposit near Argent Station, Mpumalanga, South Africa. N. Jb. Miner. Mh. 2000(2):85-90. Stuttgart.
Chenevixite
Formula: Cu2Fe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)4
Reference: Malcolm Southwood (2002) Arsenical Ramblings. British Micromount society Newsletter 61:2-9
Cheralite
Formula: CaTh(PO4)2
Description: Inclusions in sapphire.
Reference: Rakotondrazafy, A.F.M., Giuliani, G., Ohnenstetter, D., Fallick, A.E., Rakotosamizanany, S., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., Razanatseheno, M., Offant, Y., Garnier, V., Maluski, H., Dunaigre, C., Schwarz, D., and Ratrimo, V. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 134-154.
'Cheralite-(Ce)'
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Cherepanovite
Formula: RhAs
Chevkinite-(Ce)
Formula: (Ce,La,Ca,Th)4(Fe2+,Mg)(Fe2+,Ti,Fe3+)2(Ti,Fe3+)2(Si2O7)2O8
'Chevkinite Group'
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Chiavennite
Formula: CaMnBe2Si5O13(OH)2 · 2H2O
Reference: Pezzotta F., Guastoni A., Forner H., Demartin F., Kristiansen R. (2004) : Exceptional chiavennite associated with pezzottaite from the Sakavalana Pegmatite, Ambatovita, Madagascar. Web site of Mineralogical Society of America. www.minsocam.org/msa/Pegmatites.html; Pezzotta, F., Guastoni, A., Forner, H., Demartin, F., Kristiansen, R. (2005): Découverte exceptionnelle de chiavennite associée à pezzottaite dans la pegmatite de Sakavalana, Mandrosonoro, Madagascar. Le Règne Minéral, 62, 25-28.
Childrenite
Formula: Fe2+Al(PO4)(OH)2 · H2O
Chlorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3Cl
Reference: Schulze, H., Bischoff, A., Palme, H., Spettel, B., Dreibus, G. & Otto, J. (1994). Mineralogy and chemistry of Rumuruti: The first meteorite fall of the new R chondrite group, Meteoritics 29 (2), 275-286. (March 1994)
Chlorargyrite
Formula: AgCl
'Chlorite Group'
Localities: Reported from at least 82 localities in this region.
Chloritoid
Formula: (Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
'Chloropal (of Schneiderhöhn)'
Reference: John Krygier photo & specimen
Chondrodite
Formula: (Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2
Chromatite
Formula: CaCr6+O4
Reference: http://www.fc.up.pt/geo/ecrofi/377.PDF; McDonald, I., Vaughan, D. J., & Tredoux, M. (1995). Platinum mineralization in quartz veins near Naboomspruit, central Transvaal. S. Afr. J. Geol, 98, 168-175.
'Chrome-Spinel (of Dana)'
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Chromite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Localities: Reported from at least 65 localities in this region.
Chrysoberyl
Formula: BeAl2O4
Localities: Reported from at least 33 localities in this region.
Chrysoberyl var: Alexandrite
Formula: BeAl2O4
Chrysoberyl var: Cymophane
Formula: BeAl2O4
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Localities: Reported from at least 20 localities in this region.
'Chrysoprase'
Chrysotile
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Localities: Reported from at least 17 localities in this region.
Churchite-(Y)
Formula: Y(PO4) · 2H2O
Cinnabar
Formula: HgS
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Clairite (TL)
Formula: (NH4)2Fe3(SO4)4(OH)3 · 3H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Ann.Geol.Survey S.Africa,(1983) 17, 29-34; Daltry, V.D.C., (1997) Mineralogy of South Africa: Type-Mineral Species and Type-Mineral Names, Council For Geoscience, Geological Survey of South Africa, Handbook 15.
Clausthalite
Formula: PbSe
'Clays'
Clinobisvanite
Formula: Bi(VO4)
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Localities: Reported from at least 33 localities in this region.
Clinochlore var: Leuchtenbergite
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Clinochlore var: Pennine
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: Michel Arliguie collection & photo (Photo ID: 946870, old sample)
Clinochlore var: Ripidolite
Formula: (Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8
Reference: Lacroix, A. (1922): Mineralogie de Madagascar, Tome I. Géologie-Minéralogie descriptive. A.Challamel (Éditeur), Paris; p 202
'Clinochrysotile'
Clinoclase
Formula: Cu3(AsO4)(OH)3
Clinoenstatite
Formula: MgSiO3
Reference: Brian Mason (1966). The Enstatite Chondrites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 30, 23-30.
Clinoferrosilite
Formula: Fe2+SiO3
Clinohumite
Formula: Mg9(SiO4)4F2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
'Clinoptilolite'
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'
Localities: Reported from at least 31 localities in this region.
Clinozoisite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Clinozoisite var: Clinothulite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Jean Chervet collection
Clintonite
Formula: Ca(Mg,Al)3(Al3SiO10)(OH)2
Reference: Nicollet, Christian (1985) Thèse d'Etat. Clermont Fd, 350pp.; Nicollet, Christian (1990) In Granulites and Crustal Differentiation (Vielzeuf, D. and Vidal, P., eds.), Kluwer Academic publishers, in press.; Nicollet, Christian (1990) Occurrences of grandidierite, serendibite and tourmaline near Ihosy, southern Madagascar. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 54, n° 374, pp. 131-133.
Cobaltite
Formula: CoAsS
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Cobaltpentlandite
Formula: (Co,Ni,Fe)9S8
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Cochromite (TL)
Formula: (Co,Ni,Fe)(Cr,Al)2O4
Type Locality:
Reference: Am Min 65 (1980), 811; O'Driscoll, B., Clay, P. L., Cawthorn, R. G., Lenaz, D., Adetunji, J., & Kronz, A. (2014). Trevorite: Ni-rich spinel formed by metasomatism and desulfurization processes at Bon Accord, South Africa?. Mineralogical Magazine, 78(1), 145-163.
Coesite
Formula: SiO2
Collinsite
Formula: Ca2Mg(PO4)2 · 2H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Coloradoite
Formula: HgTe
Columbite-(Fe)
Formula: Fe2+Nb2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'
Localities: Reported from at least 58 localities in this region.
Columbite-(Mg)
Formula: (Mg,Fe,Mn)(Nb,Ta)2O6
Description:
Reference: Listed in www.excaliburmineral.com- catalog of rare species
Columbite-(Mn)
Formula: Mn2+Nb2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 21 localities in this region.
'Columbite-(Mn)-Tantalite-(Mn) Series'
'Columbite-Tantalite'
Localities: Reported from at least 52 localities in this region.
Colusite
Formula: Cu13VAs3S16
Reference: Harrison et al., Mineralogical Record 45:553-570 (2014).
Combeite
Formula: Na4.5Ca3.5Si6O17.5(OH)0.5
Reference: www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/other.htm; Henderson, C. M. B., Kogarko, L. N., & Plant, D. A. (1999). Extreme closed system fractionation of volatile-rich, ultrabasic peralkaline melt inclusions and the occurrence of djerfisherite in the Kugda alkaline complex, Siberia. Mineralogical Magazine, 63(3), 433-438.; Wiedenmann D, Zaitsev A N, Britvin S N, Krivovichev S V, Keller J (2009) Alumoåkermanite, (Ca,Na)2(Al,Mg,Fe2+)(Si2O7), a new mineral from the active carbonatite-nephelinite-phonolite volcano Oldoinyo Lengai, northern Tanzania. Mineralogical Magazine 73, 373-384
Cookeite
Formula: (Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Localities: Reported from at least 14 localities in this region.
Cooperite
Formula: PtS
Localities: Reported from at least 19 localities in this region.
'Copal'
Reference: Geirnaert, E. (2002): L`Ambre- Miel de Fortune et Mémoire de Vie. Les Editions du Piat. 176p. [p. 87]
Copiapite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Copper
Formula: Cu
Localities: Reported from at least 24 localities in this region.
Coquimbite
Formula: Fe2-xAlx(SO4)3 · 9H2O, x ~0.5
Cordierite
Formula: (Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Localities: Reported from at least 27 localities in this region.
Cordylite-(Ce)
Formula: NaBaCe2(CO3)4F
Reference: A. Guastoni pers. comm. 2007 & Horváth specimen P. Kartashov probe anal.
Corkite
Formula: PbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Cornwallite
Formula: Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Corundum
Formula: Al2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 149 localities in this region.
Corundum var: Padparadscha
Formula: Al2O3
Corundum var: Ruby
Formula: Al2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 44 localities in this region.
Corundum var: Sapphire
Formula: Al2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 39 localities in this region.
Corundum var: Star Corundum
Formula: Al2O3
Reference: Van King
Cosalite
Formula: Pb2Bi2S5
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Localities: Reported from at least 29 localities in this region.
Crandallite
Formula: CaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Crichtonite
Formula: Sr(Mn,Y,U)Fe2(Ti,Fe,Cr,V)18(O,OH)38
Reference: Lacroix, A. (1922): Mineralogie de Madagascar, Tome I. Géologie-Minéralogie descriptive. A.Challamel (Éditeur), Paris. 624p (p.587)
Cristobalite
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Thomas, R. & Davidson, P. (2010): Hambergite-rich melt inclusions in morganite crystals from the Muiane pegmatite, Mozambique and some remarks on the paragenesis of hambergite. Mineralogy and Petrology, 100, 227-239.
Crocoite
Formula: PbCrO4
Cronstedtite
Formula: Fe2+2Fe3+((Si,Fe3+)2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Howard, K.T., Alexander, C.M.O'D, Schrader D.L. & Dyl K.A. (2015) Classification of hydrous meteorites (CR, CM, and C2 ungrouped) by phyllosilicate fraction: PSD-XRD modal mineralogy and planetismal environments. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 149, 206-222.
Crowningshieldite (TL)
Formula: (Ni0.9Fe0.10)S
Type Locality:
Reference: Smith, E.M., Nestola, F., Pasqualetto, L., Zorzi, F., Secco, L. and Wang, W. (2018) Crowningshieldite, IMA 2018-072. CNMNC Newsletter No. 45, October 2018, page xxx; Mineralogical Magazine, 82, xxx-xxx.
Cryptomelane
Formula: K(Mn4+7Mn3+)O16
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Cubanite
Formula: CuFe2S3
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Cummingtonite
Formula: ☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Localities: Reported from at least 17 localities in this region.
Cuprite var: Chalcotrichite
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: Atanasova, M., Cairncross, B. and Windisch, W.R. (2016) Microminerals of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Popular Geoscience Series 6, Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa, 146 pg
Cuprorhodsite
Formula: (Cu1+0.5Fe3+0.5)Rh3+2S4
Cuprotungstite
Formula: Cu2(WO4)(OH)2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Curite
Formula: Pb3(UO2)8O8(OH)6 · 3H2O
Cuspidine
Formula: Ca4(Si2O7)(F,OH)2
Cyanotrichite
Formula: Cu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
Reference: Atanasova, M., Cairncross, B. and Windisch, W.R. (2016) Microminerals of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Popular Geoscience Series 6, Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa, pg 181
Cyrilovite
Formula: NaFe3+3(PO4)2(OH)4 · 2H2O
Danalite
Formula: Be3Fe2+4(SiO4)3S
Reference: Nimis, P., Molin, G., Visonà, D. (1996) Crystal chemistry of danalite from Daba Shabeli Complex (N Somalia). Mineralogical Magazine 60:2, 375-378.
Danburite
Formula: CaB2Si2O8
Localities: Reported from at least 19 localities in this region.
Daqingshanite-(Ce)
Formula: (Sr,Ca,Ba)3(Ce,La)(CO3)3-x(PO4)(OH,F)2x
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189.; Wall, F. and Mariano, A.N. (1996) Rare earth minerals in carbonatites: a discussion centered on the Kangankunde carbonatite, Malawi. In: Rare Earth Minerals: Chemistry, Origin and Ore Deposits (A.P. Jones, F. Wall, & C.T. Williams, editors). Chapman & Hall, London, U.K. (193-225).
Datolite
Formula: CaB(SiO4)(OH)
Reference: [Gliddon, J. P. and Braithwaite, R. S. (1991) - Zeolites and associated minerals from the Palabora mine, Transvaal (Afrique du Sud), Mineralogical Record, 22 (4), 255-262.]; Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7
Daubréelite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2S4
'Davidite'
Description: J.Behier (1963) uses the variety name "mazuvite".
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
Dawsonite
Formula: NaAlCO3(OH)2
Reference: Hay, Richard Le Roy (1964), Phillipsite of saline lakes and soils American Mineralogist: 49: 1366-87
Delafossite
Formula: CuFeO2
'Delessite'
Formula: (Mg,Fe,Fe,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(O,OH)8
Reference: Lacroix, A. (1922): Mineralogie de Madagascar, Tome I. Géologie-Minéralogie descriptive. A. Challamel (Éditeur), Paris. p 603
Descloizite
Formula: PbZn(VO4)(OH)
Dewindtite
Formula: H2Pb3(UO2)2(PO4)4O4 · 12H2O
Diamond
Formula: C
Localities: Reported from at least 27 localities in this region.
Diaspore
Formula: AlO(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Dickite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Digenite
Formula: Cu9S5
Dingdaohengite-(Ce)
Formula: (Ce,La)4Fe2+(Ti,Fe2+,Mg,Fe2+)2Ti2(Si2O7)2O8
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 114 localities in this region.
Diopside var: Chromian Diopside
Formula: Ca(Mg,Cr)Si2O6
Diopside var: Diallage
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
Dioptase
Formula: CuSiO3 · H2O
Reference: Rocks & Minerals 83:5 pp 410-421
Djerfisherite (TL)
Formula: K6(Fe,Cu,Ni)25S26Cl
Reference: Am Min 64 (1979), 776
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Localities: Reported from at least 40 localities in this region.
Donbassite
Formula: Al4.33(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: www.minsocam.org/msa/Handbook/Donbassite.PDF; Bailey S W, Lister J (1989) Structures, compositions, and X-ray diffraction identification of dioctahedral chlorites. Clays and Clay Minerals 37, 193-202
Doyleite
Formula: Al(OH)3
Dravite
Formula: Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 32 localities in this region.
Dravite var: Chromian Dravite
Formula: Na((Mg,Cr)3)(Al,Cr)6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Reference: [www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]
'Dravite-Schorl Series'
'Dravite-Uvite Series'
Reference: Novák, M., Cempírek, J., Gadas, P., Škoda, R., Galiová, M. V., Pezzotta, F. and Groat, L. A. (2015): Boralsilite and Li, Be-bearing "Boron Mullite" Al8B2Si2O19, Breakdown products of spodumene from the Manjaka pegmatite, Sahatany valley, Madagascar. Canadian Mineralogist. 53: 357-374
Dufrénite
Formula: Ca0.5Fe2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2O
Duftite
Formula: PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Dumortierite
Formula: (Al,Fe3+)7(SiO4)3(BO3)O3
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Dyscrasite
Formula: Ag3Sb
Eckermannite ?
Formula: NaNa2(Mg4Al}Si8O22(OH)2
Edenite
Formula: {Na}{Ca2}{Mg5}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Eglestonite
Formula: (Hg2+2)3OCl3(OH)
Description: Occurs as a yellow powder associated with mercury and cinnabar
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 52; Cairncross, B., and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa;
Eitelite
Formula: Na2Mg(CO3)2
Reference: Kamenetsky, V. S., Belousova, E. A., Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, M. B., Goemann, K., & Griffin, W. L. (2014). Chemical abrasion of zircon and ilmenite megacrysts in the Monastery kimberlite: Implications for the composition of kimberlite melts. Chemical Geology, 383, 76-85.
Elbaite
Formula: Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 33 localities in this region.
Elbaite var: Chromian Elbaite
Formula: Na(Li1.5Al1.5)(Al,Cr)6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Description: Shows the so called Usambara effect, with hue changing from green to red with increases in path length of light through the material.
Reference: Journal of Gemmology 1999, Volume 26 No. 6, 386-96
Elbaite var: Cuprian Elbaite
Formula: Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Description: While its colors are somewhat less bright than top Brazilian material, Mozambique paraiba is often less included and has been found in larger sizes.
Reference: http://www.gia.edu/loupeonline/29962/30252/2724/current_issue_detail.cfm ; Ludwig, T., Marschall, H. R., von Strandmann, P. P., Shabaga, B. M., Fayek, M., & Hawthorne, F. C. (2011). A secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) re-evaluation of B and Li isotopic compositions of Cu-bearing elbaite from three global localities. Mineralogical Magazine, 75(4), 2485-2494.
'Elbaite-Liddicoatite Series'
'Elbaite-Schorl Series'
Reference: Nizamoff, J.W.; Falster, A.U.; Pezzota, F. ; Simmons, W.B.; Hanson, S.L. and Webber, K.L. (2000): Recent mining at the Antandrokomby pegmatite, Madagascar. 26th Rochester Mineralogical Symposium. Rocks & Minerals, july 2000. ; Simmons, W.B., Webber, K.L., Falster, A.U., & Nizamoff, J. W. (2001): Gem tourmaline chemistry and paragenesis. Australian gemmologist 21, number 01
'Electrum'
Formula: (Au, Ag)
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Elpidite
Formula: Na2ZrSi6O15 · 3H2O
Reference: No reference listed
Elyite
Formula: Pb4Cu(SO4)O2(OH)4 · H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Embreyite
Formula: Pb5(CrO4)2(PO4)2 · H2O
Emplectite ?
Formula: CuBiS2
Reference: Oberthür, T., Melcher, F., Fusswinkel, T., van den Kerkhof, A. M., & Sosa, G. M. (2018). The hydrothermal Waterberg platinum deposit, Mookgophong (Naboomspruit), South Africa. Part 1: Geochemistry and ore mineralogy. Mineralogical Magazine, 82(3), 725-749.
Enargite
Formula: Cu3AsS4
Enstatite
Formula: MgSiO3
Localities: Reported from at least 24 localities in this region.
Enstatite var: Bronzite
Formula: (Mg,Fe2+)2[SiO3]2
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Eosphorite
Formula: Mn2+Al(PO4)(OH)2 · H2O
Epididymite
Formula: Na2Be2Si6O15 · H2O
Reference: Cairncross, B., Messner, K & Farquharson, E. (1999): Die Pegmatite des Mount Malosa bei Zomba, Malawi. LAPIS 24 (4), 22-32; Diego Gatta, G., N. Rotiroti, G.J. McIntyre, A. Guastoni & F. Nestola (2008): New insights into the crystal chemistry of epididymite and eudidymite from Malosa, Malawi: A single-crystal neutron diffraction study. American Mineralogist 93, 1158-1165.; American Mineralogist, Volume 94, pages 1216–1222, 2009; Guastoni, A., & Pezzotta, F. (2007). REE-mineral phases replacing helvite, niobian-rutile, bastnäsite-(Ce) from alkaline pegmatites of Mount Malosa, Zomba District, Malawi. Granitic Pegmatites: the State of the Art. Memorias, 8, 42-43.; Cairncross, B. (2002). Aegirine and Associated Minerals from Mount Malosa, Malawi. Rocks & Minerals, 77(1), 31-37.
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 58 localities in this region.
Epsomite
Formula: MgSO4 · 7H2O
'Erionite'
Erionite-Na
Formula: (Na2,K2,Ca)2[Al4Si14O36] · 15H2O
Reference: Dogan,Umran and Dogan,Meral(2008) Re-evaluation and re-classification of erionite series minerals,Environ Geochem Health 30:355-366
Erlichmanite
Formula: OsS2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Erythrite
Formula: Co3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa: 204.; Reeks, G. (1996) The Kruisrivier Cobalt Mine - Transvaal (South Africa). Mineralogical Record, 27(6), 417-428.; Windisch, W. (2014) An introduction to micromounting.
Euclase
Formula: BeAl(SiO4)(OH)
Eudialyte
Formula: Na15Ca6(Fe2+,Mn2+)3Zr3[Si25O73](O,OH,H2O)3(OH,Cl)2
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Eudidymite
Formula: Na2Be2Si6O15 · H2O
Reference: Cairncross, B., Messner, K & Farquharson, E. (1999): Die Pegmatite des Mount Malosa bei Zomba, Malawi. LAPIS 24 (4), 22-32; Diego Gatta, G., N. Rotiroti, G.J. McIntyre, A. Guastoni & F. Nestola (2008): New insights into the crystal chemistry of epididymite and eudidymite from Malosa, Malawi: A single-crystal neutron diffraction study. American Mineralogist 93, 1158-1165.; American Mineralogist, Volume 94, pages 1216–1222, 2009; Mineralogical Record (1997) 28:64
Eugsterite (TL)
Formula: Na4Ca(SO4)3 · 2H2O
Reference: Vergouwen, L. (1981) Eugsterite, a new salt mineral. American Mineralogist, 66, 632-636.
Euxenite-(Y)
Formula: (Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 60 localities in this region.
Evansite
Formula: Al3(PO4)(OH)6 · 6H2O
Ezcurrite
Formula: Na4B10O17 · 7H2O
Reference: Thomas, R. & Davidson, P. (2010): Hambergite-rich melt inclusions in morganite crystals from the Muiane pegmatite, Mozambique and some remarks on the paragenesis of hambergite. Mineralogy and Petrology, 100, 227-239.
Famatinite
Formula: Cu3SbS4
Description: Found with gold.
Reference: Minerals of South Africa. Cairncross, B. and Anhaeusser, C.R., (1992), Gold in South Africa. Mineralogical Record: 23(3): 215
'Faratsihite' (FRL)
Type Locality:
Habit: massive
Colour: white creme
Description: The typematerial of the now discredited faratshite was found in a roadcut about 10 km from Faratsiho on the road to Sambaina. It was found in an altered volcanique rock (basalt or trachyte)as an elliptical mass of 2 x 1 meter
Reference: Behier, J. (1960): Contribution á la Minéralogie de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar XXIX, Tananarive.
Fayalite
Formula: Fe2+2SiO4
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'
Localities: Reported from at least 50 localities in this region.
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series var: Hortonolite'
Formula: from (Fe1.5Mg0.5)2SiO4 to (Mg1.5Fe0.5)2SiO4
Reference: Pavel M. Kartashov data
'Feldspar Group'
Localities: Reported from at least 81 localities in this region.
'Feldspar Group var: Antiperthite'
Reference: Lacroix, A. (1939): La lamboanite, schiste cristallin à faciès gneissique dépourvu de quartz et à pegmatite à cordiérite qui l'accompagne à Ankaditany (S. Madagascar) . Bulletin de Minéralogie 62: 289-298
'Feldspar Group var: Perthite'
Localities: Reported from at least 26 localities in this region.
Ferberite
Formula: FeWO4
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Ferberite var: Reinite
Formula: FeWO4
Reference: Excalibur-Cureton specimens
'Fergusonite'
Localities: Reported from at least 17 localities in this region.
Fergusonite-(Y)
Formula: YNbO4
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Ferriallanite-(Ce)
Formula: {CaCe}{Fe3+AlFe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Estrade, G., et al. (2014): REE and HFSE mineralization in peralkaline granites of the Ambohimirahavavy alkaline complex, Ampasindava peninsula, Madagascar. Journal of African Earth Sciences. 94: 141–155
Ferricopiapite
Formula: Fe5(SO4)6O(OH) · 20H2O
'Ferrierite'
Reference: Forner, H.. Gautier, F. & Thomas, L. (2001) Les macles de quartz de la région d`Andilamena, Madagascar. Le Règne Minéral, nr. 39, 42-46.
Ferrimolybdite
Formula: Fe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
Ferrisicklerite
Formula: Li1-x(Fe3+xFe2+1-x)PO4
'Ferritchromit'
Reference: Evans, D. M., Barrett, F. M., Prichard, H. M., & Fisher, P. C. (2012). Platinum–palladium–gold mineralization in the Nkenja mafic–ultramafic body, Ubendian metamorphic belt, Tanzania. Mineralium Deposita, 47(1-2), 175-196.
Ferri-winchite
Formula: ☐[CaNa][Mg4(Fe3+,Al)]Si8O22(OH)2
Description: Deep black-blue bladed single crystals embedded in dolomite
Reference: RRUFF ID: R060038
Ferro-actinolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Fe2+5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Rocks & Minerals 83:5 pp 410-421
Ferroalluaudite
Formula: (Na,Ca)Fe2+(Fe3+,Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)3
Reference: Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
'Ferro-eckermannite'
Formula: NaNa2(Fe2+4Al)Si8O22(OH)2
Reference: Rakotovao, S. (2009): Les minéralisations associées aux intrusions alcalines d’Ampasindava.- Ph.D. study, University of Antananarivo, 189 pages.
Ferro-edenite
Formula: {Na}{Ca2}{Fe2+5}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Reference: Mukosi, Ndivhuwo Cecilia (2012): Petrogenesis of the Ambohiby Complex, Madagascar and the role of the Marion Hotspot Plume. Thesis (MSc)-Stellenbosch University, 2012
Ferro-ferri-fluoro-leakeite
Formula: Na(Na2)(Fe2+2Fe3+2Li)(Si8O22)(F)2
Reference: Estrade, G. (2014): Le complexe cénozoïque alcalin d’Ambohimirahavavy à Madagascar: origine, évolution et minéralisations en métaux rares.- thèse de doctorat; Université de Toulouse, 256 pages + annexes.
Ferrohexahydrite
Formula: FeSO4 · 6H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Ferrohögbomite-2N2S
Formula: [(Fe2+,Mg,Zn,Al)3(Al,Ti,Fe3+)8O15(OH)]2
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
'Ferrohögbomite-6N12S'
Formula: [(Fe2+,Mg,Zn)5(Al,Ti,Fe3+)12O23(OH)]6
Reference: T. Armbruster (2002) Revised nomenclature of högbomite, nigerite, and taaffeite minerals.- Eur. Journ. Mineralogy 14, 389-395
Ferro-katophorite
Formula: {Na}{CaNa}{Fe2+4Al}[(AlSi7)O22](OH)2
Reference: Wooley (2001)
Ferro-richterite
Formula: {Na}{CaNa}{Fe2+5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ferrorosemaryite (TL)
Formula: ◻NaFe2+Fe3+Al(PO4)3
Type Locality:
Colour: Dark green to bronze
Reference: European Journal of Mineralogy: 17(5): 749-759.; Lefèvre, P., Fransolet, A. M., Fontan, F., & Keller, P. Petrographic study of the Al-rich phosphate mineral associations of the Rubindi-Kabilizi pegmatite, Gatumba area, Rwanda.
Ferrosilite
Formula: FeSiO3
Reference: Rocky Mountain (53rd) and South-Central (35th) Sections, GSA, Joint Annual Meeting (April 29–May 2, 2001) Session No. 7-Booth# 38.
Ferrowodginite
Formula: Fe2+Sn4+Ta2O8
Reference: Excalibur Mineral Co. specimen
Fersmite
Formula: (Ca,Ce,Na)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2(O,OH,F)6
Feruvite ?
Formula: Ca(Fe2+)3MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Description: No published analysis or other information. Samples visually identical to samples sold as feruvite in mineral shows has showed to be dravite.(K.E.Larsen commment des 2011)
Reference: Gunnar Färber, Samswegen, 2005
Fiedlerite
Formula: Pb3FCl4(OH) · H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Fillowite
Formula: {Mn2+}{Na8}{Ca4Na4}{(Mn2+,Fe2+)43}(PO4)36
'Florencite'
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Florencite-(Ce)
Formula: CeAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
Florencite-(Nd)
Formula: NdAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
Fluoborite
Formula: Mg3(BO3)(F,OH)3
Colour: White
Description: Found in foskorite rocks of the Phalaborwa complex as white mats grown in parallel alignment, associated with Iowaite and Magnetite.
Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa: 206.; Braithwaite, R. S. W., Dunn, P. J., Pritchard, R. G., & Parr, W. H. (1994). Iowaite, a reinvestigation. Mineralogical Magazine, 58(390), 77-86.; Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7
'Fluocerite'
Fluocerite-(Ce)
Formula: (Ce,La)F3
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Localities: Reported from at least 58 localities in this region.
Fluorapatite var: Carbonate-rich Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(F,O)
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Fluorapatite var: Mn-bearing Fluorapatite
Formula: (Ca,Mn2+)5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH) or Ca5([P,Mn5+]O4)3(F,Cl,OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Fluorapophyllite-(K)
Formula: KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Fluorcalciomicrolite
Formula: (Ca,Na)2(Ta,Nb)2O6F
Reference: RRUFF ID: R130022
Fluorcalciopyrochlore
Formula: (Ca,Na)2(Nb, Ti)2O6F
Reference: Estrade, G. (2014): Le complexe cénozoïque alcalin d’Ambohimirahavavy à Madagascar: origine, évolution et minéralisations en métaux rares.- thèse de doctorat; Université de Toulouse, 256 pages + annexes.
Fluor-dravite
Formula: Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Reference: Neiva, Ana M.R.; Leal Gomes, Carlos A.A. (2012): Tourmaline-group minerals in the Naipa Li-Cs-Ta granitic pegmatite group, Mozambique: tracers of magmatic to post-magmatic evolution trends. Neues Jahrbuch fur Mineralogie - Abhandlungen, 189, 1-20.
Fluor-elbaite
Formula: Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Localities: Reported from at least 81 localities in this region.
Fluor-liddicoatite (TL)
Formula: Ca(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Dunn, P. J., Appleman, D.E. & Nelen, J.E. (1977): Liddicoatite, a new calcium end-member of the tourmaline group. American Mineralogist 62, 1121-1124; Henry, D., Novák, M., Hawthorne, F.C., Ertl, A., Dutrow, B.L., Uher, P. & Pezzotta, F. (2011): Nomenclature of the tourmaline supergroup minerals. Am. Mineral., 96, 895-913.
Fluornatromicrolite
Formula: (Na1.5Bi0.5)Ta2O6F
Habit: Octahedrons to 3cm
Reference: Mineralogical Record (2001) 32:252
Fluornatropyrochlore
Formula: (Na,Pb,Ca,REE,U)2Nb2O6F
Reference: Estrade, G. (2014): Le complexe cénozoïque alcalin d’Ambohimirahavavy à Madagascar: origine, évolution et minéralisations en métaux rares.- thèse de doctorat; Université de Toulouse, 256 pages + annexes.
Fluoro-pargasite
Formula: {Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(F,OH)2
Reference: Gunnar Färber
Fluorophlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
Reference: http://www.minsocam.org/msa/special/pig/PIG_articles/Madagascar_txt.pdf
Foordite (TL)
Formula: Sn2+(Nb,Ta)2O6
Type Locality:
Colour: brownish yellow with a greenish tint
Description: Daltry and von Knorring (1998): "it occurs in contact with stannoan plumbomicrolite, cassiterite, ferro-columbite, staringite, and ixiolite. Foordite from Lutsiro is in fact a lead-bearing variety."
Reference: Cerny, P., Fransolet, A.-M., Ercit, T.S., and Chapman, R. (1988) Foordite SnNb2O6 a new mineral species, and the foordite-thoreaulite series. Canadian Mineralogist: 26: 889-898.; Jambor, J. and Vanko, D.A. (1990) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 75: 707.; Daltry, V.D.C. and von Knorring, O. (1998) Type-mineralogy of Rwanda with particular reference to the Buranga pegmatite. Geologica Belgica: 1: 9-15.
Fornacite
Formula: Pb2Cu(CrO4)(AsO4)(OH)
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Forsterite
Formula: Mg2SiO4
Localities: Reported from at least 27 localities in this region.
Franklinite
Formula: Zn2+Fe3+2O4
Freudenbergite
Formula: Na2(Ti,Fe)8O16
Reference: Kamenetsky, V. S., Belousova, E. A., Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, M. B., Goemann, K., & Griffin, W. L. (2014). Chemical abrasion of zircon and ilmenite megacrysts in the Monastery kimberlite: Implications for the composition of kimberlite melts. Chemical Geology, 383, 76-85.
Frondelite
Formula: Mn2+Fe3+4(PO4)3(OH)5
Froodite
Formula: α-PdBi2
'Gadolinite'
Gadolinite-(Y)
Formula: Y2Fe2+Be2Si2O10
Reference: American Mineralogist, Volume 94, pages 1216–1222, 2009
'Gagarinite'
Reference: Gilbertson, J. (2011) Private report for Tantalus Rare Earths. http://www.tre-ag.com/~/media/Files/T/Tantalus-Rare-Earths/Attachments/pdf/cpr-srk-reports/cpr-january-2011.pdf
Gahnite
Formula: ZnAl2O4
Galena
Formula: PbS
Localities: Reported from at least 85 localities in this region.
Galena var: Argentiferous Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Glass, J. (2006). The environmental impact of the abandoned Edendale lead mine near Tshwane, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, University of Johannesburg).
Galenobismutite
Formula: PbBi2S4
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Localities: Reported from at least 98 localities in this region.
'Garnierite'
Garronite-Ca
Formula: Na2Ca5Al12Si20O64 · 27H2O
Reference: Bull. Minéral. , 109, 1986, pp. 337-347.; J. Ph. Rançon (1985) Hydrothermal history of Piton des Neiges volcano (Reunion Island, Indian Ocean). Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Volume 26, Issues 3–4, December 1985, Pages 297–305, 307, 309–315
Gaspéite
Formula: Ni(CO3)
Gatumbaite (TL)
Formula: CaAl2(PO4)2(OH)2 · H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: von Knorring, O. (1972) Notes on phosphate minerals from Buranga pegmatite. 16th annual Report res. Inst. afr. Geol., Univ. Leeds, 56-57 (as unnamed Ca-Fe phosphate phase).; von Knorring, O. and Fransolet, A.-M. (1977) Gatumbaite, CaAl2(PO4)2(OH)2.H2O: a new species from Buranga pegmatite, Rwanda. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte: 12: 561-568.; Daltry, V.D.C. and von Knorring, O. (1998) Type-mineralogy of Rwanda with particular reference to the Buranga pegmatite. Geologica Belgica: 1: 9-15.; HB4 (2000).
Gaylussite
Formula: Na2Ca(CO3)2 · 5H2O
Gearksutite
Formula: Ca[Al(F,OH)5(H2O)]
Gedrite
Formula: ☐{Mg2}{Mg3Al2}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Gehlenite
Formula: Ca2Al(AlSiO7)
Geikielite
Formula: MgTiO3
Genkinite (TL)
Formula: (Pt,Pd,Rh)4Sb3
Reference: Canadian Mineralogist(1977) 15, 389-392; Cabri, L. J., Laflamme, J. G., & Stewart, J. M. (1977). Platinum-group minerals from Onverwacht; II, Platarsite, a new sulfarsenide of platinum. The Canadian Mineralogist, 15(3), 385-388.
Genthelvite
Formula: Be3Zn4(SiO4)3S
Reference: Lapis 29(1), 37-38 (2004)
'Genthite'
Germanocolusite
Formula: Cu26V2(Ge,As)6S32
Reference: Harrison et al., Mineralogical Record 45:553-570 (2014).
Gersdorffite
Formula: NiAsS
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Geversite (TL)
Formula: PtSb2
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine(1961) 32, 833-847; Melcher, F., & Lodziak, J. (2007). Platinum-group minerals of concentrates from the Driekop platinum pipe, Eastern Bushveld Complex Tribute to Eugen F. Stumpfl. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Abhandlungen: Journal of Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 183(2), 173-195.
Gibbsite
Formula: Al(OH)3
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
'Gismondine'
Reference: Rudy W. Tschernich, " Zeolites of the World", Geoscience Press, Inc, Phoenix, Arizona, 1992
Gittinsite
Formula: CaZrSi2O7
Reference: G. Estrade et al. (2011): HFSE enrichment in a peralkaline granite related skarn, Ampasindava Peninsula, Madagascar.- University of Toulouse, France; presentation given at the University of Tübingen.
'Glass'
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Glaucodot
Formula: (Co0.50Fe0.50)AsS
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
'Glauconite'
Formula: (K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Glaucophane
Formula: ◻[Na2][Mg3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 290.
Glaukosphaerite
Formula: (Cu,Ni)2(CO3)(OH)2
'Gmelinite'
Godlevskite
Formula: (Ni,Fe)9S8
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 65 localities in this region.
Gold
Formula: Au
Localities: Reported from at least 205 localities in this region.
Gold var: Palladian Gold
Formula: (Au,Pd)
Reference: Holwell, D. A., McDonald, I., & Armitage, P. E. B. (2006). Platinum-group mineral assemblages in the Platreef at the Sandsloot Mine, northern Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine, 70(1), 83-101.
'Gold Amalgam'
Reference: Pavel M. Kartashov data of 2015, Alexandr Tsykin material
Goldmanite
Formula: Ca3V3+2(SiO4)3
Gonnardite
Formula: (Na,Ca)2(Si,Al)5O10 · 3H2O
Gorceixite
Formula: BaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Gormanite
Formula: (Fe2+,Mg)3(Al,Fe3+)4(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2O
Reference: Gunnar Färber
Götzenite
Formula: NaCa6Ti(Si2O7)2OF3
Goudeyite
Formula: AlCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
Reference: Rick Turner collection
Goyazite
Formula: SrAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Graftonite
Formula: Fe2+Fe2+2(PO4)2
Grandidierite (TL)
Formula: (Mg,Fe2+)(Al,Fe3+)3(SiO4)(BO3)O2
Localities: Reported from at least 14 localities in this region.
Habit: masses up to several centimeters across
Colour: Bluish green
Description: C. Mignot was not able to find any more grandidierite at the site in 1960 (Behier 1960)
Reference: Lacroix, A. (1902): Note préliminaire sur une nouvelle espèce minerale. Bulletin de la Société Francaise de Minéralogie 25: 85-86 ;
Graphite
Formula: C
Localities: Reported from at least 60 localities in this region.
Gravegliaite
Formula: Mn2+SO3 · 3H2O
Reference: Gunnar Färber
Grayite
Formula: (Th,Pb,Ca)(PO4) · H2O
Reference: Gallagher, M.J. (1967): Phosphates and other minerals in pegmatites of Rhodesia and Uganda. Mineralogical Magazine. 36, 50-59
Greenalite
Formula: (Fe2+,Fe3+)2-3Si2O5(OH)4
Reference: S. Weinert (2006) Locality Data Sheet ML35 (South African Micromount Society)
Greenockite
Formula: CdS
Gregoryite (TL)
Formula: (Na2,K2,Ca)CO3
Type Locality:
Reference: Lithos 13 (1980), 213; American Mineralogist, 66, pp. 879 (1981); Mineralogical Magazine 1997 61 : 779-789; Zaitsev, A. N., & Keller, J. (2006). Mineralogical and chemical transformation of Oldoinyo Lengai natrocarbonatites, Tanzania. Lithos, 91(1), 191-207.; Mitchell, R. H. (1997). Carbonate-carbonate immiscibility, neighborite and potassium iron sulphide in Oldoinyo Lengai natrocarbonatite. Mineralogical Magazine, 61(6), 779-789.; Mattsson, H. B., & Reusser, E. (2010). Mineralogical and geochemical characterization of ashes from an early phase of the explosive September 2007 eruption of Oldoinyo Lengai (Tanzania). Journal of African Earth Sciences, 58(5), 752-763.; Victoria Sekisova, Victor Victorovich Sharygin, A. N. Zaitsev, Stanislav Strekopytov (2015) Liquid Immiscibility Геология и геофизика, 2015, т. 56, № 12, с. 2173—2197
Greigite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2S4
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Griphite
Formula: Na4Li2Ca6(Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)19Al8(PO4)24(F,OH)8
Reference: Daltry, V.D.C. and von Knorring, O. (1998) Type-mineralogy of Rwanda with particular reference to the Buranga pegmatite. Geologica Belgica: 1: 9-15.
Grossular
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Localities: Reported from at least 29 localities in this region.
Grossular var: Hibschite
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
Grossular var: Tsavorite (FRL)
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Localities: Reported from at least 14 localities in this region.
Reference: Feneyrol J., Gaston,G., Ohnenstetter D., Le Goff E., Malisa, E. P.J., Saul, M. Saul, E. Saul, J. & Pardieu, V. (2010): Lithostratigraphic and structural controls of ‘tsavorite’ deposits at Lemshuku, Merelani area, Tanzania. Comptes Rendus Geoscience. 342 (10), 778-785.
Grunerite
Formula: ☐{Fe2+2}{Fe2+5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Grunerite var: Amosite
Formula: ☐{Fe2+2}{Fe2+5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Gudmundite
Formula: FeSbS
'Gummite'
Gwihabaite
Formula: (NH4,K)NO3
Reference: Handbook of Mineralogy; Martini, I. (1978). Mineralogy of the Transvaal caves. South African Journal of Geology, 81(1), 47-54.
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 49 localities in this region.
Hafnon (TL)
Formula: HfSiO4
Reference: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 48, 73-80
Hagendorfite
Formula: NaCaMn2+Fe2+2(PO4)3
Reference: Can Min (2004) 42, (3), 697-704
Halite
Formula: NaCl
Localities: Reported from at least 15 localities in this region.
'Halloysite'
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Halotrichite
Formula: FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Hambergite
Formula: Be2(BO3)(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Hannayite
Formula: (NH4)2Mg3H4(PO4)4 · 8H2O
Reference: Forti, P., E. Galli & A. Rossi (2004):"Minerogenesis of volcanic caves of Kenya" , Int. J. Speleol. 32, 3-18
Harmotome
Formula: (Ba0.5,Ca0.5,K,Na)5[Al5Si11O32] · 12H2O
Hastingsite
Formula: {Na}{Ca2}{Fe2+4Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Haüyne
Formula: (Na,K)3(Ca,Na)(Al3Si3O12)(SO4,S,Cl)
Reference: Zaitsev (2012): Mineral chemistry and crystal structure of haüyne from the Oldoinyo Lengai volcano, northern Tanzania. Eifel-Symposium 2012, "Variability and complexity of minerals and their synthetic analogues of the Vulkaneifel and related provinces”, Christian Albrechts University, Kiel, 23.04. - 30.04.2012.
Haycockite (TL)
Formula: Cu4Fe5S8
Type Locality:
Reference: Cabri, L.J. & Hall, S.R. (1972) Mooihoekite and haycockite, two new copper-iron sulfides and their relationship to chalcopyrite and talnakhite. American Mineralogist 57, 689-708; Rowland, J.F. & Hall, S.R. (1973) The crystal structure of haycockite, Cu4Fe5S8. American Mineralogist, 58, 1110 abstract????; Rowland, J.F. & Hall, S.R. (1975) Haycockite, Cu4Fe5S8: a superstructure in the chalcopyrite series. Acta crystallographica B31, 2105-2112; Daltry, V.D.C., (1997) Mineralogy of South Africa: Type-Mineral Species and Type-Mineral Names, Council For Geoscience, Geological Survey of South Africa, Handbook 15.
Heazlewoodite
Formula: Ni3S2
Hedenbergite
Formula: CaFe2+Si2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
'Hellandite'
Hellyerite
Formula: NiCO3 · 5.5H2O
Helvine
Formula: Be3Mn2+4(SiO4)3S
Reference: Guastoni A., Pezzotta F., Demartin F., 2003. Le pegmatiti di Zomba-Malosa (Malawi). Riv. Mineral. Ital., 27 (2): 66-77. ; Guastoni, A., & Pezzotta, F. (2007). REE-mineral phases replacing helvite, niobian-rutile, bastnäsite-(Ce) from alkaline pegmatites of Mount Malosa, Zomba District, Malawi. Granitic Pegmatites: the State of the Art. Memorias, 8, 42-43.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 114 localities in this region.
Hematite var: Martite
Formula: Fe2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Hematite var: Specularite
Formula: Fe2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Hemihedrite
Formula: Pb10Zn(CrO4)6(SiO4)2(OH)2
Reference: Atanasova, M., Cairncross, B. and Windisch, W.R. (2016) Microminerals of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Popular Geoscience Series 6, Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa, 435 pp
Hemimorphite
Formula: Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Hercynite
Formula: Fe2+Al2O4
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Hercynite var: Chromohercynite
Formula: Fe(Al,Cr)2O4
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
Hercynite var: Picotite
Formula: (Fe,Mg)(Al,Cr)2O4
Hessite
Formula: Ag2Te
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Heterogenite
Formula: Co3+O(OH)
Reference: Min Rec 27:6 pp417-428
Heterosite
Formula: (Fe3+,Mn3+)PO4
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
'Heterosite-Purpurite Series'
Reference: Behier, J. (1960): Contribution á la mineralogie de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar XXIX, Tananarive, p 42
Heulandite-Ca
Formula: (Ca,Na)5(Si27Al9)O72 · 26H2O
'Heulandite subgroup'
Localities: Reported from at least 18 localities in this region.
Hexahydrite
Formula: MgSO4 · 6H2O
Hibonite (TL)
Formula: (Ca,Ce)(Al,Ti,Mg)12O19
Localities: Reported from at least 20 localities in this region.
Description: per correspondence with Knut Edvard: The TL produced just a few specimens in the year of discovery (also an eluvial locality ). When lacking exact locality data the Madagascar hibonite specimens are often erroneously labeled and sold as coming from Esiva, often being the only locality referred to in textbooks.
Reference: Delbos, L. (1955): Note sur le gisement d'un mineral nouveau " la hibonite" de' l'Androy Mandrareen" in Rapport Annuel du Service Geologique pour 1955, Tananarivo.143-144
Hidalgoite
Formula: PbAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: Atanasova, M., Cairncross, B. and Windisch, W.R. (2016) Microminerals of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Popular Geoscience Series 6, Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa, pg 181
Hieratite
Formula: K2[SiF6]
Reference: Vlastélic, I., Staudacher, T., Deniel, C., Devidal, J. L., Devouard, B., Finizola, A., & Telouk, P. (2013). Lead isotopes behavior in the fumarolic environment of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano (Reunion Island). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 100, 297-314.
Hingganite-(Y)
Formula: (Y,REE,Ca)2(□,Fe2+)Be2[SiO4]2(OH)2
Habit: 1 mm crystals in fan- and sheafshaped aggregates up to 2 mm. Dominating forms: {110} and {111}
Colour: pale bluish
Reference: Petersen, O.V., Rønsbo, J.G. & Leonardsen, E.S. (1994): Hingganite-(Y) from the Zomba-Malosa complex, Malawi. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte. Heft 4: 185-192; American Mineralogist, Volume 94, pages 1216–1222, 2009; Guastoni, A., & Pezzotta, F. (2007). REE-mineral phases replacing helvite, niobian-rutile, bastnäsite-(Ce) from alkaline pegmatites of Mount Malosa, Zomba District, Malawi. Granitic Pegmatites: the State of the Art. Memorias, 8, 42-43.
'Högbomite'
Formula: (Mg,Fe)2(Al,Ti)5O10
Hollandite
Formula: Ba(Mn4+6Mn3+2)O16
Hollingworthite (TL)
Formula: (Rh,Pt,Pd)AsS
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Reference: AM 50 (1965), 1068; HB1 (1990); Oberthür, T., Melcher, F., Sitnikova, M., Rudashevsky, N. S., Rudashevsky, V. N., Cabri, L. J., ... & Gast, L. (2008). Combination of novel mineralogical methods in the study of noble metal ores–focus on pristine (Bushveld, Great Dyke) and placer platinum mineralisation. In Ninth International Congress for Applied Mineralogy ICAM (pp. 187-194).
Holmquistite
Formula: ☐{Li2}{Mg3Al2}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Hongshiite
Formula: PtCu
Reference: Oberthür, T., Melcher, F., Fusswinkel, T., van den Kerkhof, A. M., & Sosa, G. M. (2018). The hydrothermal Waterberg platinum deposit, Mookgophong (Naboomspruit), South Africa. Part 1: Geochemistry and ore mineralogy. Mineralogical Magazine, 82(3), 725-749.
Hopeite
Formula: Zn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
'Hornblende'
Localities: Reported from at least 18 localities in this region.
Hübnerite
Formula: MnWO4
Humite
Formula: (Mg,Fe2+)7(SiO4)3(F,OH)2
Reference: Wolfgang Hampel, site visit 13 August 2005
'Humite Group'
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Huntite
Formula: CaMg3(CO3)4
Hureaulite
Formula: (Mn,Fe)5(PO4)2(HPO4)2 · 4H2O
Hydrobiotite
Formula: K(Mg,Fe2+)6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · nH2O
Reference: Gunnar Färber
Hydrocerussite
Formula: Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Hydrokenoelsmoreite
Formula: 2W2O6(H2O)
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Hydrokenoelsmoreite var: Ferritungstite
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Hydrokenopyrochlore (TL)
Formula: (□,□)2Nb2O6·H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Biagioni, C., Gieré, R.,Meisser, N., Nestola, F., Pasero, M., Robyr, M., Roth, P. and Schnyder, C. (2017) Hydrokenopyrochlore, IMA 2017-005. CNMNC Newsletter No. 37, June 2017, page 739; Mineralogical Magazine, 81, 737–742; Biagioni, C., Meisser, N., Nestola, F., Pasero, M., Bobyr, M., Roth, P., Schnyder, C., Gieré, R. (2018): Hydrokenopyrochlore, (□,#)2Nb2O6·H2O, a new species of the pyrochlore supergroup from the Sahatany Pegmatite Field, Antananarivo Province, Madagascar. European Journal of Mineralogy, 30, 869-876
Hydrokenoralstonite
Formula: Na0.5(Al,Mg)2(F,OH)6•H2O
Hydromagnesite
Formula: Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Hydrombobomkulite (TL)
Formula: (Ni,Cu)Al4((NO3)2,SO4)(OH)12 · 13-14H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Annal.Geol.Survey S.Africa,(1980) 14, no. 2, 1-110; Martini, J.E.J. et al (1997), "Mbobo Mkulu Cave, South Africa", in "Cave Minerals of the World" (1997)
'Hydrophlogopite'
Reference: SCHOEMAN, J.J., 1989. Mica and vermiculite in South Africa. J. S. At,. Inst. Min. Metal/., vol. 89, no. 1., pp. 1-12.
Hydrotalcite
Formula: Mg6Al2(CO3)(OH)16 · 4H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa; Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7
'Hydrotroilite'
Formula: FeS · H2O ?
Reference: Gorshkov, A.I., Baturin, G.N., Bogdanova, O.Y., and Magazina, L.O. (2000): Lithology and Mineral Resources 35(2), 183-188.
Hydrotungstite
Formula: WO3 · 2H2O
Reference: Roy Kristiansen
Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)
Formula: KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
Hydroxykenoelsmoreite (TL)
Formula: (□,Pb)2(W,Fe3+,Al)2(O,OH)6(OH)
Type Locality:
Reference: Mills, S.J., Christy, A.G., Kampf, A.R., Birch, W.D. and Kasatkin, A. (2016) Hydroxykenoelsmoreite, IMA 2016-056. CNMNC Newsletter No. 33, October 2016, page 1141; Mineralogical Magazine, 80, 1135–1144; Mills, S.J., Christy, A.G., Kampf, A.R., Birch, W.D., Kasatkin, A. (2017): Hydroxykenoelsmoreite, the first new mineral from the Republic of Burundi. European Journal of Mineralogy, 29, 491-497.
Hydroxykenomicrolite
Formula: (◻,Na,Sb3+)2Ta2O6(OH)
Reference: C. Stefano photo & Specimen -obtained from Al Falster
Hydroxylapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
Hydroxylapatite var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
Reference: USGS Open-File Report 02–156–A
Hydroxylherderite
Formula: CaBe(PO4)(OH,F)
Reference: Dias, M. Bettencourt and Wilson, W. E., 2000, Mineralogical Record, 31:459-497.
Hydrozincite
Formula: Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Reference: -Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Gélogique Madagascar. A 1871
Hypercinnabar
Formula: HgS
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
'Hypersthene'
Formula: (Mg,Fe)SiO3
Ice
Formula: H2O
Reference: Science 18 October 2002: Vol. 298. no. 5593, pp. 548 - 549
'Iddingsite'
Formula: MgO · Fe2O3 · 3SiO2·4H2O
Reference: Baker, B.H. (1967) Geology of the Mount Kenya area. Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, Mines and Geological Department, Report No. 79, 78 pp.
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Localities: Reported from at least 74 localities in this region.
'Ilmenorutile-Strüverite Series'
Reference: Knut Edvard Larsen collection # M-331
Ilsemannite
Formula: Mo3O8 · nH2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Ilvaite
Formula: CaFe3+Fe2+2(Si2O7)O(OH)
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Imogolite
Formula: Al2SiO3(OH)4
Reference: Schwaighofer, B., & Müller, H. W. (1987). Mineralogy and genesis of the Pugu Hill kaolin deposit, Tanzania. Clay Minerals, 22(4), 401-409.
'Indicolite'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Insizwaite (TL)
Formula: Pt(Bi,Sb)2
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine(1972) 38, 794-800
Iowaite
Formula: Mg6Fe3+2(OH)16Cl2 · 4H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa; Braithwaite, R. S. W., Dunn, P. J., Pritchard, R. G., & Parr, W. H. (1994). Iowaite, a reinvestigation. Mineralogical Magazine, 58(390), 77-86.; Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7
Irarsite (TL)
Formula: (Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsS
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Iridium
Formula: (Ir,Os,Ru)
Iridium var: Osmiridium
Formula: (Ir,Os,Ru)
Iron
Formula: Fe
Localities: Reported from at least 14 localities in this region.
Iron var: Kamacite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Iron var: Martensite
Formula: Fe
'Iron oxide'
Reference: De Villiers, J.E. (1940) Iron-rich kornerupine from Port Shepstone, Natal. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 25, n° 169, 550-556.
Isocubanite
Formula: CuFe2S3
Isoferroplatinum
Formula: Pt3Fe
Localities: Reported from at least 18 localities in this region.
Isomertieite
Formula: Pd11Sb2As2
Isomertieite var: Fengluanite
Formula: Pd3(As,Sb)
Reference: Armitage, P. E. B., McDonald, I., Edwards, S. J., & Manby, G. M. (2002). Platinum-group element mineralization in the Platreef and calc-silicate footwall at Sandsloot, Potgietersrus District, South Africa. Applied Earth Science: Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy: Section B, 111(1), 36-45.
Ixiolite
Formula: (Ta,Nb,Sn,Fe,Mn)4O8
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Ixiolite var: Scandian Ixiolite (of von Knorring) (FRL)
Formula: (Nb,Ta,Ti,Sc,Fe,Mn)4O8
Reference: v. Knorring, O. V., Sahama, Th.G. (1969): Scandian ixiolite from Mozambique and Madagascar. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland. 41: 75-77
Ixiolite var: Wolframoixiolite
Formula: (Nb,W,Ta,Fe,Mn,Nb)2O4
Jacobsite
Formula: Mn2+Fe3+2O4
Jalpaite
Formula: Ag3CuS2
Description: Determined in carbonatitic ores, in sulfide flotation concentrate
Reference: Nikolay Rudashevsky et al (2001) Efficient Technology of Ore Minerals Investigation of PGE-Bearing Deposits – Case Study in (2001) European Union of Geosciences Conference XI (OS6)
Jamesonite
Formula: Pb4FeSb6S14
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Jennite
Formula: Ca9(Si3O9)2(OH)8 · 8H2O
Description: Occurs in vesicles in lava and rare dike rocks.
Reference: Barker, D.S. and Nixon, P.H. (1989) High-Ca, low-alkali carbonatite volcanism at Fort Portal, Uganda. Contributions to Minralogy and Petrology.: 103: 166-177.
Johnsomervilleite
Formula: Na10Ca6Mg18Fe25(PO4)36
Reference: The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 36,pp. 355-366 (1998)
Jörgkellerite (TL)
Formula: (Na,☐)3Mn3+3(PO4)2(CO3)(O,OH)2·5H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Zaitsev, A.N., Britvin, S.N., Kearsley, A., Wenzel, T. and Kirk, C. (2015) Jörgkellerite, IMA 2015-020. CNMNC Newsletter No. 26, August 2015, page 942; Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 941-947; Zaitsev, A.N., Britvin, S.N., Kearsley, A., Wenzel, T., Kirk, C. (2017): Jörgkellerite, Na3Mn3+3(PO4)2(CO3)O2·5H2O, a new layered phosphate-carbonate mineral from the Oldoinyo Lengai volcano, Gregory rift, northern Tanzania. Mineralogy and Petrology 111, 373–381.
Joséite-B
Formula: Bi4Te2S
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Julgoldite-(Fe3+)
Formula: Ca2Fe3+Fe3+2(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH) · H2O
Habit: acicular
Colour: dark-green
Description: First reported find of this mineral in South Africa
Reference: Cairncross, B. & Windisch, W.(1998): Microminerals from the Bushveld Complex South Africa. Mineralogical Record 29: 461-465
Kainosite-(Y)
Formula: Ca2(Y,Ce)2(Si4O12)(CO3) · H2O
Kalicinite
Formula: KHCO3
Reference: Zaitsev, A. N., & Keller, J. (2006). Mineralogical and chemical transformation of Oldoinyo Lengai natrocarbonatites, Tanzania. Lithos, 91(1), 191-207.
Kalsilite (TL)
Formula: KAlSiO4
Reference: Bannister F A, Hey M H (1942) Kalsilite, a polymorph of KAlSiO4, from Uganda, Mineralogical Magazine 26, 218-225
Kanemite
Formula: HNaSi2O5 · 3H2O
Reference: G. Périnet, J.J. Tiercelin, C.E. Barton : "Présence de kanémite dans les sédiments récents du lac Bogoria, Rift Gregory, Kenya", Bull. Minéral., 1982, 105, 633-639.
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Localities: Reported from at least 60 localities in this region.
Karelianite
Formula: V3+2O3
Kashinite
Formula: (Ir,Rh)2S3
Kasolite
Formula: Pb(UO2)[SiO4] · H2O
Reference: J. Geffroy, J.A. Sarcia, J. Chervet : "Les Minéraux Uranifères Français", 1960, Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucléaires / Saclay - PUF.; Frondel C, Meyrowitz R (1956) Studies of uranium minerals (XIX): rutherfordine, diderichite, and clarkeite. American Mineralogist 41, 127-133
Kassite
Formula: CaTi2O4(OH)2
Reference: Kamenetsky, V. S., Belousova, E. A., Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, M. B., Goemann, K., & Griffin, W. L. (2014). Chemical abrasion of zircon and ilmenite megacrysts in the Monastery kimberlite: Implications for the composition of kimberlite melts. Chemical Geology, 383, 76-85.
Keithconnite
Formula: Pd20Te7
Kenyaite (TL)
Formula: Na2Si22O41(OH)8 · 6H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: McAtee, J.L., House, R., Eugster, H.P. (1968) Magadiite from Trinity County, California. The American Mineralogist, 53, 2061-2069. HB2/1 (1995).
Kerimasite (TL)
Formula: Ca3Zr2(SiO4)(Fe3+O4)2
Reference: Zaitsev, A.N., Williams, C.T., Britvin, S.N., Kuznetsova, I.V., Spratt, J., Petrov, S.V., and Keller, J. (2010): Mineralogical Magazine 74(5), 803-820.
Kermesite
Formula: Sb2S2O
'K Feldspar'
Localities: Reported from at least 51 localities in this region.
'K Feldspar var: Adularia'
Formula: KAlSi3O8
Khibinskite
Formula: K2ZrSi2O7
Reference: Kamenetsky, V. S., Belousova, E. A., Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, M. B., Goemann, K., & Griffin, W. L. (2014). Chemical abrasion of zircon and ilmenite megacrysts in the Monastery kimberlite: Implications for the composition of kimberlite melts. Chemical Geology, 383, 76-85.
Kimzeyite
Formula: Ca3(Zr,Ti)2((Si,Al,Fe3+)O4)3
Reference: Zaitsev A.N., Wenzel T., Markl G., Spratt J., Petrov S.V., Williams, C.T. (2010) Mineralogy and geochemistry of nephelinites and phonolites from the Sadiman volcano, northern Tanzania. Abstracts of XXVII International conference School «Geochemistry of Alkaline rocks». – Moscow-Koktebel’. pp. 240 pp.
Knorringite (TL)
Formula: Mg3Cr2(SiO4)3
Type Locality:
Reference: AmMin 53 (1968), 1833-1840
Koechlinite
Formula: Bi2MoO6
Kogarkoite
Formula: Na3(SO4)F
Kolbeckite
Formula: ScPO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Liferovich, R.P., Subbotin, V.V., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Lyalina, M.F. (1998) A new type of scandium mineralization in phoscorites and carbonatites of the Kovdor Massif, Russia. The Canadian Mineralogist, 36, 971-980.
Kornerupine
Formula: Mg3Al6(Si,Al,B)5O21(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 14 localities in this region.
Kotulskite
Formula: Pd(Te,Bi)
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Ktenasite
Formula: Zn(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 6H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Kupletskite
Formula: (K,Na)3(Mn,Fe)7Ti2Si8O26(OH)4F
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189.
Kyanite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Localities: Reported from at least 46 localities in this region.
Lacroixite
Formula: NaAl(PO4)F
Laitakarite
Formula: Bi4Se2S
Reference: A Geological Excursion To The Mesozoic Sediments Of The Abay Basin ( Blue Nile), Recent Volcanics Of The Ethiopian Main Rift And Basement Rocks Of The Adola Rea, Ethiopia. Mitt. Österr. Miner. Ges. 147 (2002)
Lakargiite ?
Formula: Ca(Zr,Sn,Ti)O3
Reference: Kamenetsky, V. S., Belousova, E. A., Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, M. B., Goemann, K., & Griffin, W. L. (2014). Chemical abrasion of zircon and ilmenite megacrysts in the Monastery kimberlite: Implications for the composition of kimberlite melts. Chemical Geology, 383, 76-85.
Lamprophyllite
Formula: (Na,Mn2+)3(Sr,Na)2(Ti,Fe3+)3(Si2O7)2O2(OH,O,F)2
Reference: www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/other.htm
Lanarkite
Formula: Pb2(SO4)O
Landesite
Formula: Mn2+3-xFe3+x(PO4)2(OH)x · (3-x)H2O
Reference: Daltry, V.D.C. and von Knorring, O. (1998) Type-mineralogy of Rwanda with particular reference to the Buranga pegmatite. Geologica Belgica: 1: 9-15.
Langbeinite ?
Formula: K2Mg2(SO4)3
Reference: Vlastélic, I., Staudacher, T., Deniel, C., Devidal, J. L., Devouard, B., Finizola, A., & Telouk, P. (2013). Lead isotopes behavior in the fumarolic environment of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano (Reunion Island). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 100, 297-314.
Langite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
'Lanthanite' ?
Reference: Behier, J. (1960): Contribution á la mineralogie de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar XXIX, Tananarive, p 18
Larnite
Formula: Ca2SiO4
Reference: Martínez-Frías, J., Benito, R., Wilson, G., Delgado, A., Boyd, T., and Marti, K. (2004): Journal of Materials Processing Technology 147, 204–210.; Henderson, C. M. B., Kogarko, L. N., & Plant, D. A. (1999). Extreme closed system fractionation of volatile-rich, ultrabasic peralkaline melt inclusions and the occurrence of djerfisherite in the Kugda alkaline complex, Siberia. Mineralogical Magazine, 63(3), 433-438.
Lasnierite (TL)
Formula: (Ca,Sr)(Mg,Fe2+)2Al(P[O,F]4)3
Type Locality:
Reference: Rondeau, B., Devouard, B., Jacob, D., Roussel, P., Stéphant, N., Boulet, C., Mollé, V., Corre, M., Fritsch, E., Ferraris, C. and Parodi, G.C. (2018) Lasnierite, IMA 2017-084. CNMNC Newsletter No. 42, April 2018, 447; Mineralogical Magazine, 82: 445–451.
Laumontite
Formula: CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 21 localities in this region.
Laurionite
Formula: PbCl(OH)
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Laurite
Formula: RuS2
Localities: Reported from at least 19 localities in this region.
Lavendulan
Formula: NaCaCu5(AsO4)4Cl · 5H2O
Description: Slag mineral
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Låvenite
Formula: (Na,Ca)2(Mn2+,Fe2+)(Zr,Ti)(Si2O7)(O,OH,F)2
Lazulite
Formula: MgAl2(PO4)2(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
'Lazulite-Scorzalite Series'
Reference: von Knorring, O. and Mrose, M.E. (1966) Bertossaite (Li,Na)2(Ca,Fe,Mn)Al4 (PO4)(OH,F)4, a new mineral from Rwanda (Africa). (Abstr.) Canadian Mineralogist: 8: 668.; Daltry, V.D.C. and von Knorring, O. (1998) Type-mineralogy of Rwanda with particular reference to the Buranga pegmatite. Geologica Belgica: 1: 9-15.
Lead
Formula: Pb
Reference: Atanasova, M., Cairncross, B. and Windisch, W.R. (2016) Microminerals of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Popular Geoscience Series 6, Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa, 435 pp
Leadhillite
Formula: Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
'Lead-parkerite'
Formula: Ni3Pb2S2
Reference: Du Preez, J.W. (1944) Ann. Univ. Stellenbosch, 22, sect. A, p. 101.
Leonardsenite
Formula: MgAlF5·2H2O
Reference: Vlastélic, I., Staudacher, T., Deniel, C., Devidal, J. L., Devouard, B., Finizola, A., & Telouk, P. (2013). Lead isotopes behavior in the fumarolic environment of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano (Reunion Island). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 100, 297-314.
Lepidocrocite
Formula: γ-Fe3+O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
'Lepidolite'
Localities: Reported from at least 50 localities in this region.
Letovicite
Formula: (NH4)3H(SO4)2
Leucite
Formula: K(AlSi2O6)
Leucophosphite
Formula: KFe3+2(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Leucoxene
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
'Lévyne'
Liandratite (TL)
Formula: U(Nb,Ta)2O8
Type Locality:
Colour: yellow to brown
Description: As a 2mm thick crust on petscheckite
Reference: Mücke, A. & Strunz, H. (1978): Petscheckite and liandratite, two new pegmatite minerals from Madagascar. American Mineralogist 63: 941-946
Libethenite
Formula: Cu2(PO4)(OH)
'Liddicoatite'
Formula: Ca(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Liebenbergite (TL)
Formula: (Ni,Mg)2SiO4
Type Locality:
Reference: Am. Min. 61, 502 (1976)
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Localities: Reported from at least 40 localities in this region.
Linarite
Formula: PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
'Lindackerite Group'
Formula: MCu4(AsO4)2(AsO3OH)2 · 9H2O
Reference: Meulenbeld, P.M.P.B., Grote, W. & Verryn, S. (2014) The Albert silver mine and trippkeite occurrence. Rock & Minerals 89(5), 417-422.
Linnaeite
Formula: Co2+Co3+2S4
Lipscombite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2
'Lithian Muscovite'
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Neiva, A.M.R. (2014): Micas, feldspars and columbite–tantalite minerals from the zoned granitic lepidolite-subtype pegmatite at Namivo, Alto Ligonha, Mozambique. European Journal of Mineralogy: 25(6): 967-985
Lithiophilite
Formula: LiMn2+PO4
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Lithiophorite
Formula: (Al,Li)MnO2(OH)2
Lizardite
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Lizardite var: Nickeloan Lizardite
Formula: (Mg,Ni)3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Brindley, G.W. & Hsien Ming Wan. (1975): Compositions, structures, and thermal behavior of nickel-containing minerals in the lizardite-nepouite series. American Mineralogist. 60, 863-871
Löllingite
Formula: FeAs2
Londonite (TL)
Formula: (Cs,K,Rb)Al4Be4(B,Be)12O28
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Habit: Dodecahedron {110}, tristetrahedron {211}, tetrahedron{111} and cube {100} (the last form is rare}
Colour: Milky to pale yellow crystals up to 1 cm
Description: Occurs in saccharoidal albite or in cavities. Many crystals contain patchy zones of londonite and rhodizite that are only visible by back-scattered electron imaging.
Reference: Simmons, W. B; Pezzotta, F; Falster, A.U & Webber, K. L. (2001): Londonite, a new mineral species: The Cs-dominant analogue of Rhodizite from the Antandrokomby granitic pegmatite, Madagascar. Canadian Mineralogist 39: 747-755/ MinRec 33:165]
'Londonite-Rhodizite Series'
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Lonecreekite (TL)
Formula: (NH4)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 12H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Ann.Geol.Surv.S.Africa,(1983) 17, 29-34
Lópezite
Formula: K2Cr2O7
Reference: www.fc.up.pt/geo/ecrofi/377.PDF.; McDonald, I., Vaughan, D. J., & Tredoux, M. (1995). Platinum mineralization in quartz veins near Naboomspruit, central Transvaal. S. Afr. J. Geol, 98, 168-175.
Ludlamite
Formula: Fe2+3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Ludlockite
Formula: PbFe3+4As3+10O22
Description: All ludlockite micromount specimens were self collected by Wolf Windisch and sent to Hans Borner for analyse (private communication to Debbie Woolf, April 2016).
Reference: Robert O. Meyer collection; Dr. Hans Börner collection;
Mackinawite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)9S8
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Magadiite (TL)
Formula: Na2Si14O29 · 11H2O
Reference: McAtee, J.L., House, R., Eugster, H.P. (1968) Magadiite from Trinity County, California. The American Mineralogist, 53, 2061-2069. HB2/2 (1995). New data on minerals. M.: 2003. Volume 38 pp113.
Maghemite
Formula: Fe3+2O3
Magnesio-arfvedsonite
Formula: {Na}{Na2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Magnesiochromite
Formula: MgCr2O4
Reference: McCall, M. J. (2016). Mineralogical and geochemical variations in the UG2 reef at Booysendal and Zondereinde mines, with implications for beneficiation of PGM (Doctoral dissertation, Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch University).
Magnesioferrite
Formula: MgFe3+2O4
Magnesio-hastingsite
Formula: {Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Description: The mineral occurs as megacrysts up to 12 cm in size in crystal-rich tuff. Zaitsev et al. (2013) publish the following empirical formula (Na0.68K0.32)Σ1.00(Ca1.88Na0.12Mn0.022.03(Mg2.92Fe2+0.98Fe3+0.55Ti0.49Al0.125.06(Al1.97Si6.03O22)(O0.70OH1.30)Σ2.00
Reference: Zaitsev A N, Avdontseva E Y, Britvin S N, Demény A, Homonnay Z, Jeffries T E, Keller J, Krivovichev V G, Markl G, Platonova N V, Siidra O I, Spratt J, Vennemann T (2013) Oxo-magnesio-hastingsite, NaCa2(Mg2Fe3+3)(Al2Si6)O22O2, a new anhydrous amphibole from the Deeti volcanic cone, Gregory rift, northern Tanzania. Mineralogical Magazine 77, 2773-2792
Magnesiohögbomite-2N3S (TL)
Formula: [(Mg,Fe2+,Zn)4(Al,Ti,Fe3+)10O19(OH)]2
Reference: T. Armbruster (2002) Eur. Journ. Mineralogy 14, 389-395
Magnesiohögbomite-6N6S (TL)
Formula: [(Mg,Fe2+)3(Al,Ti,Fe3+)8O15(OH)]6
Type Locality:
Reference: Hejny, C., Armbruster, T. (2002) Polysomatism in högbomite: The crystal structures of 10T, 12H, 14T, and 24R polysomes. American Mineralogist, 87:2-3, 277–292.
Magnesio-hornblende
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Magnesio-riebeckite
Formula: ◻{Na2}{Mg3Fe3+2}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Magnesiotaaffeite-2N’2S
Formula: Mg3Al8BeO16
Magnesiotaaffeite-6N’3S
Formula: Mg2BeAl6O12
Magnesite
Formula: MgCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 25 localities in this region.
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Localities: Reported from at least 154 localities in this region.
Magnetite var: Titaniferous Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Majakite
Formula: PdNiAs
Majorite
Formula: Mg3(Fe2+,Si,Al)2(SiO4)3
Reference: Field, M., Stiefenhofer, J., Robey, J., and Kurszlaukis, S. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 33-75.
Makatite (TL)
Formula: Na2Si4O8(OH)2 · 4H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Sheppard, R.A., Gude, A.J. (1970) Makatite, A new hydrous sodium silicate mineral from Lake Magadi, Kenya. The American Mineralogist, 55, 358-366. HB2/2 (1995).
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 42 localities in this region.
Malanite
Formula: Cu(Pt3+,Ir3+)2S4
Maldonite
Formula: Au2Bi
Reference: Otto, A., & Meyer, F. M. (2008). Tektono-metamorphe Kontrolle der archaischen Goldmineralisation in der New Consort Gold Mine, Barberton Grünsteingürtel, Südafrika (No. RWTH-CONV-112943). Lehrstuhl und Institut für Mineralogie und Lagerstättenlehre u. Labor für Geochemie und Umweltanalytik.
Manandonite (TL)
Formula: Li2Al4(Si2AlB)O10(OH)8
Habit: Flakes (sometimes with hexagonal contours)in fanlike globular aggregates
Colour: white
Description: white flakes with pearly lustre on the (001) cleavage.
Reference: Lacroix, A. (1912): Sur une nouvelle espèce minérale (manandonite) des pegmatites de Madagascar. Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie, 35, 223-226; Ranorosoa, N. , Fontan, F. & Fransolet, A-M. (1989): Rediscovery of manandonite in the Sahatany Valley, Madagascar. European Journal of Mineralogy 1, 633-638
'Manganese Oxides'
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
'Manganese Oxides var: Manganese Dendrites'
Manganite
Formula: Mn3+O(OH)
'Manganomelane'
Manganoneptunite ?
Formula: Na2KLiMn2+2Ti2Si8O24
Colour: black, shiny
Description: Described by Petersen et al (1994) without any chemical anlysis, but x-ray pattern suggested manganoneptunite
Reference: Petersen, O.V., Rønsbo, J.G. & Leonardsen, E.S. (1994): Hingganite-(Y) from the Zomba-Malosa complex, Malawi. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte. Heft 4: 185-192
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Margarite
Formula: CaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Marialite
Formula: Na4Al3Si9O24Cl
Marshite
Formula: CuI
Reference: Meulenbeld, P.M.P.B., Grote, W. & Verryn, S. (2014) The Albert silver mine and trippkeite occurrence. Rock & Minerals 89(5), 417-422.
Mascagnite
Formula: (NH4)2SO4
'Maskelynite'
Maslovite
Formula: PtBiTe
Massicot
Formula: PbO
Matlockite
Formula: PbFCl
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Maucherite
Formula: Ni11As8
Mbobomkulite (TL)
Formula: (Ni,Cu)Al4((NO3)2,SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Ann.Geol.Surv.S.Africa,(1980) 14, n2, 1-110; Martini, J.E.J. et al (1997), "Mbobo Mkulu Cave, South Africa", in "Cave Minerals of the World" (1997)
Mcguinnessite
Formula: (Mg,Cu)2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Zaccarini, F., Garuti, G., & Cawthorn, R. G. (2002). Platinum-group minerals in chromitite xenoliths from the Onverwacht and Tweefontein ultramafic pipes, eastern Bushveld Complex, South Africa. The Canadian Mineralogist, 40(2), 481-497.
Meionite
Formula: Ca4Al6Si6O24CO3
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Melanterite
Formula: Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Melanterite var: Cuprian Melanterite
Formula: (Fe,Cu)SO4 · 7H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
'Melilite Group'
Formula: Ca2M(XSiO7)
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
'Melnikovite'
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Meneghinite
Formula: Pb13CuSb7S24
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Menshikovite
Formula: Pd3Ni2As3
Reference: Holwell, D. A., McDonald, I., & Armitage, P. E. B. (2006). Platinum-group mineral assemblages in the Platreef at the Sandsloot Mine, northern Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine, 70(1), 83-101.; HOLWELL D.A., MCDONALD I. & ARMITAGE, P.E.B. (2006). Platinum-group mineral assemblages in the Platreef at the South Central Pit, Sandsloot Mine, northern Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine, 70, 83-101.
Mercury
Formula: Hg
Merelaniite (TL)
Formula: Mo4Pb4VSbS15
Type Locality:
Reference: Jaszczak, J., Rumsey, M.S., Bindi, L., Hackney, S.A., Wise, M.A., Stanley, C.J. & Spratt, J. (2016): Merelaniite, Mo4Pb4VSbS15, a New Molybdenum-Essential Member of the Cylindrite Group, from the Merelani Tanzanite Deposit, Lelatema Mountains, Manyara Region, Tanzania. Minerals: 6 115; doi:10.3390/min6040115
Merenskyite (TL)
Formula: (Pd,Pt)(Te,Bi)2
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Reference: http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/hom/merenskyite.pdf Cairncross, B. (2002). Merenskyite, type-mineral from the Bushveld Complex. Rocks & Minerals – Special Issue on “Minerals of Africa”, Vol. 77, 48-50.
Merrillite
Formula: Ca9NaMg(PO4)7
Mertieite-I
Formula: Pd11(Sb,As)4
Reference: The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 43, pp. 1711-1734 (2005)
Mertieite-II
Formula: Pd8Sb2.5As0.5
Mesolite
Formula: Na2Ca2Si9Al6O30 · 8H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
'Mésotype'
Reference: Behier, J. (1963) Carte minéralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
Meta-ankoleite (TL)
Formula: K2(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: American Mineralogist (1967): 52: 560.
Metacinnabar
Formula: HgS
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Metatorbernite
Formula: Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa; Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa.
Metavariscite
Formula: AlPO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Metazeunerite
Formula: Cu(UO2)2(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa; Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa.
'Meteoritic Iron'
Meymacite
Formula: WO3 · 2H2O
Reference: Dewaele, S., De Clercq, F., Hulsbosch, N., Piessens, K., Boyce, A., Burgess, R., & Muchez, P. (2016). Genesis of the vein-type tungsten mineralization at Nyakabingo (Rwanda) in the Karagwe–Ankole belt, Central Africa. Mineralium Deposita, 51(2), 283-307.
Miargyrite
Formula: AgSbS2
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
Miassite
Formula: Rh17S15
Reference: The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 43, pp. 1711-1734 (2005)
'Mica Group'
Localities: Reported from at least 23 localities in this region.
Michenerite
Formula: PdBiTe
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 118 localities in this region.
Microcline var: Amazonite
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 38 localities in this region.
Microcline var: Hyalophane
Formula: (K,Ba)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Reference: Roerdink, D. L., Mason, P. R., Whitehouse, M. J., & Brouwer, F. M. (2016). Reworking of atmospheric sulfur in a Paleoarchean hydrothermal system at Londozi, Barberton Greenstone Belt, Swaziland. Precambrian Research, 280, 195-204.
'Microlite Group'
Formula: A2-mTa2X6-wZ-n
Localities: Reported from at least 36 localities in this region.
'Microlite Group var: Uranmicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)'
Milarite
Formula: K2Ca4Al2Be4Si24O60 · H2O
Millerite
Formula: NiS
Localities: Reported from at least 15 localities in this region.
Millisite
Formula: (Na,K)CaAl6(PO4)4(OH)9 · 3H2O
Reference: Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
Mimetite
Formula: Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Minium
Formula: Pb3O4
Minyulite
Formula: KAl2(PO4)2(OH,F) · 4H2O
Reference: Martini, I. (1978). Mineralogy of the Transvaal caves. South African Journal of Geology, 81(1), 47-54.
Mirabilite
Formula: Na2SO4 · 10H2O
Mitridatite
Formula: Ca2Fe3+3(PO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Mitscherlichite
Formula: K2CuCl4 · 2H2O
Reference: Vlastélic, I., Staudacher, T., Deniel, C., Devidal, J. L., Devouard, B., Finizola, A., & Telouk, P. (2013). Lead isotopes behavior in the fumarolic environment of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano (Reunion Island). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 100, 297-314.
Mixite
Formula: BiCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
Reference: Atanasova, M., Cairncross, B. and Windisch, W.R. (2016) Microminerals of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Popular Geoscience Series 6, Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa
Modderite (TL)
Formula: (Co,Fe)As
Reference: Chem.Metall.Min.Soc.S.Africa,(1924) 24, 265
Mohrite
Formula: (NH4)2Fe(SO4)2 · 6H2O
Reference: Bowell, R. J., Warren, A., & Redmond, I. (1996). Formation of cave salts and utilization by elephants in the Mount Elgon region, Kenya. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 113(1), 63-79.
Moissanite
Formula: SiC
Reference: Field, M., Stiefenhofer, J., Robey, J., and Kurszlaukis, S. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 33-75.
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Localities: Reported from at least 51 localities in this region.
Molybdite
Formula: MoO3
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
'Monazite'
Localities: Reported from at least 101 localities in this region.
Monazite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce(PO4)
Localities: Reported from at least 28 localities in this region.
Monazite-(La)
Formula: La(PO4)
Monazite-(Nd)
Formula: Nd(PO4)
Reference: Atanasova, M., Cairncross, B. and Windisch, W.R. (2016) Microminerals of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Popular Geoscience Series 6, Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa, 57 pg
Moncheite
Formula: (Pt,Pd)(Te,Bi)2
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Monohydrocalcite
Formula: CaCO3 · H2O
Reference: Zaitsev, A. N., & Keller, J. (2006). Mineralogical and chemical transformation of Oldoinyo Lengai natrocarbonatites, Tanzania. Lithos, 91(1), 191-207.
Montdorite
Formula: (K,Na)2(Fe2+,Mn2+,Mg)5(Si4O10)2(OH,F)4
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine, August 1998, V. 62, N° 4, pp. 477-486. / Journal of Petrology, Vol. 42, N° 4, pp. 825-845, 2001. / Mineralogical Magazine, Volume 66, Number 2, 1 April 2002, pp. 287-299(13) / The United Nations University, GEOTHERMAL TRAINING PROGRAMME Reports 2004, Number 1, Orkustofnun, Grensásvegur 9, IS-108 Reykjavík, Iceland
Montebrasite
Formula: LiAl(PO4)(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Montgomeryite
Formula: Ca4MgAl4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 12H2O
Monticellite
Formula: CaMgSiO4
Montmorillonite
Formula: (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Mooihoekite (TL)
Formula: Cu9Fe9S16
Reference: Amer.Min.(1972) 57, 689-708
Mordenite
Formula: (Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
Morenosite
Formula: NiSO4 · 7H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Mosandrite-(Ce)
Formula: (Ca3REE)[(H2O)2Ca0.50.5]Ti(Si2O7)2(OH)2(H2O)2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Mottramite
Formula: PbCu(VO4)(OH)
Mpororoite (TL)
Formula: WAlO3(OH)3 · 2(H2O)
Type Locality:
Reference: O. von Knorring, T.G. Sahama, M. Lehtinen: Bull. Geol. Soc. Finland 44:107-110 (1972); Amer. Mineral. 58:1112 (1973); MINERALOGICAL MAGAZINE, SEPTEMBER 1984, VOL. 48, PP. 397-400
Mukhinite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2V3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Description: Identified in epoxy mount FKM-26 as a single 50 micron rim surrounding an unidentified Cu-V-S mineral (sulvanite?), within massive vanadian tremolite (~1.7 wt% V) + calcite matrix. Additional minerals in sample include scattered phlogopite (~1.0 wt% V), minor clinochlore (~2 wt% V), minor quartz, minor goldmanite-grossular solid-solution, scattered graphite, minor vanadian titanite (~3.5 wt% V, and a minor unidentified Pb-V-As mineral. The mukhinite grain contains 9.25 wt% V and 3.3 wt% Cr.
Reference: Frank K. Mazdab collection (epoxy mount FKM-26)
Mullite
Formula: Al4+2xSi2-2xO10-x
Reference: Ulianov, A., Kalt, A., Pettke, T. (2005) Hibonite, Ca (Al, Cr, Ti, Si, Mg, Fe2+)12 O19, in granulite xenoliths from the Chyulu Hills volcanic field, Kenya. European Journal of Mineralogy, 17:2, 343-356.
Munirite
Formula: NaVO3 · 1.9H2O
Habit: radiating, fibrous aggregates of pearly crystals
Colour: cream-white
Reference: Cairncross, B. & Windisch, W. (1998): Microminerals from the Bushveld Complex South Africa. Mineralogical Record 29: 461-465
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 189 localities in this region.
Muscovite var: Damourite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Muscovite var: Fuchsite
Formula: K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 19 localities in this region.
Muscovite var: Gilbertite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Muscovite var: Illite
Formula: K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Muscovite var: Phengite
Formula: KAl1.5(Mg,Fe)0.5(Al0.5Si3.5O10)(OH)2
Reference: Paul Meulenbeld collection
Muscovite var: Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 25 localities in this region.
Nacareniobsite-(Ce)
Formula: NbNa3Ca3(Ce,REE )(Si2O7)2OF3
Reference: Estrade, G., et al. (2014): REE and HFSE mineralization in peralkaline granites of the Ambohimirahavavy alkaline complex, Ampasindava peninsula, Madagascar. Journal of African Earth Sciences. 94: 141–155
Nacrite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Cairncross, B. & Dixon, R. (1995). Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa: Linden.
Nahcolite
Formula: NaHCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Nahpoite
Formula: Na2HPO4
Reference: Kamenetsky, V. S., Belousova, E. A., Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, M. B., Goemann, K., & Griffin, W. L. (2014). Chemical abrasion of zircon and ilmenite megacrysts in the Monastery kimberlite: Implications for the composition of kimberlite melts. Chemical Geology, 383, 76-85.
Natroalunite
Formula: NaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Atanasova, M., Cairncross, B. and Windisch, W.R. (2016) Microminerals of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Popular Geoscience Series 6, Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa, 57 pg
Natrojarosite
Formula: NaFe3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
Natrolite
Formula: Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 18 localities in this region.
'Natromontebrasite'
Natron
Formula: Na2CO3 · 10H2O
Reference: Bowell, R. J., Warren, A., & Redmond, I. (1996). Formation of cave salts and utilization by elephants in the Mount Elgon region, Kenya. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 113(1), 63-79.
Natropharmacosiderite
Formula: (Na,K)Fe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
'Natropyrochlore'
Reference: Hogarth, D.D. & Horne, J.E.T. (1989) Non-metamict uranoan pyrochlore and uranpyrochlore from tuff near Ndale area, Uganda. Mineralogical Magazine: 53: 257-62; Atencio, D., Andrade, M.B., Christy, A.G., Gieré, R., Kartashov, P.M. (2010) The pyrochlore supergroup of minerals: nomenclature. The Canadian Mineralogist: 48: 673-698.
Naumannite
Formula: Ag2Se
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Neighborite
Formula: NaMgF3
Reference: Mitchell, R.H. (1997) Carbonate-carbonate immiscibility, neighborite and potassium iron sulphide in Oldoinyo Lengai natrocarbonatite. Mineralogical Magazine: 61: 779-789.; Mattsson, H. B., & Reusser, E. (2010). Mineralogical and geochemical characterization of ashes from an early phase of the explosive September 2007 eruption of Oldoinyo Lengai (Tanzania). Journal of African Earth Sciences, 58(5), 752-763.; Victoria Sekisova, Victor Victorovich Sharygin, A. N. Zaitsev, Stanislav Strekopytov (2015) Liquid Immiscibility Геология и геофизика, 2015, т. 56, № 12, с. 2173—2197
Nepheline
Formula: Na3K(Al4Si4O16)
Localities: Reported from at least 34 localities in this region.
Népouite
Formula: (Ni,Mg)3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Nesquehonite
Formula: MgCO3 · 3H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa; Martini, I. (1978). Mineralogy of the Transvaal caves. South African Journal of Geology, 81(1), 47-54.
Newberyite
Formula: Mg(HPO4) · 3H2O
'Nichromite'
Formula: (Ni,Co,Fe)(Cr,Fe,Al)2O4
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Nickel
Formula: Ni
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
'Nickelalumite'
Formula: (Ni,Cu)Al4(SO4,(NO3)2)(OH)12 · 3H2O
Reference: Ann.Geol.Surv.S.Africa,(1980) 14, n2, 1-110;Martini, J.E.J. et al (1997), "Mbobo Mkulu Cave, South Africa", in "Cave Minerals of the World" (1997)
Nickeline
Formula: NiAs
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
'Nickel-iron'
Reference: Schulze, H. & Otto, J. (1993) Rumuruti: A New Carlisle Lakes-type Chondrite, Meteoritics 28 (3): 433. (July 1993)
Nickelskutterudite
Formula: (Ni,Co,Fe)As3
Description: Found with gold.
Reference: Minerals of South Africa. Cairncross, B. and Anhaeusser, C.R., (1992), Gold in South Africa. Mineralogical Record: 23(3): 215
Niggliite (TL)
Formula: PtSn
Reference: Trans.Geol.Soc.S.Africa,(1936) 39, 81-210
Nimite (TL)
Formula: (Ni,Mg,Al)6((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)8
Type Locality:
Reference: American Mineralogist (1969): 54: 1739; O'Driscoll, B., Clay, P. L., Cawthorn, R. G., Lenaz, D., Adetunji, J., & Kronz, A. (2014). Trevorite: Ni-rich spinel formed by metasomatism and desulfurization processes at Bon Accord, South Africa?. Mineralogical Magazine, 78(1), 145-163.
Niningerite
Formula: (Mg,Fe2+,Mn2+)S
Reference: LEITCH, C.A. & SMITH, J.V. (1982): Petrography, mineral chemistry and origin of Type I enstatite chondrites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 46, 2083-2097.
Niobophyllite
Formula: (K,Na)3(Fe,Mn)6(Nb,Ti)2Si8(O,OH,F)31
Description: Much labelled "Niobophyllite" is not. Please see: https://www.mindat.org/forum.php?read,6,423443,423443,page=1#msg-423443
Reference: Demartin, F.; Guastoni, A. & Pezzotta, F. (2003): Barylith, Niobophyllit & yttriumreicher Milarit- Neufunde aus den Pegmatiten von Zomba-Malosa, Malawi. Lapis 28 (1), 18-21; American Mineralogist, Volume 94, pages 1216–1222, 2009; Guastoni, A., & Pezzotta, F. (2007). REE-mineral phases replacing helvite, niobian-rutile, bastnäsite-(Ce) from alkaline pegmatites of Mount Malosa, Zomba District, Malawi. Granitic Pegmatites: the State of the Art. Memorias, 8, 42-43.
Niocalite
Formula: (Ca,Nb)4(Si2O7)(O,OH,F)2
Description: Occurs in a solid solution with cuspidine.
Reference: Mitchell, R.H. and Belton, F. (2004) Niocalite-cuspidine solid solution and manganoan monticellite from natrocarbonatite, Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania. Mineralogical Magazine: 68: 787-799.; Mattsson, H. B., & Reusser, E. (2010). Mineralogical and geochemical characterization of ashes from an early phase of the explosive September 2007 eruption of Oldoinyo Lengai (Tanzania). Journal of African Earth Sciences, 58(5), 752-763.
Nitrocalcite
Formula: Ca(NO3)2 · 4H2O
Nitromagnesite
Formula: Mg(NO3)2 · 6H2O
Nontronite
Formula: Na0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Northupite
Formula: Na3Mg(CO3)2Cl
Habit: octahedral
Colour: gray/brown
Description: 1,5 cm large
Reference: P Bongaerts collection; Robinson, G. W. & King, V. T. (1993): What’s New in Minerals ? Annual world summary of mineral discoveries covering april 1992 through april 1993. Mineralogical Record 24: 394; Mineralogical Recoed 8:396
Nyerereite (TL)
Formula: Na2Ca(CO3)2
Description: Carbonatite lava, 1963 flow.
Reference: McKie, D., Frankis, E.J. (1977) Nyerereite: A new volcanic carbonate mineral from Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 145: 73-95.; Geol.Soc.Amer.,Progr. Annual. Meet.(1968) 202; Mineralogical Magazine 1997 61 : 779-789; Zaitsev, A. N., & Keller, J. (2006). Mineralogical and chemical transformation of Oldoinyo Lengai natrocarbonatites, Tanzania. Lithos, 91(1), 191-207.; Mattsson, H. B., & Reusser, E. (2010). Mineralogical and geochemical characterization of ashes from an early phase of the explosive September 2007 eruption of Oldoinyo Lengai (Tanzania). Journal of African Earth Sciences, 58(5), 752-763.; Victoria Sekisova, Victor Victorovich Sharygin, A. N. Zaitsev, Stanislav Strekopytov (2015) Liquid Immiscibility Геология и геофизика, 2015, т. 56, № 12, с. 2173—2197
Oldhamite
Formula: (Ca,Mg)S
Olivenite
Formula: Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Omphacite
Formula: (NaaCabFe2+cMgd)(AleFe3+fFe2+gMgh)Si2O6
Onoratoite
Formula: Sb8Cl2O11
Reference: Meulenbeld, P.M.P.B., Grote, W. & Verryn, S. (2014) The Albert silver mine and trippkeite occurrence. Rock & Minerals 89(5), 417-422.
Opal
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Localities: Reported from at least 40 localities in this region.
Opal var: Fire Opal
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: Simoni, M., Caucia, F., Adamao, I. & Galinetto, P. (2010): New occurrence of fire opal from Bemia, Madagascar. Gems & Gemmology. 46 (2), 114-121
Opal var: Hyalite
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: Atanasova, M., Cairncross, B. and Windisch, W.R. (2016) Microminerals of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Popular Geoscience Series 6, Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa
Opal var: Opal-AN
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Opal var: Opal-C
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: Simoni, M., Caucia, F., Adamao, I. & Galinetto, P. (2010): New occurrence of fire opal from Bemia, Madagascar. Gems & Gemmology. 46 (2), 114-121
Opal var: Opal-CT
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: Simoni, M., Caucia, F., Adamao, I. & Galinetto, P. (2010): New occurrence of fire opal from Bemia, Madagascar. Gems & Gemmology. 46 (2), 114-121
Opal var: Opaline
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: Owen, R. A., Owen, R. B., Renaut, R. W., Scott, J. J., Jones, B., & Ashley, G. M. (2008). Mineralogy and origin of rhizoliths on the margins of saline, alkaline Lake Bogoria, Kenya Rift Valley. Sedimentary Geology, 203(1-2), 143-163.
Opal var: Precious Opal
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: Journal of Gemmology, 28:81-84 (2002).
'Orbicular Jasper'
Reference: Lieber, W. (2003): Sphärolithischer Chalcedon von Madagaskar. LAPIS 28 (9), 18-22
Orcelite
Formula: Ni5-xAs2, x ~ 0.25
Orpiment
Formula: As2S3
'Orthochevkinite'
Formula: (Ce,La,Ca,Na,Th)4(Fe2+,Mg)2(Ti,Fe3+)3Si4O22
Reference: Lacroix, A. (1922): Mineralogie de Madagascar, Tome I. Géologie-Minéralogie descriptive. A.Challamel (Éditeur), Paris, p 586-7
'Orthochrysotile'
Reference: Canadian Mineralogist (1979) 17:679-691
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 30 localities in this region.
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'
Localities: Reported from at least 21 localities in this region.
Osmium
Formula: (Os,Ir,Ru)
Osumilite-(Mg)
Formula: KMg2Al3(Al2Si10)O30
Reference: Eur. J. Mineral. , 1991, 3, pp. 367-386.
Otwayite
Formula: Ni2(CO3)(OH)2 · H2O
Oxo-magnesio-hastingsite (TL)
Formula: NaCa2(Mg2Fe3+3)(Al2Si6)O22O2
Type Locality:
Description: Up to 12 cm phenocrysts in tuff. Chemical composition according to Zaitsev et al. (2013): (Na0.67K0.33)Σ1.00(Ca1.87Na0.14Mn0.012.02(Mg3.27[b]Fe3+1.25[/b]Ti0.44Al0.085.04(Al1.80Si6.20O22)(O1.40OH0.60)Σ2.00
Reference: Zaitsev A N, Avdontseva E Y, Britvin S N, Demény A, Homonnay Z, Jeffries T E, Keller J, Krivovichev V G, Markl G, Platonova N V, Siidra O I, Spratt J, Vennemann T (2013) Oxo-magnesio-hastingsite, NaCa2(Mg2Fe3+3)(Al2Si6)O22O2, a new anhydrous amphibole from the Deeti volcanic cone, Gregory rift, northern Tanzania. Mineralogical Magazine 77, 2773-2792
Oxy-dravite (TL)
Formula: Na(MgAl2)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
Type Locality:
Reference: Bosi, F. and Skogby, H. (2012): Oxy-dravite, IMA 2012-004a. CNMNC Newsletter No. 14, October 2012, page 1285; Mineralogical Magazine, 76, 1281-1288; Bosi, F. and Skogby, H. (2013): Oxy-dravite, Na(Al2Mg)(Al5Mg)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O, a new mineral species of the tourmaline supergroup. Am. Mineral. 98, 1442-1448; Gatta, G., D, Bosi, F., McIntyre, G. J., and Skogby, H. (2014): First accurate location of two proton sites in tourmaline: A single-crystal neutron diffraction study of oxy-dravite. Mineralogical Magazine 78, 681-692.
'Oxynatropyrochlore'
Formula: (Na,Ca,U)2Nb2O6(O,OH)
Description: Atencioet al. (2010) comments that the analysis nr 3 in Hogarth & Horne (1989) of a urnapyrochlore (of Hogarth 1977) is oxynatropyrochlore.
Reference: Hogarth, D.D. & Horne, J.E.T. (1989) Non-metamict uranoan pyrochlore and uranpyrochlore from tuff near Ndale area, Uganda. M