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Somali Platei
Regional Level Types
Somali PlateTectonic Plate

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Key
Locality type:
Largest Settlements:
PlacePopulation
Durban3,120,282 (2012)
Nairobi2,750,547 (2014)
Dar es Salaam2,698,652 (2016)
Mogadishu2,587,183 (2012)
Johannesburg2,026,469 (2015)
Soweto1,695,047 (2012)
Other/historical names associated with this locality:
Somalia Plate


No description has been added for this locality. Can you add one?

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Gallery Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded from this region.


Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

973 valid minerals. 82 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals. 8 (FRL) - first recorded locality of unapproved mineral/variety/etc. 2 erroneous literature entries.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Afrikandite

Agglomerate

Albitized gneiss

Alkali basalt

Alkali-feldspar-syenite

Amphibolite

'Anabohitsite'

Andesite

'Ankaratrite'

Anorthosite

'Anyolite'

'Aplite'

'Argillite'

Banded iron formation

Basalt

Basanite

Bauxite

'Biotite gneiss'

'Biotite granite'

'Biotite schist'

Biotitite

Breccia

'Brecciated pseudotachylite'

Calc-silicate rock

Calcite-carbonatite

Carbonatite

'Charnockitic granite'

Chert

Chromitite

Clay

Clinopyroxenite

'Cordierite-garnet gneiss'

'Crocodile Jasper'

'Cumulate'

Dacite

'Diopsidite'

Diorite

'Dissogenite'

'Dolerite'

Dolomite-carbonatite

Dolostone

Dunite

EH3 chondrite meteorite

EL6 chondrite meteorite

Eclogite

'Eucrite monomict breccia meteorite'

'Eucrite polymict breccia meteorite'

'Fasibitikite'

Fenite

Ferrocarbonatite

'Ferrogabbro'

Foidite

'Foyaite'

Gabbro

Gabbroid

Gabbronorite

'Garnet-sillimanite-cordierite paragneiss'

Garnetite

Glassy igneous rock

Gneiss

Gossan

Granite

'Granitic gneiss'

Granitoid

Granodiorite

'Granophyric granite'

Granulite

'Graphic granite'

Greenschist

Greenstone

'Greywacke'

Guano

H chondrite meteorite

H5 chondrite meteorite

H6 chondrite meteorite

Harzburgite

'Hornblende granite'

'Hornblende-biotite gneiss'

Hornblendite

Hornfels

Howardite meteorite

'Hyalo-olivine-diopside-phlogopite lamproite'

'Hydrothermal breccia'

IAB-MG iron meteorite

IID iron meteorite

IIIAB iron meteorite

Ijolite

'Iron ore'

Ironstone

'Kenyte'

'Khondalite'

Kimberlite

Komatiite

L5 chondrite meteorite

'L5/6 chondrite meteorite'

L6 chondrite meteorite

Lamproite

Lamprophyre

Laterite

'Leptynite'

'Leucogranite'

Limestone

'Malignite'

Marble

'Marl'

'Melanocratic nephelinolite'

Metabasalt

Metadiorite

Metagabbro

Metamudstone

'Mica schist'

'Microgranite'

'Microsyenite'

Migmatite

'Migmatitic-biotite-sillimanite paragneiss'

Monchiquite

Monzodiorite

Monzonite

Mudstone

Mylonite

Natrocarbonatite

Nepheline-syenite

Nephelinite

Norite

Obsidian

Olivine-pyroxenite

Ooze

Orthogneiss

Orthopyroxenite

Paragneiss

'Pegmatite'

'Pegmatitic granite'

'Peralkaline alkali-feldspar-granite'

'Peralkaline syenite'

Peridotite

Phonolite

Phosphorite

Phyllite

'Pillow lava'

'Porphyritic quartz-syenite'

'Porphyry'

Pseudotachylite

Pyroxenite

'Quartz porphyry'

Quartz-alkali-feldspar-syenite

'Quartz-feldspar gneiss'

Quartzite

'R3.8-6 chondrite meteorite'

'Rapakivi granite'

Rhyodacite

Rhyolite

Sandstone

Saprolite

Schist

Scoria

Serpentinite

Shale

Siltstone

Skarn

Slag

Slate

Syenite

Søvite

'Tholeiitic basalt'

Tonalite

Trachybasalt

Trachyte

Troctolite

Tuff

'Ultramafic-rock'

'Ungrouped C2 chondrite meteorite'

'Ungrouped iron meteorite'

Websterite

Wehrlite

Detailed Mineral List:

Acanthite
Formula: Ag2S
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871 ; Behier, J. (1960) Contribution à la Minéralogie de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar, 29, Tananarive, 78 pp.
Actinolite
Formula: ◻Ca2(Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5)Si8O22OH2
Localities: Reported from at least 40 localities in this region.
Reference: Behier, J. (1960): Contribution á la mineralogie de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar XXIX, Tananarive. p.25-6
Adamite
Formula: Zn2(AsO4)(OH)
Colour: bright green
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa pg 180
Adamite var. Copper-bearing Adamite
Formula: (Zn,Cu)2AsO4OH
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Aegirine
Formula: NaFe3+Si2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 43 localities in this region.
Habit: Crystals up to 1 decimeter
Colour: Black
Reference: [www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]; Cairncross, B., Messner, K & Farquharson, E. (1999): Die Pegmatite des Mount Malosa bei Zomba, Malawi. LAPIS 24 (4), 22-32; American Mineralogist, Volume 94, pages 1216–1222, 2009; Mineralogical Record (1997) 28:64; Guastoni, A., & Pezzotta, F. (2007). REE-mineral phases replacing helvite, niobian-rutile, bastnäsite-(Ce) from alkaline pegmatites of Mount Malosa, Zomba District, Malawi. Granitic Pegmatites: the State of the Art. Memorias, 8, 42-43.; Cairncross, B. (2002). Aegirine and Associated Minerals from Mount Malosa, Malawi. Rocks & Minerals, 77(1), 31-37.
Aegirine-augite
Formula: (NaaCabFe2+cMgd)(Fe3+eAlfFe2+gMgh)Si2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Rasoamalala, V., Salvi, S., Béziat, D., Ursule, J.-Ph., Cuney, M., Parseval, Ph. de, Guillaume, D., Moine, B. & Andriamampihantona, J. (2014): Geology of bastnaesite and monazite deposits in the Ambatofinandrahana area, central part of Madagascar: An overview. Journal of African Earth Sciences. 94, 128-140
Aenigmatite
Formula: Na4[Fe2+10Ti2]O4[Si12O36]
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
'Aeschynite Group'
Formula: AD2O6
Reference: Knut Edvard Larsen collection # M-519
Aeschynite-(Y)
Formula: (Y,Ln,Ca,Th)(Ti,Nb)2(O,OH)6
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Colour: yellowish on outside (alteration) and greenbrownish inside.
Description: Descibed as priorite
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
Aikinite
Formula: PbCuBiS3
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa pg 100
Ajoite
Formula: (K,Na)Cu7AlSi9O24(OH)6 · 3H2O
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa pg 51,180, 181, 229, 235, 241
Åkermanite
Formula: Ca2Mg(Si2O7)
Description: Inclusion in monticellite and apatite
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa pg 181
Alabandite
Formula: MnS
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Habit: octahedral, cubic, cuboctahedaral
Colour: black
Reference: John A. Jaszczak, Simon Harrison, Mike Keim collections; Jaszczak, J.A., Rumsey, M.S., Bindi, L., Hackney, S.A., Wise, M.A., Stanley, C.J., Spratt, J. (2016) Merelaniite, Mo4Pb4VSbS15, a New Molybdenum-Essential Member of the Cylindrite Group, from the Merelani Tanzanite Deposit, Lelatema Mountains, Manyara Region, Tanzania. Minerals, 6, 115. ; Bindi, L.; Jaszczak, J.A. (2020) Richardsite, Zn2CuGaS4, A New Gallium-Essential Member of the Stannite Group from the Gem Mines near Merelani, Tanzania. Minerals 10, 467.
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 146 localities in this region.
Reference: Moiana, M. (2010) Certeza geológica da ocorrência e viabilidade económica para o aproveitamento dos Berilos" True Blue" de Licungo, Zambézia, Moçambique (Doctoral dissertation Universidade do Minho).
Albite var. Andesine
Formula: (Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Reference: Ashwal, L.D. , Hamilton, M.A., Morel, V. P. I, and Rambeloson, R. A. (1998 ) Geology, petrology and isotope geochemistry of massif-type anorthosites from southwest Madagascar. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 133 (4): 389-401
Albite var. Cleavelandite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 24 localities in this region.
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
Albite var. Oligoclase
Formula: (Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Dias, M. Bettencourt and Wilson, W. E., 2000, Mineralogical Record, 31:459-497.
Albite var. Pericline
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Pezzotta F., 1999: Madagaskar. Ein Paradies voll mit Mineralien und Edelsteinen. Extra Lapis nr. 17, pp.78-79
'Albite-Anorthite Series'
Localities: Reported from at least 77 localities in this region.
Reference: Lacroix, A. (1922): Mineralogie de Madagascar, Tome I. Géologie-Minéralogie descriptive. A.Challamel (Éditeur), Paris. p 601.
'Alkali Feldspar'
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Ashwal, L., Torsvik, T., Horváth, P., Harris, C., Webb, S., Werner, S., Corfu, F. (2016) A mantle-derived origin for Mauritian trachytes. Journal of Petrology, 57, 9, 1645–1676.
Allanite-(Ce)
Formula: {CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Reference: dan weinrich
'Allanite Group'
Formula: {A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 31 localities in this region.
Reference: Giraud, P; Bertucat, M & Giraudon (1957): Etude geologique et prospection de la feuille Betrandraka [P-42]1/100.00 et du champ pegmatique de Berere. Travaux Bureau Géologique nr 82, Service Géologique, Tananarive 1957.
Allophane
Formula: (Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Reference: Martini, J.E.J. et al (1997) "Mbobo Mkulu Cave, South Africa", in "Cave Minerals of the World" (1997).; Handbook of Mineralogy.
Alluaudite
Formula: (Na,Ca)Mn2+(Fe3+,Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)2(PO4)3
Reference: Royal Museum for Central Africa, Belgium Collection, # 9916
'Alluaudite-Na□'
Formula: 4Na4Mn2+4Fe3+8(PO4)12
Reference: Van King
Almandine
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Localities: Reported from at least 22 localities in this region.
Reference: Michel Arliguie collection & photo (Photo ID: 889656).
'Almandine-Pyrope Series'
Colour: transparent
Description: "star garnet" materiale displaying asterism
Reference: Schmetzer, K., Glas, M. & Bernhardt, H-J. (2002): Sterngranate aus Madagaskar. Lapis 27 (2), 20-27
'Almandine-Spessartine Series'
Localities: Reported from at least 15 localities in this region.
Reference: Lacroix, A. (1922): Mineralogie de Madagascar, Tome I. Géologie-Minéralogie descriptive. A.Challamel (Éditeur), Paris. p. 374
'Aloisiite'
Formula: Na2(Ca,Fe,Mg)5Si2O10 · 2H2O
Reference: Heys Mineral Index 3rd ed.
Altaite
Formula: PbTe
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Reference: Wilhelmij, H.R. and Cabri, L.J. (2016) Platinum mineralization in the Kapalagulu Intrusion, western Tanzania. Mineralium Deposita, 51(3), 343-367.
Aluminite
Formula: Al2(SO4)(OH)4 · 7H2O
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Aluminocerite-(Ce)
Formula: (Ce,La,Ca)9(Al,Fe3+)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3
Reference: Atanasova, M., Cairncross, B. and Windisch, W.R. (2016) Microminerals of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Popular Geoscience Series 6, Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa, pg 181
Alum-(K)
Formula: KAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
Reference: Martini, J.E.J. et al (1997), "Mbobo Mkulu Cave, South Africa", in "Cave Minerals of the World" (1997)
Alumoåkermanite (TL)
Formula: (Ca,Na)2(Al,Mg,Fe2+)(Si2O7)
Type Locality:
Reference: Wiedenmann, D., Zaitsev A.N., Britvin S.N., Krivovichev, S.V., Keller, J. (2009): Alumoåkermanite, (Ca,Na)2(Al,Mg,Fe2+)(Si2O7), a new mineral from the active carbonatite-nephelinite-phonolite volcano Oldoinyo Lengai, northern Tanzania. Mineralogical Magazine, 73, 373-384.; Mattsson, H. B., & Reusser, E. (2010). Mineralogical and geochemical characterization of ashes from an early phase of the explosive September 2007 eruption of Oldoinyo Lengai (Tanzania). Journal of African Earth Sciences, 58(5), 752-763.; Victoria Sekisova, Victor Victorovich Sharygin, A. N. Zaitsev, Stanislav Strekopytov (2015) Liquid Immiscibility Геология и геофизика, 2015, т. 56, № 12, с. 2173—2197
'Alumotungstite'
Formula: 2W2O6(H2O)
Reference: Bernard & Hyrsl (2004) Minerals and their Localities. (Granit, Prague)
Alunite
Formula: KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Figueiredo, M. O., Da Silva, T. P., Veiga, J. P., Gomes, C. L., & De Andrade, V. (2008). The blue colouring of beryls from Licungo, Mozambique: an X-ray absorption spectroscopy study at the iron K-edge. Mineralogical Magazine, 72(1), 175-178.
Alunogen
Formula: Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
'Ambatoarinite' (FRL)
Formula: Sr5(Ce,La,Dy)10(CO3)17O3 ?
Type Locality:
Colour: grey, rose
Reference: Lacroix, A. (1915) : Sur un nouveau minéral [ambatoarinite] de Madagascar. Bulletin de la Société francaise de Minéralogie, Paris. 38, 265-271 ; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 293.
Amblygonite
Formula: LiAl(PO4)F
Localities: Reported from at least 18 localities in this region.
Description: blocs of several kgs has been found
Reference: Behier, J. (1960): Contribution á la mineralogie de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar XXIX, Tananarive, p 13-14
'Amblygonite-Montebrasite Series'
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Reference: Dias, M. Bettencourt and Wilson, W. E., 2000, Mineralogical Record, 31:459-497.
Amesite
Formula: Mg2Al(AlSiO5)(OH)4
Reference: Lefevre & Thomas (1998): Les pegmatites de la vallée de la Sahatany, Madagascar. La Règne Minéral, nr 19, 15-28
'Amphibole Supergroup'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Localities: Reported from at least 44 localities in this region.
Description: Described by Behier (1963) as " amiante d'amphibole"
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
'Amphibole Supergroup var. Byssolite'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Description: Described by Behier (1963) as " amiante d'amphibole"
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
'Amphibole Supergroup var. Uralite'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Reference: Manyeruke, T. D. (2007) Compositional and lithological variation of the Platreef on the farm Nonnenwerth, northern lobe of the Bushveld Complex: Implications for the origin of Platinum-group elements (PGE) mineralization (Doctoral dissertation, University of Pretoria).
Analcime
Formula: Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 28 localities in this region.
Reference: collection Joachim Esche
Anapaite
Formula: Ca2Fe2+(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Reference: http://www.uoguelph.ca/~geology/rocks_for_crops/35malawi.PDF
Anatase
Formula: TiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 29 localities in this region.
Habit: < 5 mm large crystals
Colour: indigo blue
Description: Most probably found not in the pegmatite at Analila, but in the metamorphic rocks that are hosting the pegmatite
Reference: Behier, J. (1960): Contribution á la mineralogie de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar XXIX, Tananarive, p 15
Anatase var. Niobium-bearing Anatase
Formula: (Ti,Nb)O2
Reference: Wolfgang Hampel (2011), fieldwork/studies
Anatase var. Xanthitane
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Besairie H. (1966): Les Gites Minéraux de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar, Tananarive. 34, p.71 + 390
Ancylite-(Ce)
Formula: CeSr(CO3)2(OH) · H2O
Reference: Giebel, R.J., Gauert, C.D.K., Marks, M.A.W., Costin, G., and Markl, G. (2017) Multi-stage formation of REE minerals in the Palabora Carbonatite Complex, South Africa. American Mineralogist, 102, 1218-1233.
Andalusite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Localities: Reported from at least 21 localities in this region.
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
Andalusite var. Chiastolite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Reference: A.Lacroix (1956): Notes posthumes mineralogie, petrographie. Madagascar. Travaux du Bureau Geologigue nr 78. Service Geologique, Tananarive.
Andradite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Reference: Pezzotta, F. (2010): Andradite from Antetezambato, Madagascar. Mineralogical Record 41, 209-229
Andradite var. Demantoid
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Reference: Pezzotta, F. (2009). Demantoide e Topazolite: nuovo ritrovamento in Madgascar. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, n.3-2009, 198-200; Pezzotta, F. (2010): Demantoid und Topazolith aus Antetezambato, Nordmadagaskar. Lapis, 35 (10), 31-39; 90; Hintze, J. (2010): Eine Reise zu den Demantoiden von Antetezambato. Lapis, 35 (10), 40-43 (in German).
Andradite var. Melanite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: USGS Open-File Report 02–156–A
Andradite var. Topazolite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Reference: Pezzotta, F. (2009). Demantoide e Topazolite: nuovo ritrovamento in Madgascar. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, n.3-2009, 198-200; Pezzotta, F. (2010): Demantoid und Topazolith aus Antetezambato, Nordmadagaskar. Lapis, 35 (10), 31-39; 90; Hintze, J. (2010): Eine Reise zu den Demantoiden von Antetezambato. Lapis, 35 (10), 40-43 (in German).
'Andradite-Grossular Series'
Reference: Karel Bal Collection
'Andradite-Schorlomite Series'
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3 - Ca3Ti4+2(SiO4)3
Reference: Zaitseva, E.O. (2012): Mineralogy and geochemistry of the Sadiman volcano, Crater Highlands, northern Tanzania. Eifel-Symposium 2012, "Variability and complexity of minerals and their synthetic analogues of the Vulkaneifel and related provinces”, Christian Albrechts University, Kiel, 23.04. - 30.04.2012.
Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Habit: crusts and masses in cavities in galena
Colour: grey, black
Reference: Behier, J. (1960): Contribution á la mineralogie de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar XXIX, Tananarive. p 15
Anhydrite
Formula: CaSO4
Localities: Reported from at least 17 localities in this region.
Reference: Besairie, H. (1966): Les Gites Minéraux de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar, Tananarive, 34, p 331
Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Localities: Reported from at least 19 localities in this region.
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
Annabergite
Formula: Ni3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa
Annite
Formula: KFe2+3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Colour: Black
Description: Occurs in large plates.
Reference: De Vito et al (2006): Nb-Ti-Ta oxides in the gem-mineralized and "hybrid" Anjanabonoina granitic pegmatite, central Madagascar: A record of magmatic and postmagmatic events. Canadian Mineralogist. 44: 87-103.; De Vito, C., Pezzotta, F., Ferrini, V., and Aurisicchio, C. (2006): Nb-Ti-Ta oxides in the gem-mineralized and "hybrid" Anjanabonoina granitic pegmatite, central Madagascar: A record of magmatic and postmagmatic events. Canadian Mineralogist 44, 87-103.
Anorthite
Formula: Ca(Al2Si2O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 49 localities in this region.
Reference: Handbook of Mineralogy; Curien H, Guillemin C, Orcel J, Sternberg M (1956) La hibonite, nouvelle espèce minérale. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences 242, 2845-2847
Anorthite var. Bytownite
Formula: (Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si2O8]
Reference: Delbos, L. (1955): Note sur le gisement d'un mineral nouveau " la hibonite" de' l'Androy Mandrareen" in Rapport Annuel du Service Geologique pour 1955, Tananarivo.143-144
Anorthite var. Labradorite
Formula: (Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si2O8]
Localities: Reported from at least 15 localities in this region.
Reference: Majmundar, H.H.(1970): Wernerite and feldspar from Madagascar, Canadian Mineralogist. 10: 740-743
'Anorthoclase'
Formula: (Na,K)AlSi3O8
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Ashwal, L., Torsvik, T., Horváth, P., Harris, C., Webb, S., Werner, S., Corfu, F. (2016) A mantle-derived origin for Mauritian trachytes. Journal of Petrology, 57, 9, 1645–1676.
Antarcticite
Formula: CaCl2 · 6H2O
Reference: J. W. Anthony et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3 (1997)
Anthoinite
Formula: AlWO3(OH)3
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: J. W. Anthony et al.: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol.3 (1997), 11; MINERALOGICAL MAGAZINE, SEPTEMBER 1984, VOL. 48, PP. 397-400
Anthophyllite
Formula: ◻{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Antigorite
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Gajdošová, M., Huraiová, M., Hurai, V., & Konečný, P. (2017) In situ chemical dating of new accessory minerals from the Evate deposit in Mozambique. CAM–2017 (Conference on Accessory Minerals)
Antimony
Formula: Sb
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa 184.
Antlerite
Formula: Cu3(SO4)(OH)4
Description: Slag mineral
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Anzaite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce3+ 4Fe2+Ti6O18 (OH)2
Reference: Giebel, R.J., Gauert, C.D.K., Marks, M.A.W., Costin, G. and Markl, G. (2017): Multi-stage formation of REE minerals in the Palabora Carbonatite Complex, South Africa. American Mineralogist 102, 1218-1233.
'Apatite'
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 178 localities in this region.
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
'Apatite var. Carbonate-rich Apatite'
Reference: Hurai, V., Paquette, J. L., Huraiová, M., Slobodník, M., Hvožďara, P., Siegfried, P., ... & Milovská, S. (2017). New insights into the origin of the Evate apatite-iron oxide-carbonate deposit, Northeastern Mozambique, constrained by mineralogy, textures, thermochronometry, and fluid inclusions. Ore Geology Reviews, 80, 1072-1091.
'Apatite var. Collophane'
Reference: Ware, C.I. (2001). Evolution of the northern Kwa-Zulu-Natal coastal dune cordon: evidence from the fien-grained sediment fraction. Master of Science dissertation, School of Geological and Computer Sciences, University of Natal, Durban, South Africa, 197 pages.
Aphthitalite
Formula: (K,Na)3Na(SO4)2
Reference: Mitchell, R.H. (2006) Mineralogy of stalactites formed by subaerial weathering of natrocarbonatite hornitos at Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania. Mineralogical Magazine: 70: 437-444
Apjohnite (TL)
Formula: Mn2+Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 528; Mineralogical Magazine (1976): 40: 599.
'Apophyllite'
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: DE ASCENCAO GUEDES R.(2005) La truscottite de Cilaos (Ile de la Réunion), Le Règne Minéral, 65, 11 (in French).
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 23 localities in this region.
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
Aragonite var. Ammolite
Reference: Karel Bal Collection
Aragonite var. Ctypéite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
Arcanite
Formula: K2SO4
Reference: Handbook of Mineralogy (2005)
Arfvedsonite
Formula: [Na][Na2][Fe2+4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Reference: Jean-Marie Lièvre collection.
Argentojarosite
Formula: AgFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Atanasova, M., Cairncross, B. and Windisch, W.R. (2016) Microminerals of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Popular Geoscience Series 6, Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa, 435 pp
Argentopentlandite
Formula: Ag(Fe,Ni)8S8
Reference: A Geological Excursion To The Mesozoic Sediments Of The Abay Basin ( Blue Nile), Recent Volcanics Of The Ethiopian Main Rift And Basement Rocks Of The Adola Rea, Ethiopia. Mitt. Österr. Miner. Ges. 147 (2002)
Armalcolite
Formula: (Mg,Fe2+)Ti2O5
Reference: MCDONALD I., HOLWELL D.A. & ARMITAGE P.E.B. (2005). Geochemistry and mineralogy of the Platreef and ìCritical Zoneî cumulates of the Northern limb of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa: implications for Bushveld stratigraphy and the development of PGE mineralization. Miner. Deposita, 40, 526-549.
Armenite
Formula: BaCa2Al6Si9O30 · 2H2O
Reference: Roerdink, D. L., Mason, P. R., Whitehouse, M. J., & Brouwer, F. M. (2016). Reworking of atmospheric sulfur in a Paleoarchean hydrothermal system at Londozi, Barberton Greenstone Belt, Swaziland. Precambrian Research, 280, 195-204.
Arrojadite-(BaFe)
Formula: (Ba◻)(Fe2+◻)Ca(Na2◻)Fe2+13Al(PO4)11(PO3OH)(OH)2
Reference: von Knorring, O. (1969) A note on the phosphate mineralisation at the Buranga pegmatite, Rwanda. Bulletin du Service Geologique de la Republique du Rwanda: 5: 42-45.; Daltry, V.D.C. and von Knorring, O. (1998) Type-mineralogy of Rwanda with particular reference to the Buranga pegmatite. Geologica Belgica: 1: 9-15.; Chopin, C., Oberti, R., Camara, F. (2006) The arrojadite enigma: II. Compositional space, new members, and nomenclature of the group. American Mineralogist: 91: 1260-1270.
'Arrojadite Group'
Formula: A2 E2CaNa2+xM13R (PO3OH)1-x(PO4)11W2
Description: Both a Ba-free arrojadite and a barian arrojadite (arrojadite-(BaFe)) were found at Buranga by von Knorring (see Daltry & von Knorring 1998).
Reference: Daltry, V.D.C. and von Knorring, O. (1998) Type-mineralogy of Rwanda with particular reference to the Buranga pegmatite. Geologica Belgica: 1: 9-15.
Arsenbrackebuschite
Formula: Pb2Fe3+(AsO4)2(OH)
Reference: Atanasova, M., Cairncross, B. and Windisch, W.R. (2016) Microminerals of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Popular Geoscience Series 6, Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa, pg 181
Arsenic
Formula: As
Reference: Pezzotta, F. (1999): Madagaskar. Das Paradies der Mineralien und Edelsteine. Extra Lapis nr 17, pp 53-54 (german edition)
Arsenolamprite
Formula: As
Reference: Thomas, R., Davidson, P. (2010): Hambergite-rich melt inclusions in morganite crystals from the Muiane pegmatite, Mozambique and some remarks on the paragenesis of hambergite. - Mineralogy and Petrology, 100, 3-4, 227-23
Arsenolite
Formula: As2O3
Reference: Min Rec 27:6 pp417-428
Arsenopalladinite
Formula: Pd8(As,Sb)3
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa, pages 91, 185.
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Localities: Reported from at least 45 localities in this region.
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
'Asbestos'
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
Asbolane ?
Formula: (Ni,Co)2-xMn4+(O,OH)4 · nH2O
Description: Investigated with a qualitative analysis by Behier (1960), may be a cobaltian asbolane or a heterogenite.
Reference: Behier, J. (1960): Travaux mineralogiques. In Rapport Annuel du Service Geologique pour 1960. Republique Madagascar, Tananarive. 181-199
'Ashanite'
Formula: (Nb,Ta,U,Fe,Mn)4O8
Reference: Ranorosoa, N. (1986): Etude mineralogique des pegmatites du champ de la Sahatany, Madagascar. These de Doctorat de l`Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse
Astrophyllite
Formula: K2NaFe2+7Ti2Si8O26(OH)4F
Reference: Wooley (2001)
Atacamite
Formula: Cu2(OH)3Cl
Reference: Lalou, C., Münch, U., Halbach, P., & Reyss, J. L. (1998). Radiochronological investigation of hydrothermal deposits from the MESO zone, Central Indian Ridge. Marine Geology, 149(1-4), 243-254.
Atheneite
Formula: Pd2As0.75Hg0.25
Reference: The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 43, pp. 1711-1734 (2005)
Atokite (TL)
Formula: (Pd,Pt)3Sn
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: Can Min 13 (1975), 146
Attakolite
Formula: CaMn2+Al4(SiO3OH)(PO4)3(OH)4
Reference: Bertossa, A. (1968) Inventaire des minéraux du Rwanda. Bulletin du Service Géologique de Rwanda: 4: 25-45.; Daltry, V.D.C. and von Knorring, O. (1998) Type-mineralogy of Rwanda with particular reference to the Buranga pegmatite. Geologica Belgica: 1: 9-15.
Augelite
Formula: Al2(PO4)(OH)3
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: F. Hatert, P. Lefèvre, A.M. Fransolet, M.R. Spirlet, F. Fontan, P. Keller : "Ferrorosemaryite, []NaFe2+Fe3+Al(PO4)3, a new phosphate mineral from the Rubindi pegmatite, Rwanda", Bull. Liaison S.F.M.C., Vol. 16, 2004, pp 44-45.; Lefèvre, P., Fransolet, A. M., Fontan, F., & Keller, P. Petrographic study of the Al-rich phosphate mineral associations of the Rubindi-Kabilizi pegmatite, Gatumba area, Rwanda.
Augite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 40 localities in this region.
Reference: Majmundar, H.H.(1970): Fassaite from Madagascar. Canadian Mineralogist. 10: 899-903
Augite var. Fassaite
Formula: (Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Majmundar, H.H.(1970): Fassaite from Madagascar. Canadian Mineralogist. 10: 899-903
Augite var. Ferroaugite
Reference: Reid, A. M. (1974) The Macibini Meteorite and some thoughts on the Origin of Basaltic Achondrites: Meteoritics 9(4): 398-399. (Dec 1974); Mason B., Jarosewich E. & Nelen J. A. (1979) The pyroxene-plagioclase achondrites. Smithson. Contrib. Earth Sci. 22: 27-45.
Augite var. Titanian Augite
Formula: (Ca,Na)(Mg,Ti, Fe,Al,)(Si,Al)2O6
Description: In olivine melilite lava.
Reference: Lee, C.T., Rudnick, R.L., McDonough, W.F., Horn, I. (2000) Petrologic and geochemical investigation of carbonates in peridotite xenoliths from northeastern Tanzania. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 139, 470-484.
Aurichalcite
Formula: (Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
Auricupride
Formula: Cu3Au
Reference: Wilhelmij, H.R. and Cabri, L.J. (2016) Platinum mineralization in the Kapalagulu Intrusion, western Tanzania. Mineralium Deposita, 51(3), 343-367.
Aurorite
Formula: Mn2+Mn4+3O7 · 3H2O
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Aurostibite
Formula: AuSb2
Reference: Wilhelmij, H.R. and Cabri, L.J. (2016) Platinum mineralization in the Kapalagulu Intrusion, western Tanzania. Mineralium Deposita, 51(3), 343-367.
Autunite
Formula: Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 10-12H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
Awaruite
Formula: Ni3Fe
Reference: Guenther, C., & Gauert, C. (2012), September. Mineral characterization of the metallurgically detrimental talc-carbonate-pyrite schist in ultramafic rocks of the Nkomati Ni-Cu-PGE (-Co-Cr) Mine, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. In European Mineralogical Conference (pp. 2-6).
'Axinite Group'
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Axinite-(Mg) (TL)
Formula: Ca2MgAl2BSi4O15OH
Fluorescence: Red
Reference: P Bongaerts collection; Mineralogical Record (2009) 40: 347-408; Jaszczak, John (2014), Mineralogical Miracles at Merelani, presentation to the 41st. Rochester Mineralogical Symposium, April 25, 2014.
Axinite-(Mn)
Formula: Ca2Mn2+Al2BSi4O15(OH)
Description: Knut Edvard Larsen collection, identified by XRD at MGM, Oslo 1998.
Reference: Larsen, K. E. (2003): Mineralene i Sahatany pegmatittfelt, Madagaskar. Bergverksmuseets skrifter 25, 5-18 (in norwegian)
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 31 localities in this region.
Description: Described by Lacroix (1899) under the name "chessylite"
Reference: Lacroix, A. (1899): Matériaux pour la Minéralogie de Madagascar. IV. Brochantite d'Ambatofangehana (Province d'Ambositra). Bulletin du Muséum national d'histoire naturelle 5 : 318-319
Baddeleyite
Formula: ZrO2
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Description: Baddeleyite up to 15cm long where found here in the early 1980s. Small crystals to 1cm are quite common.
Reference: Heinrich, E. (1970) The Palabora Carbonatitic Complex - a Unique Copper Deposit. Canadian Mineralogist 10: 585-598.; Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.. The Geological Society of South Africa: 186.; Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43: 2-7.; Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 44.; Lee, M. E., Goosen, W. E., Minnaar, E.G., and Liebenberg, T. Microanalysis of mineral inclusions in primary baddeleyite from the Phalaborwa complex.
Barbosalite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2
Reference: Collection Musée National de la Geologie at Ampandrianomby in Antananarivo, Madagascar. Inventory # 21079
Bariopharmacosiderite
Formula: Ba0.5Fe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 5H2O
Reference: Species list by Dr. Hans Börner
Barylite
Formula: Be2Ba(Si2O7)
Habit: platy
Colour: colorless
Description: < 2 cm long crystals
Reference: Demartin, F.; Guastoni, A. & Pezzotta, F. (2003): Barylith, Niobophyllit & yttriumreicher Milarit- Neufunde aus den Pegmatiten von Zomba-Malosa, Malawi. Lapis 28 (1), 18-21; American Mineralogist, Volume 94, pages 1216–1222, 2009
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Localities: Reported from at least 80 localities in this region.
Habit: prismatic
Colour: Amber
Description: The largest (70 x 30cm) baryte crystals in the world were found here in 1997 in a cavity 2600 metres below the surface, attractive amber coloured crystals are associated with quartz, galena, carbon and pyrite.
Reference: Cairncross, B., and Rademeyer, B., (2001) Large barite crystals from the Elandsrand gold mine, South Africa. Mineralogical Record 32(3) 177-180; Cairncross, B., (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa, pg 46;
Baryte var. Hokutolite
Formula: (Ba,Pb)SO4
Reference: Armitage, P. E. B., McDonald, I., Edwards, S. J., & Manby, G. M. (2002). Platinum-group element mineralization in the Platreef and calc-silicate footwall at Sandsloot, Potgietersrus District, South Africa. Applied Earth Science: Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy: Section B, 111(1), 36-45.
Barytocalcite
Formula: BaCa(CO3)2
Reference: Giebel, R.J., Gauert, C.D.K., Marks, M.A.W., Costin, G., and Markl, G. (2017) Multi-stage formation of REE minerals in the Palabora Carbonatite Complex, South Africa. American Mineralogist, 102, 1218-1233.
Barytolamprophyllite
Formula: (Ba,Na)2(Na,Ti,Fe3+)4Ti2(Si2O7)2O(OH,F)
Reference: Dawson, J. B. (1998). Peralkaline nephelinite–natrocarbonatite relationships at Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania. Journal of Petrology, 39(11-12), 2077-2094.
'Bastnäsite'
Localities: Reported from at least 21 localities in this region.
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
Bastnäsite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce(CO3)F
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Description: A specimen fra Behiers collection marked "Bastnaesite" was shown to be Bastnäsite-(Ce) (Simmons 2003)
Reference: Simmons, W. B. (2003): Investigation of oxide minerals from an old collection of Madagascar minerals. (Contributed Papers in Specimen Mineralogy). Rocks & Minerals, nr 2, 2003
Bastnäsite-(La)
Formula: La(CO3)F
Reference: Wolfgang Hampel (2011), fieldwork/studies
Bastnäsite-(Y)
Formula: Y(CO3)F
Reference: Atanasova, M., Cairncross, B. and Windisch, W.R. (2016) Microminerals of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Popular Geoscience Series 6, Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa, pg 181
Bavenite
Formula: Ca4Be2Al2Si9O26(OH)2
Reference: Pezzotta, F. (2005): La pegmatite di Ambatovita, un giacimento ricco di micro-minerali. Rivista Mineralogical Italiana. 30 (2): 100-101
Beaverite-(Cu)
Formula: Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Becquerelite
Formula: Ca(UO2)6O4(OH)6 · 8H2O
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
Béhierite (TL)
Formula: (Ta5+,Nb5+)(BO4)
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Habit: Octahedral crystals
Colour: Grayish-pink
Reference: Mrose, M.E. & Rose jr, J. (1961): Behierite, (Ta, Nb)BO4, a new mineral from Manjaka, Madagascar. Geol.Soc.Am, Abstracts 1961 Ann. Meetings, p 111A
Beidellite
Formula: (Na,Ca0.5)0.3Al2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Berdesinskiite (TL)
Formula: V3+2TiO5
Reference: Bernhardt, H.J., Schmetzer, K., Medenbach, O. (1983) Berdesinskiite, V₂TiO5, a new mineral from Kenya and additional data for schreyerite, V2Ti3O9. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte, 3, 110 - 118.
Berlinite
Formula: AlPO4
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Fransolet, Andre-Mathieu, 1989, The Problem of Na-Li Substitution in Primary Li-Al Phosphates: New Data on Lacroixite, a Relatively Widespread Mineral, Canadian Mineralogist, v. 27, p. 211-217.
Bermanite
Formula: Mn2+Mn3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
Habit: small crystals< 0,5 mm forming rims around masses of phosphosiderite
Colour: redbrown
Description: Analysed by Miss Mrose with XRD in 1956
Reference: Behier, J. (1960): Contribution á la mineralogie de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar XXIX, Tananarive, 19, p 20
Berthierite
Formula: FeSb2S4
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Bertossaite (TL)
Formula: (Li,Na)2(Ca,Fe2+,Mn2+)Al4(PO4)4(OH,F)4
Habit: massive
Colour: Faintly pink
Description: Associated with amblygonite, lazulite-scorzalite, augelite, brazilianite, apatite, and crandallite. Masses of bertossaite up to 50kg have been recovered from the Buranga deposit.
Reference: von Knorring, O. (1965) Notes on some pegmatite minerals from Rwanda. Bulletin du Service Géologique de la République du Rwanda: 2: 11-14.; von Knorring, O. and Mrose, M.E. (1966) Bertossaite (Li,Na)2(Ca,Fe,Mn)Al4 (PO4)(OH,F)4, a new mineral from Rwanda (Africa). (Abstr.) Canadian Mineralogist: 8: 668.; Daltry, V.D.C. and von Knorring, O. (1998) Type-mineralogy of Rwanda with particular reference to the Buranga pegmatite. Geologica Belgica: 1: 9-15.
Bertrandite
Formula: Be4(Si2O7)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Moiana, M. (2010) Certeza geológica da ocorrência e viabilidade económica para o aproveitamento dos Berilos" True Blue" de Licungo, Zambézia, Moçambique (Doctoral dissertation Universidade do Minho).
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Localities: Reported from at least 312 localities in this region.
Reference: Grundmann, G. (2001): Die Smaragde der Welt. ExtraLapis 21: 26-37 [german version] ; Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
Beryl var. Alkali-beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Lacroix, A. (1922): Mineralogie de Madagascar, Tome I. Géologie-Minéralogie descriptive. A.Challamel (Éditeur), Paris. 624p [p.554-556]
Beryl var. Aquamarine
Formula: Be3Al2Si6O18
Localities: Reported from at least 35 localities in this region.
Reference: Michel Arliguie collection & photo (Photo ID: 947596, old sample)
Beryl var. Emerald
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Localities: Reported from at least 34 localities in this region.
Reference: Grundmann, G. (2001): Die Smaragde der Welt. ExtraLapis 21: 26-37 [german version] ; Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
Beryl var. Heliodor
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Rob Lavinski photo
Beryl var. Morganite
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Localities: Reported from at least 14 localities in this region.
Reference: in Collection martin Slama, obtained from Jochen Hintze
Beudantite
Formula: PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Cairncross, B. & Windisch, W.(1998). Robert Meyer collection.
'Bindheimite'
Formula: Pb2Sb2O6O
Description: No specific locality given, listed in the table of minerals associated with gold in Barberton Mountain Land.
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
'Biotite'
Formula: K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3[AlSi3O10(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 175 localities in this region.
Reference: Guigues, J. (1955): Etude des gisements de pegmatite de Madagascar (Deuxième partie). Travaux du Bureau Géologiques de Madagascar 67, Service Geologique, Tananarive, p 9-11
Bismite
Formula: Bi2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Reference: Besairie, H. (1966): Les Gites Minéraux de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar, Tananarive, 34, p. 62
Bismoclite
Formula: BiOCl
Reference: Armitage, P. E. B., McDonald, I., Edwards, S. J., & Manby, G. M. (2002). Platinum-group element mineralization in the Platreef and calc-silicate footwall at Sandsloot, Potgietersrus District, South Africa. Applied Earth Science: Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy: Section B, 111(1), 36-45.
Bismuth
Formula: Bi
Localities: Reported from at least 34 localities in this region.
Habit: Large well-terminated crystals to 5 x 10 cm, although smaller crystals are sharper in development
Colour: Metallic pinkish bronze.
Fluorescence: Not fluorescent.
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine 1963 33 : 458-466
Bismuthinite
Formula: Bi2S3
Localities: Reported from at least 25 localities in this region.
Reference: Lacroix, A. (1922): Mineralogie de Madagascar, Tome I. Géologie-Minéralogie descriptive. A.Challamel (Éditeur), Paris
Bismutite
Formula: (BiO)2CO3
Localities: Reported from at least 45 localities in this region.
Reference: Moiana, M. (2010) Certeza geológica da ocorrência e viabilidade económica para o aproveitamento dos Berilos" True Blue" de Licungo, Zambézia, Moçambique (Doctoral dissertation Universidade do Minho).
Bismutoferrite
Formula: Fe3+2Bi(SiO4)2(OH)
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
'Bismutomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)' (FRL)
Reference: Am Min 62 (1977), 403; HB3 (1997)
Bismutotantalite (TL)
Formula: Bi(Ta,Nb)O4
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 65
Bityite (TL)
Formula: LiCaAl2(AlBeSi2O10)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Habit: pseudohexagonal barrelshaped aggregates with curved top (polysyntetic twins)up to 2 mm long; fine lamelles
Colour: white; whith-yellowish
Description: The typematerial of bityite was found in a pegmatite dike situated about 300 m N of the Maharitra workings (Behier (1960) Found on tourmaline or quartz
Reference: Lacroix, A. (1922): Mineralogie de Madagascar, Tome I. Géologie-Minéralogie descriptive. A.Challamel (Éditeur), Paris. pp 398-400 + planche 18 / Behier, J. (1960): Contribution á la Minéralogie de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar XXIX, Tananarive, 78p.
Bixbyite
Formula: Mn3+2O3
Reference: www.min.uni-kiel.de/petrographie/schenk/projekte/tansania/mautia/dmg_mautia.pdf.
Bjarebyite
Formula: (Ba,Sr)(Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)2Al2(PO4)3(OH)3
Colour: pistachio green to dark green
Description: intergrown with bertossaite.
Reference: von Knorring, O. (1969) A note on the phosphate mineralisation at the Buranga pegmatite, Rwanda. Bulletin du Service Geologique de la Republique du Rwanda: 5: 42-45.; von Knorring, O. (1973) Notes on pegmatite minerals from Rwanda, Uganda and South West Africa. 17th annual Report Res. Inst. afr. Geol., Univ. Leeds, 72-73.; von Knorring, O. and Fransolet, A.-M. (1975) An occurrence of bjarebyite in the Buranga pegmatite, Rwanda. Schweizerische Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen: 55: 9-18.; Daltry, V.D.C. and von Knorring, O. (1998) Type-mineralogy of Rwanda with particular reference to the Buranga pegmatite. Geologica Belgica: 1: 9-15.
Blödite
Formula: Na2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2O
Reference: Bowell, R. J., Warren, A., & Redmond, I. (1996). Formation of cave salts and utilization by elephants in the Mount Elgon region, Kenya. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 113(1), 63-79.
Bobierrite
Formula: Mg3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Reference: Handbook of Mineralogy
Böhmite
Formula: AlO(OH)
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
Bonaccordite (TL)
Formula: Ni2Fe3+(BO3)O2
Type Locality:
Reference: [Trans.Geol.Soc.S.Afr.(1974) 77, 373; Nickel & Nichols, 1991 - "Mineral Reference Manual, p25]
Boralsilite
Formula: Al16B6O30(Si2O7)
Reference: Novák, M., Cempírek, J., Gadas, P., Škoda, R., Galiová, M. V., Pezzotta, F. and Groat, L. A. (2015): Boralsilite and Li, Be-bearing "Boron Mullite" Al8B2Si2O19, Breakdown products of spodumene from the Manjaka pegmatite, Sahatany valley, Madagascar. Canadian Mineralogist. 53: 357-374
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Localities: Reported from at least 30 localities in this region.
Reference: Behier, J. (1960): Contribution á la mineralogie de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar XXIX, Tananarive, p.72
Botallackite
Formula: Cu2(OH)3Cl
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Boulangerite
Formula: Pb5Sb4S11
Description: This silvery metallic mineral has been reported from the ores in some of the Barberton gold mines
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa
Bournonite
Formula: PbCuSbS3
Reference: Billay, A.Y., Kisters, A.F.M., Meyer, F.M., and Schneider, J. (1997): Mineralium Deposita 32, 491-504.
Bowieite
Formula: (Rh,Ir,Pt)2S3
Reference: www.bgr.de/b423/oberthuer_ptconf_pgm_bushveld.pdf.; Zaccarini, F., Bindi, L., Pushkarev, E., Garuti, G., & Bakker, R. J. (2016). Multi-analytical characterization of minerals of the bowieite–kashinite series from the Svetly Bor complex, Urals, Russia, and comparison with worldwide occurrences. The Canadian Mineralogist, 54(2), 461-473.
'Brabantite'
Formula: CaTh(PO4)2
Reference: Moiana, M. (2010) Certeza geológica da ocorrência e viabilidade económica para o aproveitamento dos Berilos" True Blue" de Licungo, Zambézia, Moçambique (Doctoral dissertation Universidade do Minho).
Braggite (TL)
Formula: (Pt,Pd,Ni)S
Localities: Reported from at least 21 localities in this region.
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine(1932) 23, 198-206
Braunite
Formula: Mn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Behier, J. (1960): Contribution á la mineralogie de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar XXIX, Tananarive. p 22
'Bravoite'
Formula: (Fe,Ni)S2
Reference: Armitage, P. E. B., McDonald, I., Edwards, S. J., & Manby, G. M. (2002). Platinum-group element mineralization in the Platreef and calc-silicate footwall at Sandsloot, Potgietersrus District, South Africa. Applied Earth Science: Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy: Section B, 111(1), 36-45.
Brazilianite
Formula: NaAl3(PO4)2(OH)4
Reference: F. Hatert, P. Lefèvre, A.M. Fransolet, M.R. Spirlet, F. Fontan, P. Keller : "Ferrorosemaryite, []NaFe2+Fe3+Al(PO4)3, a new phosphate mineral from the Rubindi pegmatite, Rwanda", Bull. Liaison S.F.M.C., Vol. 16, 2004, pp 44-45.; Lefèvre, P., Fransolet, A. M., Fontan, F., & Keller, P. Petrographic study of the Al-rich phosphate mineral associations of the Rubindi-Kabilizi pegmatite, Gatumba area, Rwanda.
Breithauptite
Formula: NiSb
Reference: Vos, I.M.A. et al. (2009): The geology and mineralization at the Golden Pride gold deposit, Nzega Greenstone Belt, Tanzania. Mineralium Deposita 44, 751-764.
'Brewsterite'
Description: Recorded from amygdales.
Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.. The Geological Society of South Africa, 191 pp.
Brianyoungite
Formula: Zn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
Description: Slag
Reference: Glass, J. (2006). The environmental impact of the abandoned Edendale lead mine near Tshwane, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, University of Johannesburg).
Britholite-(Ce)
Formula: (Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH
Reference: Wolfgang Hampel (2011) and Guillaume Estrade (University of Toulouse, 2011)
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: Lacroix, A. (1899): Matériaux pour la Minéralogie de Madagascar. IV. Brochantite d'Ambatofangehana (Province d'Ambositra). Bulletin du Muséum national d'histoire naturelle 5 : 318-319
Brockite
Formula: (Ca,Th,Ce)PO4 · H2O
Reference: Dr.Federico Pezzotta analysis
Brookite
Formula: TiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: Moore, T. (2009): What New in Minerals. Munich Show 2008. Mineralogical Record 40, p. 88 + 67
Brucite
Formula: Mg(OH)2
Reference: Paul Meulenbeld collection
Brushite
Formula: Ca(PO3OH) · 2H2O
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.; Martini, I. (1978). Mineralogy of the Transvaal caves. South African Journal of Geology, 81(1), 47-54.
Buchwaldite
Formula: NaCa(PO4)
Reference: Kracher, A., Gramstad, S. D. & Kurat, G. (1998) Soroti and the Origin of Sulfide-rich Meteorites: Meteoritics & Planetary Science (abstract) 33 (4, Supplement): pp. A88-A89 (July 1998)
Bunsenite
Formula: NiO
Reference: Am. Min. 61, 502 (1976); O'Driscoll, B., Clay, P. L., Cawthorn, R. G., Lenaz, D., Adetunji, J., & Kronz, A. (2014). Trevorite: Ni-rich spinel formed by metasomatism and desulfurization processes at Bon Accord, South Africa?. Mineralogical Magazine, 78(1), 145-163.
Burangaite (TL)
Formula: NaFe2+Al5(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2O
Type Locality:
Habit: replacement product of scorzalite; radiating prismatic crystals
Colour: Bluish to bluish-green, hourglass zoned
Description: Found in corroded aggregates of bertossaite, trolleite, apatite, scorzalite, bjarebyite, wardite, and quartz.
Reference: von Knorring, O., Lehtinen, M., and Sahama, T.G. (1977) Burangaite, a new phosphate mineral from Rwanda. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland: 49: 33-36.; Daltry, V.D.C. and von Knorring, O. (1998) Type-mineralogy of Rwanda with particular reference to the Buranga pegmatite. Geologica Belgica: 1: 9-15.; HB4 (2000)(?);
Burbankite
Formula: (Na,Ca)3(Sr,Ba,Ce)3(CO3)5
Reference: Giebel, R.J., Gauert, C.D.K., Marks, M.A.W., Costin, G., and Markl, G. (2017) Multi-stage formation of REE minerals in the Palabora Carbonatite Complex, South Africa. American Mineralogist, 102, 1218-1233.
Burkeite
Formula: Na6(CO3)(SO4)2
Reference: Vergouwen, L. (1979) Two new occurrences and the Gibbs energy of burkeite. Mineralogical Magazine 43:327, 341-345.
Cabriite
Formula: Pd2CuSn
Reference: Wilhelmij, H. R., & Cabri, L. J. (2015). Platinum mineralization in the Kapalagulu Intrusion, western Tanzania. Mineralium Deposita, 1-25.; Wilhelmij, H.R. and Cabri, L.J. (2016) Platinum mineralization in the Kapalagulu Intrusion, western Tanzania. Mineralium Deposita, 51(3), 343-367.
Cacoxenite
Formula: Fe3+24AlO6(PO4)17(OH)12 · 75H2O
Reference: Atanasova, M., Cairncross, B. and Windisch, W.R. (2016) Microminerals of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Popular Geoscience Series 6, Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa
'Calamine'
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
Calaverite
Formula: AuTe2
Reference: Large, R.R.; Maslennikov, V.V. (2020) Invisible Gold Paragenesis and Geochemistry in Pyrite from Orogenic and Sediment-Hosted Gold Deposits. Minerals 10, 339.; Van Ryt, M. R., Sanislav, I. V., Dirks, P. H., Huizenga, J. M., Mturi, M. I., & Kolling, S. L. (2017) Alteration paragenesis and the timing of mineralised quartz veins at the world-class Geita Hill gold deposit, Geita Greenstone Belt, Tanzania. Ore Geology Reviews, 91, 765-779.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 227 localities in this region.
Reference: Behier, J. (1960): Travaux mineralogiques. In Rapport Annuel du Service Geologique pour 1960. Republique Madagascar, Tananarive. 181-199
Calcite var. Manganese-bearing Calcite
Formula: (Ca,Mn)CO3
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 293.
Calcite var. Mg-rich Calcite
Formula: (Ca,Mg)CO3
Description: Microinclusions in quartz and emerald of the Maria emerald deposit.
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine, Feb. 2002, V. 66, N° 1, pp. 201-213.
Caledonite
Formula: Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Calzirtite
Formula: CaZr3TiO9
Reference: Handbook of Mineralogy
Cancrinite
Formula: (Na,Ca,◻)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine 1964 33 : 1057-1065.
Carbocernaite
Formula: (Ca,Na)(Sr,Ce,Ba)(CO3)2
Reference: Giebel, R.J., Gauert, C.D.K., Marks, M.A.W., Costin, G., and Markl, G. (2017) Multi-stage formation of REE minerals in the Palabora Carbonatite Complex, South Africa. American Mineralogist, 102, 1218-1233.
Carlosbarbosaite ?
Formula: (UO2)2Nb2O6(OH)2 · 2H2O
Description: Specimen offered by Gunnar Färber, no information on id has been provided, thus the unconfirmed status. ( (see Photo ID: 1094393)
Reference: Łukasz Kruszewski photo (ID: 1094393 ), specimen obtained from Gunnar Färber
Carlsbergite
Formula: CrN
Reference: Buchwald, V. F., & Scott, E. R. (1971): First nitride (CrN) in iron meteorites. Nature Phys. Soc., 233, 113-114.
Carminite
Formula: PbFe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2
Habit: radiating sprays and single elongated crystals
Colour: Carmine red
Description: Superb radiating divergent sprays and single elongated crystals, associated with Beudantite, Pharmacosiderite, Hematite, Cerussite, and Scorodite
Reference: Robert O. Meyer collection; Dr. Hans Börner collection; collected by Dr. Hans Börner; Windisch, W. R., (1999), South African Micromount Society, Locality data sheet.; Robert O. Meyer collection; Dr. Hans Börner collection; collected by Dr. Hans Börner
Carnotite
Formula: K2(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 3H2O
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
Cassedanneite
Formula: Pb5(CrO4)2(VO4)2 · H2O
Reference: Atanasova, M., Cairncross, B. and Windisch, W.R. (2016) Microminerals of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Popular Geoscience Series 6, Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa, 435 pp
Cassiterite
Formula: SnO2
Localities: Reported from at least 74 localities in this region.
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Geologique A. 1871
Catapleiite
Formula: Na2Zr(Si3O9) · 2H2O
Reference: Lacroix, A. (1922): Mineralogie de Madagascar, Tome I. Géologie-Minéralogie descriptive. A.Challamel (Éditeur), Paris. 624p (p.589)
Cavoite
Formula: CaV4+3O7
Description: On-line version of Handbook page (http://rruff.info/doclib/hom/cavoite.pdf) is in fact that of cerianite-(Ce).
Reference: Handbook of Mineralogy
Caysichite-(Y)
Formula: Ca2Y2Si4O10(CO3)3 · 4H2O
Reference: Massanek, A. (1999): Neu aus Malawi: Caysichit-(Y), Lapis 24 (4),33; Cairncross, B. (2002). Aegirine and Associated Minerals from Mount Malosa, Malawi. Rocks & Minerals, 77(1), 31-37.
Cebollite
Formula: Ca5Al2(SiO4)3(OH)4
Reference: Horst Windisch (2007) South African Micromount Society newsletter: 33(3)
Celadonite
Formula: K(Mg,Fe2+)Fe3+(Si4O10)(OH)2
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
Celestine
Formula: SrSO4
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Reference: Lacroix, A. (1915) : Sur un nouveau minéral [ambatoarinite] de Madagascar. Bulletin de la Société francaise de Minéralogie, Paris. 38, 265-271.
Celsian
Formula: Ba(Al2Si2O8)
Reference: Roerdink, D. L., Mason, P. R., Whitehouse, M. J., & Brouwer, F. M. (2016). Reworking of atmospheric sulfur in a Paleoarchean hydrothermal system at Londozi, Barberton Greenstone Belt, Swaziland. Precambrian Research, 280, 195-204.
Cerianite-(Ce)
Formula: (Ce4+,Th)O2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Colour: mustard-brown to yellowish
Description: alteration film on bastnäsite-(Ce)
Reference: Pavel M. Kartashov data
Cerite-(Ce)
Formula: (Ce,Ca)9(Mg,Fe)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3
Reference: Estrade, G., et al. (2014): REE and HFSE mineralization in peralkaline granites of the Ambohimirahavavy alkaline complex, Ampasindava peninsula, Madagascar. Journal of African Earth Sciences. 94: 141–155
Ceruleite
Formula: Cu2Al7(AsO4)4(OH)13 · 11.5H2O
Reference: Rick Turner
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 22 localities in this region.
Habit: Prisms, tabular, sometimes twinned & multiply twinned.
Colour: Water-clear to dark grey
Description: Common as small crystals, cerussite is found all along the outcrop of the ore body. Occasionally stained yellow by powdery massicot.
Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.. The Geological Society of South Africa: 195. Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 67.
Cervantite
Formula: Sb3+Sb5+O4
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Cesiokenopyrochlore (TL)
Formula: ◻Nb2(O,OH)6(Cs,◻)
Type Locality:
Reference: Agakhanov, A.A., Kasatkin, A.V., Britvin, S.N., Siidra, O.I., Pautov, L.A., Pekov, I.V. and Karpenko, V.Y. (2017) Cesiokenopyrochlore, IMA 2016-104. CNMNC Newsletter No. 36, April 2017, page 406; Mineralogical Magazine, 81, 403–409.
'Chabazite'
Localities: Reported from at least 23 localities in this region.
Reference: Serge Lavarde collection
'Chabazite var. Phacolite'
Reference: JM Johannet collection
Chabazite-Ca
Formula: (Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Reference: Cecco, V. D. (2013). The Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Green Giant Vanadium-graphite Deposit, SW Madagascar (Masters dissertation). University of Toronto
Chabazite-Na
Formula: (Na2,K2,Ca,Sr,Mg)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Reference: Tschernich, R.W. (1992). Zeolites of the World. Geoscience Press Inc.: Phoenix; Cairncross, B. & Dixon, R. (1995). Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.. Geological Society of South Africa: Linden; Heron, H.D.C. New analyses performed in 2004.
Chalcanthite
Formula: CuSO4 · 5H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Reference: Behier, J. (1960): Contribution á la mineralogie de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar XXIX, Tananarive.p 24
Chalcoalumite
Formula: CuAl4(SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2O
Reference: Martini, J.E.J. et al (1997), "Mbobo Mkulu Cave, South Africa", in "Cave Minerals of the World" (1997)
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Localities: Reported from at least 29 localities in this region.
Reference: Behier, J. (1960): Contribution á la mineralogie de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar XXIX, Tananarive, p.72
Chalcophyllite
Formula: Cu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Localities: Reported from at least 135 localities in this region.
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
Chalcostibite
Formula: CuSbS2
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Chamosite
Formula: (Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Chantalite
Formula: CaAl2(SiO4)(OH)4
Reference: Cairncross, B. & Dixon, R. (1995). Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.. Geological Society of South Africa: Linden; Heron. H.D.C. (2004). Barite occurrences at Clairwood Quarries in Durban, Natal, South Africa. S.A. Lapidary Magazine, 36(3): 5-25.
Chapmanite
Formula: Fe3+2Sb3+(Si2O5)O3(OH)
Reference: Sabine MC. Verryn & Paul MPB Meulenbe(e)ld (2000) A new locality for Chapmanite (Sb(OH)Fe2(SiO4)2) at a lead-silver-zinc deposit near Argent Station, Mpumalanga, South Africa. N. Jb. Miner. Mh. 2000(2):85-90. Stuttgart.
Chenevixite
Formula: Cu2Fe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)4
Reference: Malcolm Southwood (2002) Arsenical Ramblings. British Micromount society Newsletter 61:2-9
Cheralite
Formula: CaTh(PO4)2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Moiana, M. (2010) Certeza geológica da ocorrência e viabilidade económica para o aproveitamento dos Berilos" True Blue" de Licungo, Zambézia, Moçambique (Doctoral dissertation Universidade do Minho).
'Cheralite-(Ce)'
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Cherepanovite
Formula: RhAs
Reference: Zaccarini, F., Garuti, G., & Cawthorn, R. G. (2002). Platinum-group minerals in chromitite xenoliths from the Onverwacht and Tweefontein ultramafic pipes, eastern Bushveld Complex, South Africa. The Canadian Mineralogist, 40(2), 481-497.
Chevkinite-(Ce)
Formula: (Ce,La,Ca,Th)4(Fe2+,Mg)(Fe2+,Ti,Fe3+)2(Ti,Fe3+)2(Si2O7)2O8
Reference: Ganzeev, A.A. and Grechishchev, O.K. (2003): A new genetic type of rare-metal alkali granites of Madagascar. Russian Geology and Geophysics Vol. 44, No. 6, pp. 539-553; G. Estrade/University of Toulouse personal communication to W.Hampel, 2011; Gilbertson, J. (2011)
'Chevkinite Group'
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Reference: Lacroix, A. (1922): Mineralogie de Madagascar, Tome I. Géologie-Minéralogie descriptive. A.Challamel (Éditeur), Paris. 624p (p.587)
Chiavennite
Formula: CaMnBe2Si5O13(OH)2 · 2H2O
Reference: Pezzotta F., Guastoni A., Forner H., Demartin F., Kristiansen R. (2004) : Exceptional chiavennite associated with pezzottaite from the Sakavalana Pegmatite, Ambatovita, Madagascar. Web site of Mineralogical Society of America. www.minsocam.org/msa/Pegmatites.html; Pezzotta, F., Guastoni, A., Forner, H., Demartin, F., Kristiansen, R. (2005): Découverte exceptionnelle de chiavennite associée à pezzottaite dans la pegmatite de Sakavalana, Mandrosonoro, Madagascar. Le Règne Minéral, 62, 25-28.
Childrenite
Formula: Fe2+Al(PO4)(OH)2 · H2O
Reference: P. Lefèvre, A.-M. Fransolet, F. Fontan, P. Keller: Petrographic study of the Al-rich phosphate mineral associations of the Rubindi-Kabilizi pegmatite, Gatumba area, Rwanda. (http://www.minsocam.org/msa/special/pig/PIG_articles/Elba%20Abstracts%2012%20Lefevre.pdf); Lefèvre, P., Fransolet, A. M., Fontan, F., & Keller, P. Petrographic study of the Al-rich phosphate mineral associations of the Rubindi-Kabilizi pegmatite, Gatumba area, Rwanda.
Chlorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3Cl
Reference: Schulze, H., Bischoff, A., Palme, H., Spettel, B., Dreibus, G. & Otto, J. (1994). Mineralogy and chemistry of Rumuruti: The first meteorite fall of the new R chondrite group, Meteoritics 29 (2), 275-286. (March 1994)
Chlorargyrite
Formula: AgCl
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
'Chlorite Group'
Localities: Reported from at least 89 localities in this region.
Reference: McDonald, I., Ohnenstetter, D., Ohnenstetter, M., and Vaughan, D.J. (1999): Palladium oxides in ultramafic complexes near Lavatrafo, western Andriamena, Madagascar. Mineralogical Magazine. 63: 345-352.
Chloritoid
Formula: (Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Reference: The Royal Museum for Central Africa (RMCA), sample # 11691; http://www.metafro.be/mineralogy/browse_hierarchical_geo?country=Burundi
Chondrodite
Formula: (Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.; Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7
Chromatite
Formula: CaCr6+O4
Reference: http://www.fc.up.pt/geo/ecrofi/377.PDF; McDonald, I., Vaughan, D. J., & Tredoux, M. (1995). Platinum mineralization in quartz veins near Naboomspruit, central Transvaal. S. Afr. J. Geol, 98, 168-175.
'Chrome-Spinel (of Dana)'
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: McDonald, I., Ohnenstetter, D., Ohnenstetter, M., and Vaughan, D.J. (1999): Palladium oxides in ultramafic complexes near Lavatrafo, western Andriamena, Madagascar. Mineralogical Magazine. 63: 345-352.
Chromite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Localities: Reported from at least 64 localities in this region.
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
Chromium
Formula: Cr
Reference: PMPB Meulenbeld collection Photo ID: 951390
Chrysoberyl
Formula: BeAl2O4
Localities: Reported from at least 39 localities in this region.
Reference: JULIEN RAOUL
Chrysoberyl var. Alexandrite
Formula: BeAl2O4
Reference: JULIEN RAOUL
Chrysoberyl var. Cymophane
Formula: BeAl2O4
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O, x < 1
Localities: Reported from at least 20 localities in this region.
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
'Chrysoprase'
Reference: Graetsch, H. A. (2011): Microstructure and origin of colour of chrysoprase from Haneti (Tanzania). Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Abhandlungen, 188, 111-117.
Chrysotile
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Localities: Reported from at least 17 localities in this region.
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
Churchite-(Y)
Formula: Y(PO4) · 2H2O
Reference: Dias, M. Bettencourt and Wilson, W. E., 2000, Mineralogical Record, 31:459-497.
Cinnabar
Formula: HgS
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Clairite (TL)
Formula: (NH4)2Fe3(SO4)4(OH)3 · 3H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Ann.Geol.Survey S.Africa,(1983) 17, 29-34; Daltry, V.D.C., (1997) Mineralogy of South Africa: Type-Mineral Species and Type-Mineral Names, Council For Geoscience, Geological Survey of South Africa, Handbook 15.
Clausthalite
Formula: PbSe
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Wilhelmij, H.R. and Cabri, L.J. (2016) Platinum mineralization in the Kapalagulu Intrusion, western Tanzania. Mineralium Deposita, 51(3), 343-367.
'Clays'
Reference: Dongchao Yang, Desheng Bai, and Qiong Cao (2013): Gold Science and Technology 21(4), 1-8
Clinobisvanite
Formula: Bi(VO4)
Reference: Bridge, P. J. & Pryce, M. W. (1974): Clinobisvanite, monoclinic BiVo4, a new mineral from Yiennietharra, Western Australia. Mineralogical Magazine 39: 847-9
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Localities: Reported from at least 34 localities in this region.
Reference: Behier, J. (1960): Contribution á la mineralogie de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar XXIX, Tananarive. p.25-6
Clinochlore var. Leuchtenbergite
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Behier, J. (1960): Contribution á la mineralogie de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar XXIX, Tananarive. p.25-6
Clinochlore var. Pennine
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: Michel Arliguie collection & photo (Photo ID: 946870, old sample)
Clinochlore var. Ripidolite
Formula: (Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8
Reference: Lacroix, A. (1922): Mineralogie de Madagascar, Tome I. Géologie-Minéralogie descriptive. A.Challamel (Éditeur), Paris; p 202
'Clinochrysotile'
Reference: McCall, M. J. (2016). Mineralogical and geochemical variations in the UG2 reef at Booysendal and Zondereinde mines, with implications for beneficiation of PGM (Doctoral dissertation, Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch University).
Clinoclase
Formula: Cu3(AsO4)(OH)3
Reference: Meulenbeld, P.M.P.B., Grote, W. & Verryn, S. (2014) The Albert silver mine and trippkeite occurrence. Rock & Minerals 89(5), 417-422.
Clinoenstatite
Formula: MgSiO3
Reference: Brian Mason (1966). The Enstatite Chondrites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 30, 23-30.
Clinoferrosilite
Formula: Fe2+SiO3
Reference: Bowen N L (1935) “Ferrosilite” as a natural mineral. American Journal of Science 30, 481-494
Clinohumite
Formula: Mg9(SiO4)4F2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Knut Edvard Larsen collection (# M-569 + M-576)
'Clinoptilolite'
Formula: $m3-6(Si30Al6)O72 · 20H2O
Reference: PMPB Meulenbeld collection Photo ID: 1075094
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'
Localities: Reported from at least 34 localities in this region.
Description: Close to Mg end-member in composition
Reference: Nicollet, C. (1990) Occurrences of grandidierite, serendibite and tourmaline near Ihosy, southern Madagascar. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 54, n° 374, 131-133.
Clinozoisite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Description: A sample in the collection of Muséum de Paris, France, see http://webmineral.brgm.fr:8003/mineraux/ImageView.html?SYSID_IMAGE=7312&TARGET=MainEnd
Reference: Lacroix, A. (1940): Les modifications mineralogiques secondaires du gisement de phlogopite de Volonandrongo ouest du massif central de Madagascar. Compte Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences 210(12): 425-429; Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Geologique A. 1871
Clinozoisite var. Clinothulite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Jean Chervet collection
Clintonite
Formula: Ca(Mg,Al)3(Al3SiO10)(OH)2
Reference: Nicollet, Christian (1985) Thèse d'Etat. Clermont Fd, 350pp.; Nicollet, Christian (1990) In Granulites and Crustal Differentiation (Vielzeuf, D. and Vidal, P., eds.), Kluwer Academic publishers, in press.; Nicollet, Christian (1990) Occurrences of grandidierite, serendibite and tourmaline near Ihosy, southern Madagascar. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 54, n° 374, pp. 131-133.
Cobaltite
Formula: CoAsS
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Description: Behier (1960) describes a specimen with cobaltite that has been found by Picot (1957) at "Milanoa". Behier belives that this locality is the same as Mahasaborivaky.
Reference: Behier, J. (1960): Contribution á la mineralogie de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar XXIX, Tananarive. p. 28
Cobaltpentlandite
Formula: (Co,Ni,Fe)9S8
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Cochromite (TL)
Formula: CoCr2O4
Type Locality:
Reference: Am Min 65 (1980), 811; O'Driscoll, B., Clay, P. L., Cawthorn, R. G., Lenaz, D., Adetunji, J., & Kronz, A. (2014). Trevorite: Ni-rich spinel formed by metasomatism and desulfurization processes at Bon Accord, South Africa?. Mineralogical Magazine, 78(1), 145-163.
Coesite
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Westerlund, K. J., & Gurney, J. J. (2004). Silicate and oxide inclusion characteristics and infra-red absorption analysis of diamonds from the Klipspringer kimberlites, South Africa. South African Journal of Geology, 107(1-2), 131-146.
Cohenite
Formula: Fe3C
Reference: Buchwald, Vagn F. (1975) Handbook of Iron Meteorites. University of California Press, 1418 pp.
Coloradoite
Formula: HgTe
Reference: H.F.J. Theart and C.D. de Nooy (2001) The Platinum Group Minerals in two parts of the Massive Sulphide Body of the Uitkomst Complex, Mpumalanga, South Africa. SOUTH AFRICAN JOURNAL OF GEOLOGY, VOLUME 104, PAGE 287-300
Columbite-(Fe)
Formula: Fe2+Nb2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 19 localities in this region.
Reference: Van King
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'
Localities: Reported from at least 60 localities in this region.
Reference: Moiana, M. (2010) Certeza geológica da ocorrência e viabilidade económica para o aproveitamento dos Berilos" True Blue" de Licungo, Zambézia, Moçambique (Doctoral dissertation Universidade do Minho).
Columbite-(Mg)
Formula: (Mg,Fe,Mn)(Nb,Ta)2O6
Description:
Reference: Listed in www.excaliburmineral.com- catalog of rare species
Columbite-(Mn)
Formula: Mn2+Nb2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 20 localities in this region.
Reference: Knut Edvard Larsen collection # M-590
'Columbite-(Mn)-Tantalite-(Mn) Series'
Reference: Knut Edvard Larsen collection and photo
'Columbite-Tantalite'
Localities: Reported from at least 58 localities in this region.
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Geologique A. 1871
Colusite
Formula: Cu13VAs3S16
Reference: Harrison et al., Mineralogical Record 45:553-570 (2014).
Combeite
Formula: Na4.5Ca3.5Si6O17.5(OH)0.5
Reference: www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/other.htm; Henderson, C. M. B., Kogarko, L. N., & Plant, D. A. (1999). Extreme closed system fractionation of volatile-rich, ultrabasic peralkaline melt inclusions and the occurrence of djerfisherite in the Kugda alkaline complex, Siberia. Mineralogical Magazine, 63(3), 433-438.; Wiedenmann D, Zaitsev A N, Britvin S N, Krivovichev S V, Keller J (2009) Alumoåkermanite, (Ca,Na)2(Al,Mg,Fe2+)(Si2O7), a new mineral from the active carbonatite-nephelinite-phonolite volcano Oldoinyo Lengai, northern Tanzania. Mineralogical Magazine 73, 373-384; Dawson, J. B. (1998). Peralkaline nephelinite–natrocarbonatite relationships at Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania. Journal of Petrology, 39(11-12), 2077-2094.
Cookeite
Formula: (Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Localities: Reported from at least 15 localities in this region.
Description: Small hexagonal crystals on transparent green tourmaline embedded in muscovite
Reference: Behier, J. (1960): Contribution á la mineralogie de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar XXIX, Tananarive. p 29
Cooperite (TL)
Formula: PtS
Localities: Reported from at least 19 localities in this region.
Reference: American Mineralogist, Volume 63 , pages 832-839, 1978; Hutchinson, D., & Kinnaird, J. A. (2005). Complex multistage genesis for the Ni–Cu–PGE mineralisation in the southern region of the Platreef, Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Applied Earth Science, 114(4), 208-224.
'Copal'
Reference: Geirnaert, E. (2002): L`Ambre- Miel de Fortune et Mémoire de Vie. Les Editions du Piat. 176p. [p. 87]
Copiapite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Copper
Formula: Cu
Localities: Reported from at least 21 localities in this region.
Description: large masses partially altered to cuprite.
Reference: Behier, J. (1960): Contribution á la Minéralogie de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar XXIX, Tananarive, p.31
Coquimbite
Formula: AlFe3(SO4)6(H2O)12 · 6H2O
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Cordierite
Formula: (Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Localities: Reported from at least 28 localities in this region.
Reference: JSS photo
Cordylite-(Ce)
Formula: NaBaCe2(CO3)4F
Reference: Giebel, R.J., Gauert, C.D.K., Marks, M.A.W., Costin, G., and Markl, G. (2017) Multi-stage formation of REE minerals in the Palabora Carbonatite Complex, South Africa. American Mineralogist, 102, 1218-1233.
Corkite
Formula: PbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Cornwallite
Formula: Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Reference: Robert O. Meyer collection; Dr. Hans Börner collection
Corundum
Formula: Al2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 147 localities in this region.
Habit: Hexagonal
Colour: dirty-green
Description: Largest crystal 30x60 cm weighing 152 kg (in museum of the Geological Survey in Pretoria) was found near this stream from workings near Manuel's Kop.
Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.. The Geological Society of South Africa, 26 pp;
Corundum var. Padparadscha
Formula: Al2O3
Reference: Peretti, A., FGG, F., & Hahn, L. (2012). Record-breaking discovery of ruby and sapphire at the Didy mine in Madagascar: Investigating the source. InColor Fall/Winter, 22-35.
Corundum var. Ruby
Formula: Al2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 42 localities in this region.
Reference: Giuliani, G., Fallick, A., Rakotondrazafy, M., Ohnenstetter, D., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., Rakotosamizanany, S., Razanatseheno, M., Offant, Y., Garnier, V., Dunaigre, C., Schwarz, D., Mercier, A., Ratrimo, V., and Ralison, B. (2007): Mineralium Deposita 42, 251-270.; Peretti, A., FGG, F., & Hahn, L. (2012). Record-breaking discovery of ruby and sapphire at the Didy mine in Madagascar: Investigating the source. InColor Fall/Winter, 22-35.
Corundum var. Sapphire
Formula: Al2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 40 localities in this region.
Habit: Rounded nodules
Colour: Blue, yellow
Description: Found about 2015. Cut gemstones to 50 carats produced by 2017. Exceptionally high quality deep blue sapphire equivalent in quality to "Kashmir" sapphire. Fine clean blue stones over 100 carats and some attractive pinkish orange stones over 50 carats
Reference: ; Basel, Switzerland: March 29, 2017 Kashmir-like' sapphires from Madagascar entering the gem trade in large sizes and quantities By Dr. Michael S. Krzemnicki, SSEF , Swiss Gemmological Institute Trade Alert. ; Pardieu, V., Vertriest, W., Weeramonkhonlert, V., Raynaud, V., Atikarnsakul, U., & Perkins, R. (2017). Sapphires from the gem rush Bemainty area, Ambatondrazaka (Madagascar). Gemological Institute of America, 26 February, 45 pp.
Corundum var. Star Corundum
Formula: Al2O3
Reference: Van King
Cosalite
Formula: Pb2Bi2S5
Reference: Dewaele, S., De Clercq, F., Hulsbosch, N., Piessens, K., Boyce, A., Burgess, R., & Muchez, P. (2016). Genesis of the vein-type tungsten mineralization at Nyakabingo (Rwanda) in the Karagwe–Ankole belt, Central Africa. Mineralium Deposita, 51(2), 283-307.
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Localities: Reported from at least 28 localities in this region.
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
Crandallite
Formula: CaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): Carbonatites of the World. Explored Deposits of Nb and REE - Database and Grade and Tonnage Models: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2009-1139, 17 p. and database.
Crerarite
Formula: Pt2-x(Bi,Pb)11(S,Se)11
Reference: Holwell, D. A., & McDonald, I. (2007). Distribution of platinum-group elements in the Platreef at Overysel, northern Bushveld Complex: a combined PGM and LA-ICP-MS study. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 154(2), 171-190.
Crichtonite
Formula: Sr(Mn,Y,U)Fe2(Ti,Fe,Cr,V)18(O,OH)38
Reference: Lacroix, A. (1922): Mineralogie de Madagascar, Tome I. Géologie-Minéralogie descriptive. A.Challamel (Éditeur), Paris. 624p (p.587)
Cristobalite
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Thomas, R. & Davidson, P. (2010): Hambergite-rich melt inclusions in morganite crystals from the Muiane pegmatite, Mozambique and some remarks on the paragenesis of hambergite. Mineralogy and Petrology, 100, 227-239.
Crocoite
Formula: PbCr6+O4
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Cronstedtite
Formula: Fe2+2Fe3+((Si,Fe3+)2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Howard, K.T., Alexander, C.M.O'D, Schrader D.L. & Dyl K.A. (2015) Classification of hydrous meteorites (CR, CM, and C2 ungrouped) by phyllosilicate fraction: PSD-XRD modal mineralogy and planetismal environments. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 149, 206-222.
Cryptomelane
Formula: K(Mn4+7Mn3+)O16
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: Pezzotta F., Guastoni A., Forner H., Demartin F., Kristiansen R. (2004) : Exceptional chiavennite associated with pezzottaite from the Sakavalana Pegmatite, Ambatovita, Madagascar. Web site of Mineralogical Society of America. www.minsocam.org/msa/Pegmatites.html
Cubanite
Formula: CuFe2S3
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Description: As exsolutions in chalcopyrite
Reference: Behier, J. (1960): Contribution á la Minéralogie de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar XXIX, Tananarive, p.31
Cummingtonite
Formula: ◻{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
Cuprite var. Chalcotrichite
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: Atanasova, M., Cairncross, B. and Windisch, W.R. (2016) Microminerals of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Popular Geoscience Series 6, Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa, 146 pg
Cuprorhodsite
Formula: (Cu1+0.5Fe3+0.5)Rh3+2S4
Reference: Legendre, O., & Augé, T. (1992). Alluvial platinum‐group minerals from the Manampotsy area, East Madagascar. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 39(3), 389-404.
Cuprotungstite
Formula: Cu2(WO4)(OH)2
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Curite
Formula: Pb3(H2O)2[(UO2)4O4(OH)3]2
Reference: Behier, J. (1960): Contribution á la mineralogie de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar XXIX, Tananarive, p.32
Cuspidine
Formula: Ca4(Si2O7)(F,OH)2
Reference: Buick, I.S., Gibson, R., Wallmach, T. and Metz, J. 2000. The occurrence of cuspidine, foshagite and hillebrandite in calc-silicate xenoliths from the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. South African Journal of Geology, 103, 249-254.
Cyanotrichite
Formula: Cu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
Reference: Atanasova, M., Cairncross, B. and Windisch, W.R. (2016) Microminerals of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Popular Geoscience Series 6, Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa, pg 181
Cyrilovite
Formula: NaFe3+3(PO4)2(OH)4 · 2H2O
Reference: Behier, J. (1960): Contribution á la Minéralogie de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar XXIX, Tananarive, p.32
Danalite
Formula: Be3Fe2+4(SiO4)3S
Reference: Nimis, P., Molin, G., Visonà, D. (1996) Crystal chemistry of danalite from Daba Shabeli Complex (N Somalia). Mineralogical Magazine 60:2, 375-378.; Visonà, D. (1993). The Daba Shabeli gabbro-syenite complex: an element of the gabbro belt in the Northern Somali basement. Geology and mineral resources of Somalia and surrounding regions.(E. Abbate, M. Sagri and FP Sassi, eds.) Bull. 1st. Agronom. Oltremare, special issue, 113, 59-82.
Danburite
Formula: CaB2Si2O8
Localities: Reported from at least 19 localities in this region.
Reference: Gratacap, L. P. (1916): Some minerals from Madagascar as described in prof. A Lacroix's Mineralogie de France et ses colonies. American Mineralogist, 1: 17-34
Daqingshanite-(Ce)
Formula: (Sr,Ca,Ba)3(Ce,La)(CO3)3-x(PO4)(OH,F)2x
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189.; Wall, F. and Mariano, A.N. (1996) Rare earth minerals in carbonatites: a discussion centered on the Kangankunde carbonatite, Malawi. In: Rare Earth Minerals: Chemistry, Origin and Ore Deposits (A.P. Jones, F. Wall, & C.T. Williams, editors). Chapman & Hall, London, U.K. (193-225).
Datolite
Formula: CaB(SiO4)(OH)
Reference: [Gliddon, J. P. and Braithwaite, R. S. (1991) - Zeolites and associated minerals from the Palabora mine, Transvaal (Afrique du Sud), Mineralogical Record, 22 (4), 255-262.]; Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7
Daubréelite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2S4
Reference: Burrugato, F., & Faccenda, V. (1975): A new investigation of the Uegit meteorite. Meteoritics, 10, 75-84.
'Davidite'
Description: J.Behier (1963) uses the variety name "mazuvite".
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
Dawsonite
Formula: NaAlCO3(OH)2
Reference: Hay, Richard Le Roy (1964), Phillipsite of saline lakes and soils American Mineralogist: 49: 1366-87
Delafossite
Formula: CuFeO2
Reference: Atanasova, M., Cairncross, B. and Windisch, W.R. (2016) Microminerals of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Popular Geoscience Series 6, Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa, 146 pg
'Delessite'
Formula: (Mg,Fe,Fe,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(O,OH)8
Reference: Lacroix, A. (1922): Mineralogie de Madagascar, Tome I. Géologie-Minéralogie descriptive. A. Challamel (Éditeur), Paris. p 603
Delhayelite
Formula: (Na,K)10Ca5Al6Si32O80(Cl2,F2,SO4)3 · 18H2O
Reference: Dawson, J. B. (1998). Peralkaline nephelinite–natrocarbonatite relationships at Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania. Journal of Petrology, 39(11-12), 2077-2094.
Descloizite
Formula: PbZn(VO4)(OH)
Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.. The Geological Society of South Africa, 201 pp.
Dewindtite
Formula: H2Pb3(UO2)2(PO4)4O4 · 12H2O
Description: A mineral in the phosphuranylite-"renardite" series which contained 10 p. 100 PbO was interpreted by Behier (1960) as a renardite = dewindtite
Reference: Behier, J. (1960): Contribution á la mineralogie de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar XXIX, Tananarive, p 52
Diamond
Formula: C
Localities: Reported from at least 20 localities in this region.
Reference: Matheys, F. G., (1990), The alluvial diamond deposits of the lower Vaal river between Barkly West and the Vaal-Harts confluence in the Northern Cape Province, South Africa.
Diaspore
Formula: AlO(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Description: Inclusions in sapphire.
Reference: Rakotondrazafy, A.F.M., Giuliani, G., Ohnenstetter, D., Fallick, A.E., Rakotosamizanany, S., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., Razanatseheno, M., Offant, Y., Garnier, V., Maluski, H., Dunaigre, C., Schwarz, D., and Ratrimo, V. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 134-154.
Dickite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Cairncross, B. & Dixon, R. (1995). Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.. Geological Society of South Africa: Linden; Heron. H.D.C. (2004). Barite occurrences at Clairwood Quarries in Durban, Natal, South Africa. S.A. Lapidary Magazine, 36(3): 5-25.
Digenite
Formula: Cu9S5
Reference: Wolfgang Hampel
Dingdaohengite-(Ce)
Formula: (Ce,La)4Fe2+(Ti,Fe2+,Mg,Fe2+)2Ti2(Si2O7)2O8
Reference: http://www.mindat.org/mesg-104-349194.html
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 112 localities in this region.
Description: Gemmy green single crytsals found in a undisclosed place between Fenoarivo and Tsitondroina.
Reference: Knut Edvard Larsen collection # MM-1917
Diopside var. Chromium-bearing Diopside
Formula: Ca(Mg,Cr)Si2O6
Reference: Martins da Pedra photo and specimen.
Diopside var. Diallage
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
Dioptase
Formula: CuSiO3 · H2O
Reference: Rocks & Minerals 83:5 pp 410-421
Djerfisherite (TL)
Formula: K6(Fe,Cu,Ni)25S26Cl
Reference: Am Min 64 (1979), 776
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Localities: Reported from at least 41 localities in this region.
Reference: RRUFF ID: R060038
Donbassite
Formula: Al4.33(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: www.minsocam.org/msa/Handbook/Donbassite.PDF; Bailey S W, Lister J (1989) Structures, compositions, and X-ray diffraction identification of dioctahedral chlorites. Clays and Clay Minerals 37, 193-202
Doyleite
Formula: Al(OH)3
Reference: Atanasova, M., Cairncross, B. and Windisch, W.R. (2016) Microminerals of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Popular Geoscience Series 6, Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa
Dravite
Formula: Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 30 localities in this region.
Reference: Bruyère, D., Delor, C., Raoul, J. A, Rakotondranaivo, R., Willie, G. Maubec & Lahfid, A. (2016) New Deposit of Gem-Quality Grandidierite in Madagascar. Gems & Gemology: 52 (3): 266-275
Dravite var. Chromium-bearing Dravite
Formula: Na((Mg,Cr)3)(Al,Cr)6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Reference: [www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]
'Dravite-Schorl Series'
Reference: Nicollet, C. (1990) Occurrences of grandidierite, serendibite and tourmaline near Ihosy, southern Madagascar. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 54, n° 374, 131-133.
'Dravite-Uvite Series'
Reference: Novák, M., Cempírek, J., Gadas, P., Škoda, R., Galiová, M. V., Pezzotta, F. and Groat, L. A. (2015): Boralsilite and Li, Be-bearing "Boron Mullite" Al8B2Si2O19, Breakdown products of spodumene from the Manjaka pegmatite, Sahatany valley, Madagascar. Canadian Mineralogist. 53: 357-374
Dufrénite
Formula: Ca0.5Fe2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2O
Reference: Behier, J. (1960): Contribution á la Minéralogie de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar XXIX, Tananarive, p.32
Duftite
Formula: PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Dumortierite
Formula: (Al,Fe3+)7(SiO4)3(BO3)O3
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Habit: small fibrous masses
Colour: lavendel blue
Reference: Lacroix, A. (1922): Mineralogie de Madagascar, Tome I. Géologie-Minéralogie descriptive. A.Challamel (Éditeur), Paris. p 401-403
Dyscrasite
Formula: Ag3Sb
Reference: Behier, J. (1960): Contribution á la Minéralogie de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar XXIX, Tananarive, 78p [p.35]
Eckermannite ?
Formula: NaNa2(Mg4Al}Si8O22(OH)2
Description: Need to be checked if it can be assigned to eckermannite according to the redefinition by IMA (IMA2013-136).
Reference: Rakotovao, S. R. (2009): Les minéralisations associées aux intrusions alcalines d’Ampasindava.- Ph.D. study, University of Antananarivo, 189 pages.
Edenite
Formula: NaCa2Mg5(Si7Al)O22OH2
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: Nédélec, A. & Grujic, D. (2001) Un nouvel exemple de magmatisme potassique à ultrapotassique: les syénites de l’Andringitra (Madagascar). Earth and Planetary Sciences, 332:739–74
Eglestonite
Formula: [Hg2]2+3OCl3(OH)
Description: Occurs as a yellow powder associated with mercury and cinnabar
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 52; Cairncross, B., and Dixon, R., (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.. Geological Society of South Africa;
Elbaite
Formula: Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 36 localities in this region.
Colour: pink, green, brown
Description: See comments under tourmaline entry at Antandrokomby locality page. Ranorosoa (1986, 1989) analyzes pink,green and brownish colored tourmaline found in the contactzone and she find these to be elbaite, one an elbaite with 2,44wt% MnO. The brown colored gave this formula Na0,52Ca0,38)0,90(Li1,45Mn0,34Fe0,08Al1,77)3,64Al6,00(BO3)3,00Si6,00O18(OH3,63F0,09)3,72. Simmons et al (2001) states that tourmalines from Antandrokomby are members of the schorl-elbaite series with significant Mg and Ca contents.
Reference: Ranorosoa, N. (1986): Etude mineralogique des pegmatites du champ de la Sahatany, Madagascar. These de Doctorat de l`Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse.
Elbaite var. Chromium-bearing Elbaite
Formula: Na(Li1.5Al1.5)(Al,Cr)6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Description: Shows the so called Usambara effect, with hue changing from green to red with increases in path length of light through the material.
Reference: Journal of Gemmology 1999, Volume 26 No. 6, 386-96
Elbaite var. Copper-bearing Elbaite
Formula: Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Description: While its colors are somewhat less bright than top Brazilian material, Mozambique paraiba is often less included and has been found in larger sizes.
Reference: http://www.gia.edu/loupeonline/29962/30252/2724/current_issue_detail.cfm ; Ludwig, T., Marschall, H. R., von Strandmann, P. P., Shabaga, B. M., Fayek, M., & Hawthorne, F. C. (2011). A secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) re-evaluation of B and Li isotopic compositions of Cu-bearing elbaite from three global localities. Mineralogical Magazine, 75(4), 2485-2494.
'Elbaite-Liddicoatite Series'
Reference: Pers. com Dr. Federico Pezzotta to Knut Edvard Larsen mai 2007.
'Elbaite-Schorl Series'
Reference: Nizamoff, J.W.; Falster, A.U.; Pezzota, F. ; Simmons, W.B.; Hanson, S.L. and Webber, K.L. (2000): Recent mining at the Antandrokomby pegmatite, Madagascar. 26th Rochester Mineralogical Symposium. Rocks & Minerals, july 2000. ; Simmons, W.B., Webber, K.L., Falster, A.U., & Nizamoff, J. W. (2001): Gem tourmaline chemistry and paragenesis. Australian gemmologist 21, number 01
Elpidite
Formula: Na2ZrSi6O15 · 3H2O
Reference: No reference listed
Elyite
Formula: Pb4Cu(SO4)O2(OH)4 · H2O
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Embreyite
Formula: Pb5(CrO4)2(PO4)2 · H2O
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Emplectite ?
Formula: CuBiS2
Reference: Oberthür, T., Melcher, F., Fusswinkel, T., van den Kerkhof, A. M., & Sosa, G. M. (2018). The hydrothermal Waterberg platinum deposit, Mookgophong (Naboomspruit), South Africa. Part 1: Geochemistry and ore mineralogy. Mineralogical Magazine, 82(3), 725-749.
Enargite
Formula: Cu3AsS4
Description: Found with gold.
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.. Cairncross, B. and Anhaeusser, C.R., (1992), Gold in South Africa. Mineralogical Record: 23(3): 215
Enstatite
Formula: Mg2Si2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 21 localities in this region.
Reference: Cabri, L. J., Wilhelmij, H. R., & Eksteen, J. J. (2017). Contrasting mineralogical and processing potential of two mineralization types in the platinum group element and Ni-bearing Kapalagulu Intrusion, western Tanzania. Ore Geology Reviews, 90, 772-789.; Wilhelmij, H.R. and Cabri, L.J. (2016) Platinum mineralization in the Kapalagulu Intrusion, western Tanzania. Mineralium Deposita, 51(3), 343-367.
Enstatite var. Bronzite
Formula: (Mg,Fe2+)2[SiO3]2
Reference: Razakamanana, T., Ackermand, D. and Windley, B. F. (2006 ): Metamorphic evolution of sapphirine-bearing rocks from Vohidava area, Southern Madagascar: Structural and tectonic implication. Proceedings of the German-Malagasy Research Cooperation in Life and Earth Sciences edited by C Schwitzer, S Brandt et al. p 41-60
Eosphorite
Formula: Mn2+Al(PO4)(OH)2 · H2O
Reference: Dias, M. Bettencourt and Wilson, W. E., 2000, Mineralogical Record, 31:459-497.
Epididymite
Formula: Na2Be2Si6O15 · H2O
Reference: Jordi Fabre
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 64 localities in this region.
Reference: Serge Lavarde collection
Epsomite
Formula: MgSO4 · 7H2O
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
'Erionite'
Formula: $m2[Al4Si14O36] · 15H2O
Reference: Hay, Richard Le Roy (1964), Phillipsite of saline lakes and soils American Mineralogist: 49: 1366-87
Erlichmanite
Formula: OsS2
Reference: Augé, T. & Legendre, O. (1992): Pt-Fe nuggets from alluvial deposits in eastern Madagascar. Canadian Mineralogist 30, 983-1004; Legendre, O., & Augé, T. (1992). Alluvial platinum‐group minerals from the Manampotsy area, East Madagascar. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 39(3), 389-404.
Erythrite
Formula: Co3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Habit: Prismatic, acicular radiating aggregates
Colour: Various colours white, cream, pink to pale pink and pale rose, peach, dark and light purple
Description: Found in cracks and vugs near to the sulphide ore vein.
Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.. The Geological Society of South Africa: 204; Reeks, G. (1996) The Kruisrivier Cobalt Mine - Transvaal (South Africa). Mineralogical Record, 27(6), 417-428; Windisch, W. (2014) An introduction to micromounting; Atanasova, M., Cairncross, B. and Windisch, W.R. (2016) Microminerals of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Popular Geoscience Series 6, Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa, 435 pp
Euclase
Formula: BeAl(SiO4)(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Arliguie M photo & specimen
Eudialyte
Formula: Na15Ca6Fe3Zr3Si(Si25O73)(O,OH,H2O)3(Cl,OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Reference: Lacroix, A. (1922): Mineralogie de Madagascar, Tome I. Géologie-Minéralogie descriptive. A.Challamel (Éditeur), Paris. 624p (p.589)
Eudidymite
Formula: Na2Be2Si6O15 · H2O
Reference: Cairncross, B., Messner, K & Farquharson, E. (1999): Die Pegmatite des Mount Malosa bei Zomba, Malawi. LAPIS 24 (4), 22-32; Diego Gatta, G., N. Rotiroti, G.J. McIntyre, A. Guastoni & F. Nestola (2008): New insights into the crystal chemistry of epididymite and eudidymite from Malosa, Malawi: A single-crystal neutron diffraction study. American Mineralogist 93, 1158-1165.; American Mineralogist, Volume 94, pages 1216–1222, 2009; Mineralogical Record (1997) 28:64
Eugsterite (TL)
Formula: Na4Ca(SO4)3 · 2H2O
Reference: Vergouwen, L. (1981) Eugsterite, a new salt mineral. American Mineralogist, 66, 632-636.
Euxenite-(Y)
Formula: (Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 66 localities in this region.
Reference: Moiana, M. (2010) Certeza geológica da ocorrência e viabilidade económica para o aproveitamento dos Berilos" True Blue" de Licungo, Zambézia, Moçambique (Doctoral dissertation Universidade do Minho).
Evansite
Formula: Al3(PO4)(OH)6 · 6H2O
Habit: colloform
Colour: white
Reference: Lacroix, A. (1922): Mineralogie de Madagascar, Tome I. Géologie-Minéralogie descriptive. A.Challamel (Éditeur), Paris. p 359. ; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 923.
Ezcurrite
Formula: Na4B10O17 · 7H2O
Reference: Thomas, R. & Davidson, P. (2010): Hambergite-rich melt inclusions in morganite crystals from the Muiane pegmatite, Mozambique and some remarks on the paragenesis of hambergite. Mineralogy and Petrology, 100, 227-239.
Famatinite
Formula: Cu3SbS4
Description: Found with gold.
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.. Cairncross, B. and Anhaeusser, C.R., (1992), Gold in South Africa. Mineralogical Record: 23(3): 215
'Faratsihite' (FRL)
Type Locality:
Habit: massive
Colour: white creme
Description: The typematerial of the now discredited faratshite was found in a roadcut about 10 km from Faratsiho on the road to Sambaina. It was found in an altered volcanique rock (basalt or trachyte)as an elliptical mass of 2 x 1 meter
Reference: Behier, J. (1960): Contribution á la Minéralogie de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar XXIX, Tananarive.
Fayalite
Formula: Fe2+2SiO4
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'
Localities: Reported from at least 48 localities in this region.
Reference: Cabri, L. J., Wilhelmij, H. R., & Eksteen, J. J. (2017). Contrasting mineralogical and processing potential of two mineralization types in the platinum group element and Ni-bearing Kapalagulu Intrusion, western Tanzania. Ore Geology Reviews, 90, 772-789.; Wilhelmij, H.R. and Cabri, L.J. (2016) Platinum mineralization in the Kapalagulu Intrusion, western Tanzania. Mineralium Deposita, 51(3), 343-367.
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series var. Hortonolite'
Formula: from (Fe1.5Mg0.5)2SiO4 to (Mg1.5Fe0.5)2SiO4
Reference: Pavel M. Kartashov data
'Feldspar Group'
Localities: Reported from at least 100 localities in this region.
Reference: Guigues, J. (1955): Etude des gisements de pegmatite de Madagascar (Deuxième partie). Travaux du Bureau Géologiques de Madagascar 67, Service Geologique, Tananarive, p 9-11
'Feldspar Group var. Antiperthite'
Reference: Lacroix, A. (1939): La lamboanite, schiste cristallin à faciès gneissique dépourvu de quartz et à pegmatite à cordiérite qui l'accompagne à Ankaditany (S. Madagascar) . Bulletin de Minéralogie 62: 289-298
'Feldspar Group var. Perthite'
Localities: Reported from at least 39 localities in this region.
Reference: Guigues, J. (1955): Etude des gisements de pegmatite de Madagascar (Deuxième partie). Travaux du Bureau Géologiques de Madagascar 67, Service Geologique, Tananarive, p 9-11
Ferberite
Formula: FeWO4
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
Ferberite var. Reinite
Formula: FeWO4
Reference: Excalibur-Cureton specimens
'Fergusonite'
Localities: Reported from at least 21 localities in this region.
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
'Fergusonite-(Nd)'
Formula: NdNbO4
Reference: Giebel, R.J., Gauert, C.D.K., Marks, M.A.W., Costin, G., and Markl, G. (2017) Multi-stage formation of REE minerals in the Palabora Carbonatite Complex, South Africa. American Mineralogist, 102, 1218-1233.
Fergusonite-(Y)
Formula: YNbO4
Localities: Reported from at least 14 localities in this region.
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
Ferriallanite-(Ce)
Formula: {CaCe}{Fe3+AlFe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Estrade, G., et al. (2014): REE and HFSE mineralization in peralkaline granites of the Ambohimirahavavy alkaline complex, Ampasindava peninsula, Madagascar. Journal of African Earth Sciences. 94: 141–155
Ferricerite-(La)
Formula: (La,Ce,Ca)9Fe3+(SiO4)3(SiO3OH)4(OH)3
Reference: G. Estrade/University of Toulouse personal communication to W.Hampel, 2011
Ferricopiapite
Formula: Fe3+0.67Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Reference: Cairncross, B. & Dixon, R. (1995). Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.. Geological Society of South Africa: Linden; Heron, H.D.C. (1994). Siderite assemblages from Clairwood Quarries, Durban, Natal. Micro News and Views, 20(2): 3-7.
'Ferrierite'
Reference: Forner, H.. Gautier, F. & Thomas, L. (2001) Les macles de quartz de la région d`Andilamena, Madagascar. Le Règne Minéral, nr. 39, 42-46.
Ferrimolybdite
Formula: Fe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Ferrisicklerite
Formula: Li1-x(Fe3+xFe2+1-x)PO4
Reference: Royal Museum for Central Africa, Belgium Collection, # 9914
'Ferritchromit'
Reference: Grieco, G., Merlini, A., Cazzaniga, A., & Moroni, M. (2010). Platinum Group Minerals of Ranomena chromitite, Tamatave district, Madagascar. In General Meeting of the International Mineralogiacl Association: Bonds and bridges. Department of Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Petrology, University of Szeged (Hungary).
Ferri-winchite
Formula: ◻[CaNa][Mg4(Fe3+,Al)]Si8O22(OH)2
Description: Deep black-blue bladed single crystals embedded in dolomite
Reference: RRUFF ID: R060038
Ferro-actinolite
Formula: ◻Ca2Fe2+5(Si8O22)OH2
Reference: Rocks & Minerals 83:5 pp 410-421
Ferroalluaudite
Formula: (Na,Ca)Fe2+(Fe3+,Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)3
Reference: Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
'Ferro-eckermannite'
Formula: NaNa2(Fe2+4Al)Si8O22(OH)2
Reference: Rakotovao, S. (2009): Les minéralisations associées aux intrusions alcalines d’Ampasindava.- Ph.D. study, University of Antananarivo, 189 pages.
Ferro-edenite
Formula: NaCa2Fe2+5(Si7Al)O22OH2
Reference: Mukosi, Ndivhuwo Cecilia (2012): Petrogenesis of the Ambohiby Complex, Madagascar and the role of the Marion Hotspot Plume. Thesis (MSc)-Stellenbosch University, 2012
Ferro-ferri-fluoro-leakeite
Formula: Na(Na2)(Fe2+2Fe3+2Li)(Si8O22)(F)2
Reference: Estrade, G. (2014): Le complexe cénozoïque alcalin d’Ambohimirahavavy à Madagascar: origine, évolution et minéralisations en métaux rares.- thèse de doctorat; Université de Toulouse, 256 pages + annexes.
Ferrohexahydrite
Formula: FeSO4 · 6H2O
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Ferrohögbomite-2N2S
Formula: [(Fe2+,Mg,Zn,Al)3(Al,Ti,Fe3+)8O15(OH)]2
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Rakotonandrasana, N. O. T., Arima, M., Miyawaki, R. & Rambeloson, R.A. (2010): Widespread Occurrences of Högbomite-2N2S in UHT Metapelites from the Betroka Belt, Southern Madagascar: Implications on Melt or Fluid Activity during Regional Metamorphism. Journal of Petrology: 51 (4):869–895; Rakotonandrasana, N. O. T., Arima, M., Miyawaki, R. & Rambeloson, R.A. (2010): Widespread Occurrences of Högbomite-2N2S in UHT Metapelites from the Betroka Belt, Southern Madagascar: Implications on Melt or Fluid Activity during Regional Metamorphism. Journal of Petrology: 51 (4):869–895
'Ferrohögbomite-6N12S'
Formula: [(Fe2+,Mg,Zn)5(Al,Ti,Fe3+)12O23(OH)]6
Reference: T. Armbruster (2002) Revised nomenclature of högbomite, nigerite, and taaffeite minerals.- Eur. Journ. Mineralogy 14, 389-395
Ferro-katophorite
Formula: {Na}{CaNa}{Fe2+4Al}[(AlSi7)O22](OH)2
Reference: Wooley (2001)
Ferronickelplatinum
Formula: Pt2FeNi
Reference: www.bgr.de/b423/oberthuer_ptconf_pgm_bushveld.pdf.; www.cosis.net/abstracts/EAE03/11407/EAE03-A-11407.pdf.
Ferro-richterite
Formula: {Na}{CaNa}{Fe2+5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Wooley (2001)
Ferrorosemaryite (TL)
Formula: ◻NaFe2+Fe3+Al(PO4)3
Type Locality:
Colour: Dark green to bronze
Reference: European Journal of Mineralogy: 17(5): 749-759.; Lefèvre, P., Fransolet, A. M., Fontan, F., & Keller, P. Petrographic study of the Al-rich phosphate mineral associations of the Rubindi-Kabilizi pegmatite, Gatumba area, Rwanda.
Ferrosilite
Formula: FeSiO3
Reference: Rocky Mountain (53rd) and South-Central (35th) Sections, GSA, Joint Annual Meeting (April 29–May 2, 2001) Session No. 7-Booth# 38.
Ferrowodginite
Formula: Fe2+Sn4+Ta2O8
Reference: Excalibur Mineral Co. specimen
Fersmite
Formula: (Ca,Ce,Na)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2(O,OH,F)6
Reference: De Vito et al (2006): Nb-Ti-Ta oxides in the gem-mineralized and "hybrid" Anjanabonoina granitic pegmatite, central Madagascar: A record of magmatic and postmagmatic events. Canadian Mineralogist. 44: 87-103.
Feruvite ?
Formula: Ca(Fe2+)3MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Description: No published analysis or other information. Samples visually identical to samples sold as feruvite in mineral shows has showed to be dravite.(K.E.Larsen commment des 2011)
Reference: Gunnar Färber, Samswegen, 2005
Fiedlerite
Formula: Pb3FCl4(OH) · H2O
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Fillowite
Formula: Na3CaMn2+11(PO4)9
Reference: American Mineralogist, Volume 66, pages 827-842, 1981
'Florencite'
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Description: Listed as crandalite-florencite in Lehman et al (1994)
Reference: Lehmann, et al. (1994): REE mineralization at Gakara, Burundi. Evidence for anomalous upper mantle in the western Rift Valley. Geochimicae et Cosmochimica Acta, 58 (2), 985-992
Florencite-(Ce)
Formula: CeAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Dias, M. Bettencourt and Wilson, W. E., 2000, Mineralogical Record, 31:459-497.
Florencite-(Nd)
Formula: NdAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Atanasova, M., Cairncross, B. and Windisch, W.R. (2016) Microminerals of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Popular Geoscience Series 6, Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa, pg 181
Fluoborite
Formula: Mg3(BO3)(F,OH)3
Colour: White
Description: Found in foskorite rocks of the Phalaborwa complex as white mats grown in parallel alignment, associated with Iowaite and Magnetite.
Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.. The Geological Society of South Africa: 206.; Braithwaite, R. S. W., Dunn, P. J., Pritchard, R. G., & Parr, W. H. (1994). Iowaite, a reinvestigation. Mineralogical Magazine, 58(390), 77-86.; Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7
'Fluocerite'
Reference: Rasoamalala, V., Salvi, S., Béziat, D., Ursule, J.-Ph., Cuney, M., Parseval, Ph. de, Guillaume, D., Moine, B. & Andriamampihantona, J. (2014): Geology of bastnaesite and monazite deposits in the Ambatofinandrahana area, central part of Madagascar: An overview. Journal of African Earth Sciences. 94, 128-140
Fluocerite-(Ce)
Formula: (Ce,La)F3
Reference: Atanasova, M., Cairncross, B. and Windisch, W.R. (2016) Microminerals of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Popular Geoscience Series 6, Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa, 79 pg
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Localities: Reported from at least 60 localities in this region.
Description: Pale blue crystals show strong pleochroism. Some crystals contain 3-phase inclusions, including graphite crystals.
Reference: Mineralogical Record (2009) 40:347-408. Rocks and Minerals (2013) 88(2):179-183.; Bindi, L.; Jaszczak, J.A. (2020) Richardsite, Zn2CuGaS4, A New Gallium-Essential Member of the Stannite Group from the Gem Mines near Merelani, Tanzania. Minerals 10, 467.
Fluorapatite var. Carbonate-rich Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(F,O)
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: http://www.portergeo.com.au/database/mineinfo.asp?mineid=mn1523
Fluorapatite var. Manganese-bearing Fluorapatite
Formula: (Ca,Mn2+)5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH) or Ca5([P,Mn5+]O4)3(F,Cl,OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Lacroix, A. (1922): Mineralogie de Madagascar, Tome I. Géologie-Minéralogie descriptive. A.Challamel (Éditeur), Paris. p 353
Fluorapophyllite-(K)
Formula: KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Praszkier, T. (2010): Calcite and Zeolites from Sambava,Madagascar. Mineralogical Record 41, 239-252.
Fluorbritholite-(Ce)
Formula: (Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3F
Reference: Giebel, R.J., Gauert, C.D.K., Marks, M.A.W., Costin, G., and Markl, G. (2017) Multi-stage formation of REE minerals in the Palabora Carbonatite Complex, South Africa. American Mineralogist, 102, 1218-1233.
Fluorcalciomicrolite
Formula: (Ca,Na)2(Ta,Nb)2O6F
Reference: RRUFF ID: R130022
Fluorcalciopyrochlore
Formula: (Ca,Na)2(Nb, Ti)2O6F
Reference: Estrade, G. (2014): Le complexe cénozoïque alcalin d’Ambohimirahavavy à Madagascar: origine, évolution et minéralisations en métaux rares.- thèse de doctorat; Université de Toulouse, 256 pages + annexes.
Fluor-dravite
Formula: Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Reference: Neiva, Ana M.R.; Leal Gomes, Carlos A.A. (2012): Tourmaline-group minerals in the Naipa Li-Cs-Ta granitic pegmatite group, Mozambique: tracers of magmatic to post-magmatic evolution trends. Neues Jahrbuch fur Mineralogie - Abhandlungen, 189, 1-20.
Fluor-elbaite
Formula: Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Description: dark blue Fe-rich fluor-elbaite
Reference: Buřival, Z. & Novàk, M. (2015): Hydrothermal replacement of garnet by tourmaline in elbaite subtype LCT pegmatites. In PEG 2015: 7th International Symposium on Granitic Pegmatites. 2015.
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Localities: Reported from at least 85 localities in this region.
Reference: Lebocey, J. & De Ascenção Guedes, R. (2018) Tuscon 2018! Le Règne Minéral 140:17-20
Fluor-liddicoatite (TL)
Formula: Ca(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Dunn, P. J., Appleman, D.E. & Nelen, J.E. (1977): Liddicoatite, a new calcium end-member of the tourmaline group. American Mineralogist 62, 1121-1124; Henry, D., Novák, M., Hawthorne, F.C., Ertl, A., Dutrow, B.L., Uher, P. & Pezzotta, F. (2011): Nomenclature of the tourmaline supergroup minerals. Am. Mineral., 96, 895-913.
Fluornatromicrolite
Formula: (Na1.5Bi0.5)Ta2O6F
Habit: Octahedrons to 3cm
Reference: Mineralogical Record (2001) 32:252
Fluornatropyrochlore
Formula: (Na,Pb,Ca,REE,U)2Nb2O6F
Reference: Estrade, G. (2014): Le complexe cénozoïque alcalin d’Ambohimirahavavy à Madagascar: origine, évolution et minéralisations en métaux rares.- thèse de doctorat; Université de Toulouse, 256 pages + annexes.
Fluoro-pargasite
Formula: NaCa2(Mg4Al)(Si6Al2)O22F2
Reference: Gunnar Färber
Fluorophlogopite
Formula: KMg3(Si3Al)O10F2
Reference: http://www.minsocam.org/msa/special/pig/PIG_articles/Madagascar_txt.pdf
'Fluor-uvite-Uvite Series'
Habit: Poikilitic
Colour: blue
Description: a magnesian uvite
Reference: Nicollet, C. (1990) Occurrences of grandidierite, serendibite and tourmaline near Ihosy, southern Madagascar. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 54, n° 374, 131-133.
Foordite (TL)
Formula: Sn2+(Nb,Ta)2O6
Type Locality:
Colour: brownish yellow with a greenish tint
Description: Daltry and von Knorring (1998): "it occurs in contact with stannoan plumbomicrolite, cassiterite, ferro-columbite, staringite, and ixiolite. Foordite from Lutsiro is in fact a lead-bearing variety."
Reference: Cerny, P., Fransolet, A.-M., Ercit, T.S., and Chapman, R. (1988) Foordite SnNb2O6 a new mineral species, and the foordite-thoreaulite series. Canadian Mineralogist: 26: 889-898.; Jambor, J. and Vanko, D.A. (1990) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 75: 707.; Daltry, V.D.C. and von Knorring, O. (1998) Type-mineralogy of Rwanda with particular reference to the Buranga pegmatite. Geologica Belgica: 1: 9-15.
Fornacite
Formula: Pb2Cu(CrO4)(AsO4)(OH)
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Forsterite
Formula: Mg2SiO4
Localities: Reported from at least 26 localities in this region.
Description: Olivine with Fo84-87
Reference: McDonald, I., Ohnenstetter, D., Ohnenstetter, M., and Vaughan, D.J. (1999): Palladium oxides in ultramafic complexes near Lavatrafo, western Andriamena, Madagascar. Mineralogical Magazine. 63: 345-352.
Foshagite
Formula: Ca4(Si3O9)(OH)2
Reference: Buick, I.S., Gibson, R., Wallmach, T. and Metz, J. 2000. The occurrence of cuspidine, foshagite and hillebrandite in calc-silicate xenoliths from the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. South African Journal of Geology, 103, 249-254.
Franklinite
Formula: Zn2+Fe3+2O4