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N'Chwaning I Mine, N'Chwaning Mines, Kuruman, Kalahari manganese field, Northern Cape Province, South Africa

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 27° 8' 7'' South , 22° 52' 13'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): -27.13528,22.87028
Other regions containing this locality:Kalahari Desert, Africa
Köppen climate type:BSh : Hot semi-arid (steppe) climate

A closed manganese mine owned by Assoc. Manganese Mines of South Africa, Ltd.
The north-western areas, where mining began, were noted for the presence of exceptional rhodochrosite specimens associated with mainly manganite and drusy secondary quartz. The ore consisted here mainly of the Hotazel Supergroup. Later mining shifted to the southern areas. Here well crystallized hausmannite, barite, hydroxyapophyllite, inesite, brucite and celestine where found and rhodochrosite became a rarity.(Extract from Cairncross et al, 1995)

Note: Majority of the red rhodochrosite specimens are from this mine and not N'Chwaning II mine.

Mineral List

48 valid minerals. 2 erroneous literature entries.

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on

Quaternary - Tertiary
0 - 66 Ma

ID: 3185837
Cenozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Cenozoic (0 - 66 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

0 - 66 Ma

ID: 2233217
Kalahari Group

Age: Cenozoic (0 - 66 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Kalahari Group

Description: Superficial deposits comprising gravels, clays, sandstone, silcrete, calcrete and aeolian sand

Reference: Council for Geoscience. Geologic map of South Africa, 1:1M. National Science Councils of South Africa. [41]

Pleistocene - Paleogene
0.0117 - 66 Ma

ID: 3306660

Age: Cenozoic (0.0117 - 66 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary

Reference: Thiéblemont, D. (ed.). New edition of the 1:10,000,000 geological map of Africa. CGMW-BRGM. [190]

Data and map coding provided by, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

This page contains all mineral locality references listed on This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.


Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Mining Annual Review (1985): 90.
Rocks & Minerals (1986): 61: 7.
Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa.
Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
Cairncross, B., Beukes, N. and Gutzmer, J. (1997): The Manganese Adventure – The South African Manganese Fields. Associated Ore & Metal Corporation Limited, Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa.
Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa.
Cairncross, B. & Balayer, P. (2007): Neufund: Shigait aus den Kalahari-Manganfeldern, Südafrika. LAPIS 32 (4): 23-26 + 50.
Cairncross, B., and Beukes, N. J., (2013) The Kalahari Manganese Field, the adventure continues. Struik Nature Publishers, Cape Town, South Africa.
Cairncross, B. (2016). Shigaite: Connoisseur’s Choice. Rocks & Minerals, 91, 150-153.

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