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N'Chwaning I Mine, N'Chwaning Mines, Kuruman, Kalahari manganese field, Northern Cape Province, South Africa

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 27° 8' 7'' South , 22° 52' 13'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): -27.13528,22.87028
GeoHash:G#: ke0m8kjts
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:BSh : Hot semi-arid (steppe) climate


A closed manganese mine owned by Assoc. Manganese Mines of South Africa, Ltd.
The north-western areas, where mining began, were noted for the presence of exceptional rhodochrosite specimens associated with mainly manganite and drusy secondary quartz. The ore consisted here mainly of the Hotazel Supergroup. Later mining shifted to the southern areas. Here well crystallized hausmannite, barite, hydroxyapophyllite, inesite, brucite and celestine where found and rhodochrosite became a rarity.(Extract from Cairncross et al, 1995)

Note: Majority of the red rhodochrosite specimens are from this mine and not N'Chwaning II mine.

Alternative Label Names

This is a list of additional names that have been recorded for mineral labels associated with this locality in the minID database. This may include previous versions of the locality name hierarchy from mindat.org, data entry errors, and it may also include unconfirmed sublocality names or other names that can only be matched to this level.

N'Chwaning I Mine, N'Chwaning Mines, Kuruman, Kalahari manganese fields, Northern Cape Province, South Africa

Regions containing this locality

Kalahari Desert, Africa

Desert - 259 mineral species & varietal names listed

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


48 valid minerals. 2 erroneous literature entries.

Detailed Mineral List:

Afwillite
Formula: Ca3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2O
Reference: [Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field : an update, Mineralogical Record, 22 (3), 279-302.]
Andradite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Reference: [Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field : an update, Mineralogical Record, 22 (3), 279-302.]; various added photos
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: [Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field : an update, Mineralogical Record, 22 (3), 279-302.]
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Habit: Tabular
Description: Tabular crystals up to 10cm on edge are recorded from here.
Reference: [Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field : an update, Mineralogical Record, 22 (3), 279-302.] Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa: 186.
Bixbyite
Formula: Mn3+2O3
Reference: [Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field : an update, Mineralogical Record, 22 (3), 279-302.]
Braunite
Formula: Mn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8
Reference: [Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field : an update, Mineralogical Record, 22 (3), 279-302.]
Brucite
Formula: Mg(OH)2
Reference: [Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field : an update, Mineralogical Record, 22 (3), 279-302.]
Bultfonteinite
Formula: Ca2(HSiO4)F · H2O
Reference: [Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field : an update, Mineralogical Record, 22 (3), 279-302.]
Bustamite
Formula: CaMn2+(Si2O6)
Reference: [Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field : an update, Mineralogical Record, 22 (3), 279-302.]
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: [Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field : an update, Mineralogical Record, 22 (3), 279-302.]
Caryopilite
Formula: Mn2+3Si2O5(OH)4
Reference: [Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field : an update, Mineralogical Record, 22 (3), 279-302.]
Celestine
Formula: SrSO4
Habit: Blocky
Colour: Pale blue
Description: Celestine crystals are found on calcite at this mine.
Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa: 194. Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 66.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: [Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field : an update, Mineralogical Record, 22 (3), 279-302.]
Creedite
Formula: Ca3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
Reference: [Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field : an update, Mineralogical Record, 22 (3), 279-302.]
Ettringite
Formula: Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
Reference: No reference listed
Friedelite
Formula: Mn2+8Si6O15(OH,Cl)10
Reference: [Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field : an update, Mineralogical Record, 22 (3), 279-302.]
Gageite
Formula: Mn21(Si4O12)2O3(OH)20
Reference: Cairncross, B., and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa, Linden, RSA; Cairncross, B., and Beukes, N. J., (2013) The Kalahari Manganese Field, the adventure continues. Struik Nature Publishers, Cape Town, South Africa
'Gageite-2M'
Formula: (Mn,Mg,Zn)42Si16O54(OH)40
Reference: www.excaliburmineral.com
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: [Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field : an update, Mineralogical Record, 22 (3), 279-302.]
Gatehouseite
Formula: Mn2+5(PO4)2(OH)4
Habit: Acicular
Colour: Yellow
Description: Occurs in the shigaite zone associated with baryte, rhodochrosite and shigaite.
Reference: Personally communication between Bruce Cairncross and Frank Hawthorne who quatitatively identified a second, virtually identical specimen of gatehouseite
Gaudefroyite
Formula: Ca4Mn3+2-3(BO3)3(CO3)(O,OH)3
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: an update. Mineralogical Record, 22(4), 279-302.
Glauconite
Formula: (K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Reference: [Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field : an update, Mineralogical Record, 22 (3), 279-302.]
Gowerite
Formula: Ca[B5O8(OH)][B(OH)3] · 3H2O
Reference: [Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field : an update, Mineralogical Record, 22 (3), 279-302.]
Groutite
Formula: Mn3+O(OH)
Reference: [Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field : an update, Mineralogical Record, 22 (3), 279-302.]
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: [Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field : an update, Mineralogical Record, 22 (3), 279-302.]
Hausmannite
Formula: Mn2+Mn3+2O4
Reference: [Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field : an update, Mineralogical Record, 22 (3), 279-302.]
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: [Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field : an update, Mineralogical Record, 22 (3), 279-302.
Henritermierite
Formula: Ca3(Mn3+,Al)2(SiO4)2(OH)4
Reference: [Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field : an update, Mineralogical Record, 22 (3), 279-302.]
Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)
Formula: KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
Reference: [Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field : an update, Mineralogical Record, 22 (3), 279-302.]
Inesite
Formula: Ca2(Mn,Fe)7Si10O28(OH)2 · 5H2O
Jouravskite
Formula: Ca3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2O
Reference: [Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field : an update, Mineralogical Record, 22 (3), 279-302.]
Kutnohorite
Formula: CaMn2+(CO3)2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Lepidocrocite
Formula: γ-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: [Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field : an update, Mineralogical Record, 22 (3), 279-302.]
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: [Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field : an update, Mineralogical Record, 22 (3), 279-302.]
Manganite
Formula: Mn3+O(OH)
Reference: Bruce Cairncross (2000) The Desmond Sacco Collection
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: [Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field : an update, Mineralogical Record, 22 (3), 279-302.]
Orlymanite
Formula: Ca4Mn3Si8O20(OH)6 · 2H2O
Description: Not known/recorded from this mine.
Oyelite
Formula: Ca10Si8B2O29 · 12.5H2O
Reference: [Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field : an update, Mineralogical Record, 22 (3), 279-302.]
Poldervaartite
Formula: CaCa[SiO3(OH)](OH)
Reference: No reference listed
Portlandite
Formula: Ca(OH)2
Reference: [Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field : an update, Mineralogical Record, 22 (3), 279-302.]
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: [Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field : an update, Mineralogical Record, 22 (3), 279-302.]
Pyrochroite
Formula: Mn(OH)2
Reference: [Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field : an update, Mineralogical Record, 22 (3), 279-302.]
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Y.Okazaki collection
Quartz var: Chalcedony
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Rhodochrosite
Formula: MnCO3
Habit: Scalenohedrons to 7cm, "wheat sheaf", spherical aggregates, rhombohedrons, fan shaped groups
Colour: Wine-red to pale pink
Description: Numerous pockets of rhodochrosite crystals were found during the shaft sinking as well as mining with major discoveries in 1976-1978. The largest pocket measured 0.5 by 1.0 meter in size and produced a 100kg specimen. The red scalenohedrons were sold for 4 figure prices during the 1970's and 1980's. Habits Scalenohedron: The scalenohedral habit was relatively common and one could obtain single crystals as well as plates containing many crystals. Wheat sheaf: The wheat sheaf habit consists of a central group of pale pink crystals becoming clearer and redder toward the terminations. Spherical aggregates: Spheres of rhodochrosite are extremely rare, with a purported dozen specimens in total. Fan shaped aggregates: Fan shaped aggregates are also believed to be extremely rare. Scalenohedrons with a flat terminations
Reference: Wilson and Dunn (1978) Famous Mineral Localities: The Kalahari manganese field. Min Rec 22:137-153; Caircross, Beukes, Gutzmer (1997) The manganese adventure.; Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field : an update, Min.Rec.: 22 (3), 279-302; Rocks & Min.: 61:7.
Ruizite
Formula: Ca2Mn3+2[Si4O11(OH)2](OH)2·2H2O
Reference: Y.Okazaki collection
Shigaite
Formula: Mn6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6](SO4)2 · 6H2O
Habit: Hexagonal, tabular crystals
Colour: Pale yellow to burnt orange, brown, and amber-red
Description: Crystal size is from less than 1 mm to 3.2 cm across
Reference: Cairncross, B., and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa, Linden 2014, RSA; Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University); Cairncross, B. & Balayer, P. (2007): Neufund: Shigait aus den Kalahari-Manganfeldern, Südafrika. LAPIS 32 (4): 23-26 + 50; Cairncross, B., and Beukes, N. J., (2013) The Kalahari Manganese Field, the adventure continues. Struik Nature Publishers, Cape Town, South Africa; Cairncross, B. (2016) Connoisseur's Choice: Shigaite, Kalahari Manganese Field, Northern Cape Province, South Africa, Rocks & Minerals, 91:2, 150-15
Sturmanite
Formula: Ca6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
Reference: No reference listed
Sugilite
Formula: K(Na,□)2Li3(Fe,Mn,Al,Zr)2[Si12O30]
Reference: [Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field : an update, Mineralogical Record, 22 (3), 279-302.]
Thaumasite
Formula: Ca3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
Reference: [Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field : an update, Mineralogical Record, 22 (3), 279-302.]
Todorokite
Formula: (Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Description: Reference given does not state todorokite occurs at this mine ([Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field : an update, Mineralogical Record, 22 (3), 279-302.]) Debbie Woolf
Vesuvianite
Formula: (Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Reference: [Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field : an update, Mineralogical Record, 22 (3), 279-302.]

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Group 3 - Halides
Creedite3.CG.15Ca3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Bixbyite'4.CB.10Mn3+2O3
'Brucite'4.FE.05Mg(OH)2
Groutite4.FD.10Mn3+O(OH)
Hausmannite4.BB.10Mn2+Mn3+2O4
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Lepidocrocite4.FE.15γ-Fe3+O(OH)
Manganite4.FD.15Mn3+O(OH)
Portlandite4.FE.05Ca(OH)2
Pyrochroite4.FE.05Mn(OH)2
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Chalcedony4.DA.05SiO2
Todorokite ?4.DK.10(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
'Aragonite'5.AB.15CaCO3
'Calcite'5.AB.05CaCO3
Kutnohorite5.AB.10CaMn2+(CO3)2
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Rhodochrosite5.AB.05MnCO3
Group 6 - Borates
Gaudefroyite6.AB.60Ca4Mn3+2-3(BO3)3(CO3)(O,OH)3
Gowerite6.EC.10Ca[B5O8(OH)][B(OH)3] · 3H2O
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
'Baryte'7.AD.35BaSO4
'Celestine'7.AD.35SrSO4
Ettringite7.DG.15Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Jouravskite7.DG.15Ca3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2O
Shigaite7.DD.35Mn6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6](SO4)2 · 6H2O
Sturmanite7.DG.15Ca6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
Thaumasite7.DG.15Ca3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Gatehouseite8.BD.10Mn2+5(PO4)2(OH)4
Group 9 - Silicates
'Afwillite'9.AG.75Ca3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2O
'Andradite'9.AD.25Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
'Braunite'9.AG.05Mn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8
'Bultfonteinite'9.AG.80Ca2(HSiO4)F · H2O
'Bustamite'9.DG.05CaMn2+(Si2O6)
'Caryopilite'9.ED.15Mn2+3Si2O5(OH)4
Friedelite9.EE.10Mn2+8Si6O15(OH,Cl)10
Gageite9.DH.35Mn21(Si4O12)2O3(OH)20
Henritermierite9.AD.25Ca3(Mn3+,Al)2(SiO4)2(OH)4
Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)9.EA.15KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
Inesite9.DL.05Ca2(Mn,Fe)7Si10O28(OH)2 · 5H2O
Orlymanite ?9.EE.30Ca4Mn3Si8O20(OH)6 · 2H2O
Oyelite9.HA.80Ca10Si8B2O29 · 12.5H2O
Poldervaartite9.AF.90CaCa[SiO3(OH)](OH)
Ruizite9.BJ.35Ca2Mn3+2[Si4O11(OH)2](OH)2·2H2O
Sugilite9.CM.05K(Na,□)2Li3(Fe,Mn,Al,Zr)2[Si12O30]
Vesuvianite9.BG.35(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Gageite-2M-(Mn,Mg,Zn)42Si16O54(OH)40
Glauconite-(K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Bixbyite4.3.7.2Mn3+2O3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Groutite6.1.1.3Mn3+O(OH)
Lepidocrocite6.1.2.2γ-Fe3+O(OH)
Manganite6.1.3.1Mn3+O(OH)
X(OH)2
Brucite6.2.1.1Mg(OH)2
Portlandite6.2.1.4Ca(OH)2
Pyrochroite6.2.1.3Mn(OH)2
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Hausmannite7.2.7.1Mn2+Mn3+2O4
(AB)2X3
Braunite7.5.1.3Mn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8
AB3X7
Todorokite ?7.8.1.1(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Group 12 - COMPOUND HALIDES
Miscellaneous
Creedite12.1.4.1Ca3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Rhodochrosite14.1.1.4MnCO3
AB(XO3)2
Kutnohorite14.2.1.3CaMn2+(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 26 - HYDRATED BORATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Pentaborates
Gowerite26.5.8.1Ca[B5O8(OH)][B(OH)3] · 3H2O
Group 27 - COMPOUND BORATES
Miscellaneous
Gaudefroyite27.1.2.1Ca4Mn3+2-3(BO3)3(CO3)(O,OH)3
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Celestine28.3.1.2SrSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq·xH2O, where m:p > 6:1
Shigaite31.1.2.1Mn6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6](SO4)2 · 6H2O
Miscellaneous
Ettringite31.10.2.1Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
Group 32 - COMPOUND SULFATES
Hydrated Compound Sulfates containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Jouravskite32.4.4.3Ca3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2O
Sturmanite32.4.4.2Ca6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
Thaumasite32.4.4.4Ca3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)5(XO4)2Zq
Gatehouseite41.4.1.2Mn2+5(PO4)2(OH)4
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Andradite51.4.3b.1Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Henritermierite51.4.4.1Ca3(Mn3+,Al)2(SiO4)2(OH)4
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Afwillite52.4.7.1Ca3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2O
Bultfonteinite52.4.7.2Ca2(HSiO4)F · H2O
Group 57 - SOROSILICATES Si3O10 Groups and Larger Noncyclic Groups
Insular Si3O10 and Larger Noncyclic Groups with [Si4O13] groups
Ruizite57.2.2.1Ca2Mn3+2[Si4O11(OH)2](OH)2·2H2O
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Vesuvianite58.2.4.1(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Group 63 - CYCLOSILICATES Condensed Rings
Condensed Rings (Milarite - Osumilite group)
Sugilite63.2.1a.9K(Na,□)2Li3(Fe,Mn,Al,Zr)2[Si12O30]
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=3
Bustamite65.2.1.2CaMn2+(Si2O6)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=4
'Gageite-2M'65.3.2.2a(Mn,Mg,Zn)42Si16O54(OH)40
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Ca-Na subgroup
Inesite66.3.3.1Ca2(Mn,Fe)7Si10O28(OH)2 · 5H2O
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Caryopilite71.1.2b.1Mn2+3Si2O5(OH)4
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Glauconite71.2.2a.5(K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Group 72 - PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 3-, 4-, or 5-membered rings and 8-membered rings
Oyelite72.3.2.8Ca10Si8B2O29 · 12.5H2O
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 4-, 6-, and 12-membered rings
Friedelite72.4.1b.1Mn2+8Si6O15(OH,Cl)10
Group 73 - PHYLLOSILICATES Condensed Tetrahedral Sheets
Condensed Tetrahedral Sheets with double and single layers
Orlymanite ?73.2.2b.2Ca4Mn3Si8O20(OH)6 · 2H2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 78 - Unclassified Silicates
Miscellaneous
Poldervaartite78.1.8.1CaCa[SiO3(OH)](OH)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Aragonite-CaCO3
Gageite-Mn21(Si4O12)2O3(OH)20
Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)-KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
Quartz
var: Chalcedony
-SiO2

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H AfwilliteCa3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2O
H BruciteMg(OH)2
H BultfonteiniteCa2(HSiO4)F · H2O
H CaryopiliteMn32+Si2O5(OH)4
H CreediteCa3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
H EttringiteCa6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
H FriedeliteMn82+Si6O15(OH,Cl)10
H GageiteMn21(Si4O12)2O3(OH)20
H Gageite-2M(Mn,Mg,Zn)42Si16O54(OH)40
H GatehouseiteMn52+(PO4)2(OH)4
H Glauconite(K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
H GoweriteCa[B5O8(OH)][B(OH)3] · 3H2O
H GroutiteMn3+O(OH)
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H HenritermieriteCa3(Mn3+,Al)2(SiO4)2(OH)4
H Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
H InesiteCa2(Mn,Fe)7Si10O28(OH)2 · 5H2O
H JouravskiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2O
H Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
H OrlymaniteCa4Mn3Si8O20(OH)6 · 2H2O
H OyeliteCa10Si8B2O29 · 12.5H2O
H PoldervaartiteCaCa[SiO3(OH)](OH)
H PortlanditeCa(OH)2
H PyrochroiteMn(OH)2
H RuiziteCa2Mn23+[Si4O11(OH)2](OH)2·2H2O
H ShigaiteMn6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6](SO4)2 · 6H2O
H SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
H ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
H Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
H Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
LiLithium
Li SugiliteK(Na,□)2Li3(Fe,Mn,Al,Zr)2[Si12O30]
BBoron
B GaudefroyiteCa4Mn3+2-3(BO3)3(CO3)(O,OH)3
B GoweriteCa[B5O8(OH)][B(OH)3] · 3H2O
B OyeliteCa10Si8B2O29 · 12.5H2O
B SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
B Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
CCarbon
C AragoniteCaCO3
C CalciteCaCO3
C GaudefroyiteCa4Mn3+2-3(BO3)3(CO3)(O,OH)3
C JouravskiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2O
C KutnohoriteCaMn2+(CO3)2
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C RhodochrositeMnCO3
C ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
OOxygen
O AfwilliteCa3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2O
O AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
O AragoniteCaCO3
O BaryteBaSO4
O BixbyiteMn23+O3
O BrauniteMn2+Mn63+(SiO4)O8
O BruciteMg(OH)2
O BultfonteiniteCa2(HSiO4)F · H2O
O BustamiteCaMn2+(Si2O6)
O CalciteCaCO3
O CaryopiliteMn32+Si2O5(OH)4
O CelestineSrSO4
O Quartz (var: Chalcedony)SiO2
O CreediteCa3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
O EttringiteCa6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
O FriedeliteMn82+Si6O15(OH,Cl)10
O GageiteMn21(Si4O12)2O3(OH)20
O Gageite-2M(Mn,Mg,Zn)42Si16O54(OH)40
O GatehouseiteMn52+(PO4)2(OH)4
O GaudefroyiteCa4Mn3+2-3(BO3)3(CO3)(O,OH)3
O Glauconite(K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
O GoweriteCa[B5O8(OH)][B(OH)3] · 3H2O
O GroutiteMn3+O(OH)
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O HausmanniteMn2+Mn23+O4
O HematiteFe2O3
O HenritermieriteCa3(Mn3+,Al)2(SiO4)2(OH)4
O Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
O InesiteCa2(Mn,Fe)7Si10O28(OH)2 · 5H2O
O JouravskiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2O
O KutnohoriteCaMn2+(CO3)2
O Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
O OrlymaniteCa4Mn3Si8O20(OH)6 · 2H2O
O OyeliteCa10Si8B2O29 · 12.5H2O
O PoldervaartiteCaCa[SiO3(OH)](OH)
O PortlanditeCa(OH)2
O PyrochroiteMn(OH)2
O QuartzSiO2
O RhodochrositeMnCO3
O RuiziteCa2Mn23+[Si4O11(OH)2](OH)2·2H2O
O ShigaiteMn6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6](SO4)2 · 6H2O
O SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
O SugiliteK(Na,□)2Li3(Fe,Mn,Al,Zr)2[Si12O30]
O ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
O Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
O Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
FFluorine
F BultfonteiniteCa2(HSiO4)F · H2O
F CreediteCa3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
F Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
F Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
NaSodium
Na Glauconite(K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Na ShigaiteMn6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6](SO4)2 · 6H2O
Na SugiliteK(Na,□)2Li3(Fe,Mn,Al,Zr)2[Si12O30]
Na Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Na Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
MgMagnesium
Mg BruciteMg(OH)2
Mg Gageite-2M(Mn,Mg,Zn)42Si16O54(OH)40
Mg Glauconite(K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Mg Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Mg Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
AlAluminium
Al CreediteCa3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
Al EttringiteCa6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
Al Glauconite(K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Al ShigaiteMn6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6](SO4)2 · 6H2O
Al SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
Al SugiliteK(Na,□)2Li3(Fe,Mn,Al,Zr)2[Si12O30]
Al Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Al Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
SiSilicon
Si AfwilliteCa3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2O
Si AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Si BrauniteMn2+Mn63+(SiO4)O8
Si BultfonteiniteCa2(HSiO4)F · H2O
Si BustamiteCaMn2+(Si2O6)
Si CaryopiliteMn32+Si2O5(OH)4
Si Quartz (var: Chalcedony)SiO2
Si FriedeliteMn82+Si6O15(OH,Cl)10
Si GageiteMn21(Si4O12)2O3(OH)20
Si Gageite-2M(Mn,Mg,Zn)42Si16O54(OH)40
Si Glauconite(K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Si HenritermieriteCa3(Mn3+,Al)2(SiO4)2(OH)4
Si Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
Si InesiteCa2(Mn,Fe)7Si10O28(OH)2 · 5H2O
Si OrlymaniteCa4Mn3Si8O20(OH)6 · 2H2O
Si OyeliteCa10Si8B2O29 · 12.5H2O
Si PoldervaartiteCaCa[SiO3(OH)](OH)
Si QuartzSiO2
Si RuiziteCa2Mn23+[Si4O11(OH)2](OH)2·2H2O
Si SugiliteK(Na,□)2Li3(Fe,Mn,Al,Zr)2[Si12O30]
Si ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
Si Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
PPhosphorus
P GatehouseiteMn52+(PO4)2(OH)4
SSulfur
S BaryteBaSO4
S CelestineSrSO4
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S CreediteCa3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
S EttringiteCa6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
S GalenaPbS
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S JouravskiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2O
S MarcasiteFeS2
S PyriteFeS2
S ShigaiteMn6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6](SO4)2 · 6H2O
S SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
S ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
ClChlorine
Cl FriedeliteMn82+Si6O15(OH,Cl)10
KPotassium
K Glauconite(K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
K Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
K SugiliteK(Na,□)2Li3(Fe,Mn,Al,Zr)2[Si12O30]
K Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
CaCalcium
Ca AfwilliteCa3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2O
Ca AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
Ca BultfonteiniteCa2(HSiO4)F · H2O
Ca BustamiteCaMn2+(Si2O6)
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca CreediteCa3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
Ca EttringiteCa6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
Ca GaudefroyiteCa4Mn3+2-3(BO3)3(CO3)(O,OH)3
Ca GoweriteCa[B5O8(OH)][B(OH)3] · 3H2O
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca HenritermieriteCa3(Mn3+,Al)2(SiO4)2(OH)4
Ca Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
Ca InesiteCa2(Mn,Fe)7Si10O28(OH)2 · 5H2O
Ca JouravskiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2O
Ca KutnohoriteCaMn2+(CO3)2
Ca OrlymaniteCa4Mn3Si8O20(OH)6 · 2H2O
Ca OyeliteCa10Si8B2O29 · 12.5H2O
Ca PoldervaartiteCaCa[SiO3(OH)](OH)
Ca PortlanditeCa(OH)2
Ca RuiziteCa2Mn23+[Si4O11(OH)2](OH)2·2H2O
Ca SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
Ca ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
Ca Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Ca Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
MnManganese
Mn BixbyiteMn23+O3
Mn BrauniteMn2+Mn63+(SiO4)O8
Mn BustamiteCaMn2+(Si2O6)
Mn CaryopiliteMn32+Si2O5(OH)4
Mn FriedeliteMn82+Si6O15(OH,Cl)10
Mn GageiteMn21(Si4O12)2O3(OH)20
Mn Gageite-2M(Mn,Mg,Zn)42Si16O54(OH)40
Mn GatehouseiteMn52+(PO4)2(OH)4
Mn GaudefroyiteCa4Mn3+2-3(BO3)3(CO3)(O,OH)3
Mn GroutiteMn3+O(OH)
Mn HausmanniteMn2+Mn23+O4
Mn HenritermieriteCa3(Mn3+,Al)2(SiO4)2(OH)4
Mn InesiteCa2(Mn,Fe)7Si10O28(OH)2 · 5H2O
Mn JouravskiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2O
Mn KutnohoriteCaMn2+(CO3)2
Mn ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
Mn OrlymaniteCa4Mn3Si8O20(OH)6 · 2H2O
Mn PoldervaartiteCaCa[SiO3(OH)](OH)
Mn PyrochroiteMn(OH)2
Mn RhodochrositeMnCO3
Mn RuiziteCa2Mn23+[Si4O11(OH)2](OH)2·2H2O
Mn ShigaiteMn6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6](SO4)2 · 6H2O
Mn SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
Mn SugiliteK(Na,□)2Li3(Fe,Mn,Al,Zr)2[Si12O30]
Mn Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
FeIron
Fe AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe Glauconite(K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
Fe SugiliteK(Na,□)2Li3(Fe,Mn,Al,Zr)2[Si12O30]
Fe Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
ZnZinc
Zn Gageite-2M(Mn,Mg,Zn)42Si16O54(OH)40
SrStrontium
Sr CelestineSrSO4
Sr Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
ZrZirconium
Zr SugiliteK(Na,□)2Li3(Fe,Mn,Al,Zr)2[Si12O30]
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
Ba Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Cenozoic
0 - 66 Ma



ID: 2233217
Kalahari Group

Age: Cenozoic (0 - 66 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Kalahari Group

Description: Superficial deposits comprising gravels, clays, sandstone, silcrete, calcrete and aeolian sand

Reference: Council for Geoscience. Geologic map of South Africa, 1:1M. National Science Councils of South Africa. [41]

Quaternary - Tertiary
0 - 66 Ma



ID: 3185837
Cenozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Cenozoic (0 - 66 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Pleistocene - Paleogene
0.0117 - 66 Ma



ID: 3306660

Age: Cenozoic (0.0117 - 66 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary

Reference: Thiéblemont, D. (ed.). New edition of the 1:10,000,000 geological map of Africa. CGMW-BRGM. [190]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Mining Annual Review (1985): 90.
Rocks & Minerals (1986): 61: 7.
Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa.
Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
Cairncross, B., Beukes, N. and Gutzmer, J. (1997): The Manganese Adventure – The South African Manganese Fields. Associated Ore & Metal Corporation Limited, Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa.
Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa.
Cairncross, B. & Balayer, P. (2007): Neufund: Shigait aus den Kalahari-Manganfeldern, Südafrika. LAPIS 32 (4): 23-26 + 50.
Cairncross, B., and Beukes, N. J., (2013) The Kalahari Manganese Field, the adventure continues. Struik Nature Publishers, Cape Town, South Africa.
Cairncross, B. (2016). Shigaite: Connoisseur’s Choice. Rocks & Minerals, 91, 150-153.

External Links



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