A manganese mine located near Hotazel in North Cape province. Started in May 1973.
Hydrothermal alteration of the primary Mn ore produced a wealth of well-crystallised minerals.
Wessels mine is an underground operation situated 300 metres below the surface. Access to the workings is achieved by means of a vertical shaft and two incline shafts. The nature of the ore body lends itself to a mechanised room and pillar mining method.
Operated as a unit with the nearby Mamatwan open-pit mine.
122 valid minerals. 17
- type locality of valid minerals.
This table is based only on rock and mineral ages recorded below and is not necessarily a complete representation of the geochronology, but does give an indication of possible mineralization events relevant to this locality. As more age information is added this table may expand in the future. A break in the table simply indicates a lack of data entered here, not necessarily a break in the geologic sequence. Grey background entries are from different, related, localities.
This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality
is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys.
This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.
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De Villiers, J.P.R. (1979) A mineralogical investigation of Mamatwan and Wessels manganese ores. Report 1920. National Institute of Metallurgy (now Mintek), Randburg, 10 pages.
Dunn, P.J., Brummer, J.J., and Belsky, H. (1980) Sugilite, a second occurrence: Wessels Mine, Kalahari manganese field, Republic of South Africa. Canadian Mineralogist: 18: 37–39.
Dixon, R.D. (1985) Sugilite and associated minerals from Wessels mine, Kalahari manganese field. Transactions of the Geological Society of South Africa: 88: 11–17.
Mining Annual Review (1985) 90.
Rocks & Minerals (1986) 61: 10.
Dixon, R.D. (1989) Sugilite and associated metamorphic silicate minerals from Wessels mine, Kalahari manganese field. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of South Africa: 93. Pretoria, 47 pages.
Mineralogical Record (1989) 20(5): 389.
Von Bezing, K.L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: an update. Mineralogical Record: 22(4): 279-302.
American Mineralogist (1992) 77: 1292-1300.
Armbruster, T., Oberhaensli, R., Bermanec, V., and Dixon, R.D. (1993) Hennomartinite and kornite, two new Mn3+ rich silicates from the Wessels Mine, Kalahari, South Africa. Schweizerische Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen: 73: 349–355.
Armbruster, T., Oberhaensli, R., and Kunz, M. (1993) Taikanite, BaSr2Mn3+2O2[Si4O12], from the Wessels Mine, South Africa: A chain silicate related to synthetic Ca3Mn3+2O2[Si4O12]. American Mineralogist: 78: 1088–1093.
American Mineralogist (1993) 78: 1082-1087.
Gutzmer, J. and Cairncross, B. (1993) Recent discoveries from the Wessels mine South Africa. Mineralogical Record: 24(5): 365-368.
Fritsch, E. and Shigley, J.E. (1994) Causes of the purple and pink colours of manganoan sugilite from the Wessels mine, South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine: 58: 681–685.
Taggart, J.E. Jr, Foord, E.E., and Shigley, J.E. (1994) Chemical composition and structural formula of manganoan sugilite from the Wessels mine, Republic of South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine: 58: 679–681.
Von Bezing, L. and Gutzmer, J. (1994) Das Kalahari Manganerzfeld und seine Mineralien (II). Mineralien-Welt: 5(5): 41-59.
Cairncross, B. and R. Dixon (1995) Minerals of South Africa.
Beukes, N. J., Burger, A. M., and Gutzmer, J. (1995) Fault-controlled hydrothermal alteration of Palaeoproterozoic manganese ore in Wessels Mine, Kalahari manganese field. South African Journal of Geology: 98(4): 430-451.
Giester, G. and Rieck, B. (1996) Wesselsite SrCu[Si4O10], a further new gillespite-group mineral from the Kalahari manganese field, South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine: 60: 795–798.
Cairncross, B., Beukes, N. and Gutzmer, J. (1997) The Manganese Adventure – The South African Manganese Fields. Associated Ore & Metal Corporation Limited, Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa.
Gutzmer, J. and Cairncross, B. (2001) Seltene Mineralien aus dem Kalahari-Manganerzfeld, Südafrika. Lapis: 26(10): 32-42.
Gutzmer, J. and Cairncross, B. (2002) Spectacular Minerals from the Kalahari Manganese Field, South Africa. Rocks & Minerals: 77(2): 94-107.
Gnos, E., Armbruster, T., Villa, I.M. (2003) Norrishite, K(Mn3+2Li)Si4O10(O)2, an oxymica associated with sugilite from the Wessels Mine, South Africa: Crystal chemistry and 39Ar-40Ar dating. American Mineralogist: 88: 189-194.
Hålenius, U., Häussermann, U., and Harryson, H. (2005) Holtstamite, Ca3(Al,Mn3+)2(SiO4)3-x(H4O4)x, a new tetragonal hydrogarnet from Wessels Mine, South Africa. European Journal of Mineralogy: 17: 375–382.
Knight, K.S., Henderson, C.M.B, and Clark, S.M. (2010) Structural variations in the wesselsite-effenbergerite (Sr1-xBaxCuSi4O10) solid solution. European Journal of Mineralogy: 22: 411–423.
Cairncross, B. and Beukes, N. J., (2013) The Kalahari Manganese Field, the adventure continues. Struik Nature Publishers, Cape Town, South Africa.
Yang, H., Downs, R.T., Evans, S., and Pinch, W. (2013) Scottyite, the natural analogue of synthetic BaCu2Si2O7, a new mineral from the Wessels mine, Kalahari Manganese Fields, South Africa. American Mineralogist: 98: 478–484.
Yang, H., Downs, R.T., Evans, S.H., and Pinch, W.W. (2014) Lavinskyite, K(LiCu)Cu6(Si4O11)2(OH)4, isotypic with planchéite, a new mineral from the Wessels mine, Kalahari Manganese Fields, South Africa. American Mineralogist: 99: 525-530.
Giester, G., Lengauer, C.L., Pristacz, H., Rieck, B., Topa, D., and von Bezing, K.-L. (2016): Cairncrossite, a new phyllosilicate from the Wessels Mine, Kalahari Manganese Field, South Africa. European Journal of Mineralogy: 28: 495-505.
Panikorovskii, T.L., Shilovskikh, V.V., Avdontseva, E.Yu., Zolotarev, A.A., Pekov, I.V., Britvin, S.N., and Krivovichev, S.V. (2017) Cyprine, Ca19Cu2+(Al,Mg,Mn)12Si18O68(OH)10, a new vesuvianite-group mineral from the Wessels mine, South Africa. European Journal of Mineralogy: 29: 295-306.