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Wessels Mine (Wessel's Mine), Hotazel, Kalahari manganese field, Northern Cape Province, South Africa

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 27° 11' 59'' South , 22° 58' 0'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): -27.20000,22.96667
Other regions containing this locality:Kalahari Desert, Africa
Köppen climate type:BSh : Hot semi-arid (steppe) climate


A manganese mine located near Hotazel in North Cape province. Started in May 1973.
Hydrothermal alteration of the primary Mn ore produced a wealth of well-crystallised minerals.

Wessels mine is an underground operation situated 300 metres below the surface. Access to the workings is achieved by means of a vertical shaft and two incline shafts. The nature of the ore body lends itself to a mechanised room and pillar mining method.

Operated as a unit with the nearby Mamatwan open-pit mine.

Mineral List

Aegirine

Afwillite

Åkermanite

Albite

Andradite

var: Hydroandradite

'Apatite'

Aragonite

Azurite

Banalsite

Baryte

Bementite

Bixbyite

Brandtite

Braunite

'Braunite-II'

Brucite

Bultfonteinite

Bustamite

Cairncrossite (TL)

Calcite

Caryopilite

Celestine

Chamosite

Charlesite ?

Clinochlore

'Clinochrysotile'

Clinotobermorite

Clinozoisite

Colinowensite (TL)

Copper

Cryptomelane

Cyprine (TL)

Datolite

Diaspore

var: Mangan-diaspore

Diegogattaite (TL)

Diopside

Effenbergerite (TL)

Ephesite

Epidote

Ettringite

Feitknechtite

'Ferro-akermanite'

Ferrobustamite

Fluorapatite

Foshagite

Friedelite

Gageite

Gaudefroyite

Glaucochroite

Goethite

Gonyerite

Gowerite

Grossular

var: Hibschite

Groutite

Gypsum

Hausmannite

Hematite

Hennomartinite (TL)

Henritermierite

Holtstamite (TL)

Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)

Inesite

Jacobsite

Jennite

Johannsenite

Kentrolite

Kirschsteinite

Kutnohorite

Lavinskyite (TL)

Leucophoenicite

Lizardite

Magnesio-arfvedsonite

Manganite

'Manganoan Calcite'

Manganvesuvianite

Marcasite

Marokite

Marshallsussmanite (TL)

Meieranite (TL)

Minnesotaite

Mozartite

Natrolite

Nchwaningite

Neltnerite

Norrishite

Olmiite

Orientite

Orlymanite (TL)

Parsettensite

Pectolite

Piemontite

Piemontite-(Sr)

Poldervaartite (TL)

Portlandite

Potassic-mangani-leakeite (TL)

Pyrite

Pyrochroite

Pyrolusite

Pyrophanite

Quartz

var: Amethyst

Rhodochrosite

Rhodonite

Richterite

Ruizite

Scottyite (TL)

Serandite

Shigaite

Sogdianite

Sphalerite

Strontianite

Sturmanite

Sugilite

Taikanite

Tephroite

Tetraferriannite

Thaumasite

Thomsonite-Ca

Tobermorite

Tweddillite (TL)

Vaterite

Vesuvianite

Vonbezingite (TL)

Vuagnatite

Wesselsite (TL)

Wollastonite

Xonotlite

Zoisite


122 valid minerals. 17 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Geochronology

Mineralization age: Stenian : 1040 Ma to 1010 Ma

Important note: This table is based only on rock and mineral ages recorded below and is not necessarily a complete representation of the geochronology, but does give an indication of possible mineralization events relevant to this locality. As more age information is added this table may expand in the future. A break in the table simply indicates a lack of data entered here, not necessarily a break in the geologic sequence. Grey background entries are from different, related, localities.

Geologic TimeRocks, Minerals and Events
Precambrian
 Proterozoic
  Mesoproterozoic
   Stenian
ⓘ Norrishite (youngest age)1010 Ma
ⓘ Norrishite (oldest age)1040 Ma

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Cenozoic
0 - 66 Ma



ID: 2228936
Kalahari Group

Age: Cenozoic (0 - 66 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Kalahari Group

Description: Superficial deposits comprising gravels, clays, sandstone, silcrete, calcrete and aeolian sand

Reference: Council for Geoscience. Geologic map of South Africa, 1:1M. National Science Councils of South Africa. [41]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License



This page contains all mineral locality references listed on mindat.org. This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in mindat.org without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.

References

Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
De Villiers, J.P.R. (1979) A mineralogical investigation of Mamatwan and Wessels manganese ores. Report 1920. National Institute of Metallurgy (now Mintek), Randburg, 10 pages.
Dunn, P.J., Brummer, J.J., and Belsky, H. (1980) Sugilite, a second occurrence: Wessels Mine, Kalahari manganese field, Republic of South Africa. Canadian Mineralogist: 18: 37–39.
Dixon, R.D. (1985) Sugilite and associated minerals from Wessels mine, Kalahari manganese field. Transactions of the Geological Society of South Africa: 88: 11–17.
Mining Annual Review (1985) 90.
Rocks & Minerals (1986) 61: 10.
Dixon, R.D. (1989) Sugilite and associated metamorphic silicate minerals from Wessels mine, Kalahari manganese field. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of South Africa: 93. Pretoria, 47 pages.
Mineralogical Record (1989) 20(5): 389.
Von Bezing, K.L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: an update. Mineralogical Record: 22(4): 279-302.
American Mineralogist (1992) 77: 1292-1300.
Armbruster, T., Oberhaensli, R., Bermanec, V., and Dixon, R.D. (1993) Hennomartinite and kornite, two new Mn3+ rich silicates from the Wessels Mine, Kalahari, South Africa. Schweizerische Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen: 73: 349–355.
Armbruster, T., Oberhaensli, R., and Kunz, M. (1993) Taikanite, BaSr2Mn3+2O2[Si4O12], from the Wessels Mine, South Africa: A chain silicate related to synthetic Ca3Mn3+2O2[Si4O12]. American Mineralogist: 78: 1088–1093.
American Mineralogist (1993) 78: 1082-1087.
Gutzmer, J. and Cairncross, B. (1993) Recent discoveries from the Wessels mine South Africa. Mineralogical Record: 24(5): 365-368.
Fritsch, E. and Shigley, J.E. (1994) Causes of the purple and pink colours of manganoan sugilite from the Wessels mine, South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine: 58: 681–685.
Taggart, J.E. Jr, Foord, E.E., and Shigley, J.E. (1994) Chemical composition and structural formula of manganoan sugilite from the Wessels mine, Republic of South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine: 58: 679–681.
Von Bezing, L. and Gutzmer, J. (1994) Das Kalahari Manganerzfeld und seine Mineralien (II). Mineralien-Welt: 5(5): 41-59.
Cairncross, B. and R. Dixon (1995) Minerals of South Africa.
Beukes, N. J., Burger, A. M., and Gutzmer, J. (1995) Fault-controlled hydrothermal alteration of Palaeoproterozoic manganese ore in Wessels Mine, Kalahari manganese field. South African Journal of Geology: 98(4): 430-451.
Giester, G. and Rieck, B. (1996) Wesselsite SrCu[Si4O10], a further new gillespite-group mineral from the Kalahari manganese field, South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine: 60: 795–798.
Cairncross, B., Beukes, N. and Gutzmer, J. (1997) The Manganese Adventure – The South African Manganese Fields. Associated Ore & Metal Corporation Limited, Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa.
Gutzmer, J. and Cairncross, B. (2001) Seltene Mineralien aus dem Kalahari-Manganerzfeld, Südafrika. Lapis: 26(10): 32-42.
Gutzmer, J. and Cairncross, B. (2002) Spectacular Minerals from the Kalahari Manganese Field, South Africa. Rocks & Minerals: 77(2): 94-107.
Gnos, E., Armbruster, T., Villa, I.M. (2003) Norrishite, K(Mn3+2Li)Si4O10(O)2, an oxymica associated with sugilite from the Wessels Mine, South Africa: Crystal chemistry and 39Ar-40Ar dating. American Mineralogist: 88: 189-194.
Hålenius, U., Häussermann, U., and Harryson, H. (2005) Holtstamite, Ca3(Al,Mn3+)2(SiO4)3-x(H4O4)x, a new tetragonal hydrogarnet from Wessels Mine, South Africa. European Journal of Mineralogy: 17: 375–382.
Knight, K.S., Henderson, C.M.B, and Clark, S.M. (2010) Structural variations in the wesselsite-effenbergerite (Sr1-xBaxCuSi4O10) solid solution. European Journal of Mineralogy: 22: 411–423.
Cairncross, B. and Beukes, N. J., (2013) The Kalahari Manganese Field, the adventure continues. Struik Nature Publishers, Cape Town, South Africa.
Yang, H., Downs, R.T., Evans, S., and Pinch, W. (2013) Scottyite, the natural analogue of synthetic BaCu2Si2O7, a new mineral from the Wessels mine, Kalahari Manganese Fields, South Africa. American Mineralogist: 98: 478–484.
Yang, H., Downs, R.T., Evans, S.H., and Pinch, W.W. (2014) Lavinskyite, K(LiCu)Cu6(Si4O11)2(OH)4, isotypic with planchéite, a new mineral from the Wessels mine, Kalahari Manganese Fields, South Africa. American Mineralogist: 99: 525-530.
Giester, G., Lengauer, C.L., Pristacz, H., Rieck, B., Topa, D., and von Bezing, K.-L. (2016): Cairncrossite, a new phyllosilicate from the Wessels Mine, Kalahari Manganese Field, South Africa. European Journal of Mineralogy: 28: 495-505.
Panikorovskii, T.L., Shilovskikh, V.V., Avdontseva, E.Yu., Zolotarev, A.A., Pekov, I.V., Britvin, S.N., and Krivovichev, S.V. (2017) Cyprine, Ca19Cu2+(Al,Mg,Mn)12Si18O68(OH)10, a new vesuvianite-group mineral from the Wessels mine, South Africa. European Journal of Mineralogy: 29: 295-306.

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