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Palabora mine (Foscor open pit; PMC mine), Loolekop, Phalaborwa, Limpopo, South Africai
Regional Level Types
Palabora mine (Foscor open pit; PMC mine)Mine
Loolekop- not defined -
Phalaborwa- not defined -
LimpopoProvince
South AfricaCountry

This page kindly sponsored by Malcolm Southwood
Key
Lock Map
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 23° 59' 31'' South , 31° 7' 41'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): -23.99204,31.12808
GeoHash:G#: kewps26u2
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:BSh : Hot semi-arid (steppe) climate
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Phalaborwa109,468 (2012)5.6km


A copper-(U-)(Zr-)apatite-vermiculite mine located near Phalaborwa in Limpopo Province (previously NE Transvaal). Apatite production occurred 1932-1934. Vermiculite production began in 1946. Copper mining commenced 1965 and was fully operational by 1967.

The town name is Phalaborwa, the geological formation is the Phalaborwa Complex and the mine Palabora mine.

Ore is in the Phalaborwa carbonatite complex. The largest open-pit mine in South Africa. Owned by Palabora Mining Company, Ltd.; RTZ (Manager).

The Phalaborwa Complex covers an area of 1950 hectares and it consists mainly of a phlogopite- and apatite rich pyroxenite. This pyroxenite is intruded successively by a series of more differentiated rocks - foskorite (phoscorite), and olivine- magnetite- apatite- phlogopite rock and finally a central intrusion of sövite (transgressive carbonatite). The sövite intrusion shows an intimate relationship with foskorite. The sövite (50 hectares at the surface) is composed of calcite and magnetite with minor amounts of dolomite, apatite, chalcopyrite, bornite and various silicates. Furthermore, uraninite-thorianite and baddeleyite are important accessory minerals. The sövite is being mined by large-scale opencast methods mainly for copper with uranium, zirconium and minute amounts of platinum as by-products. The foskorite is mined for the extraction of phosphate. The resources of apatite from the foskorite and the pyroxenite are enormous.

Regions containing this locality

Somali Plate (Somalia Plate)Tectonic Plate
Transvaal, South AfricaProvince (Former)

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


88 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Aegirine
Formula: NaFe3+Si2O6
Reference: Heinrich, E. (1970) The Palabora Carbonatitic Complex - a Unique Copper Deposit. Can Mineral 10:585-598
Analcime
Formula: Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Reference: [Gliddon, J. P. and Braithwaite, R. S. (1991) - Zeolites and associated minerals from the Palabora mine, Transvaal (Afrique du Sud), Mineralogical Record, 22 (4), 255-262.]; Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7
Antigorite
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Minerals of South Africa; Braithwaite, R. S. W., Dunn, P. J., Pritchard, R. G., & Parr, W. H. (1994). Iowaite, a reinvestigation. Mineralogical Magazine, 58(390), 77-86.
Anzaite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce3+ 4Fe2+Ti6O18 (OH)2
Reference: Giebel, R.J., Gauert, C.D.K., Marks, M.A.W., Costin, G. and Markl, G. (2017): Multi-stage formation of REE minerals in the Palabora Carbonatite Complex, South Africa. American Mineralogist 102, 1218-1233.
'Apatite'
Reference: Sokolov S.V. (2010) On portlandite from carbonatite complexes. Abstracts of XXVII International conference School «Geochemistry of Alkaline rocks». – Moscow-Koktebel’. pp. 240 pp.
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7
Argentopentlandite
Formula: Ag(Fe,Ni)8S8
Description: Determined in carbonatitic ores, in sulfide flotation concentrate
Reference: Nikolay Rudashevsky et al (2001) Efficient Technology of Ore Minerals Investigation of PGE-Bearing Deposits – Case Study in (2001) European Union of Geosciences Conference XI (OS6)
Arsenopalladinite
Formula: Pd8(As,Sb)3
Description: Determined in carbonatitic ores, in sulfide flotation concentrate.
Reference: Nikolay Rudashevsky et al (2001) Efficient Technology of Ore Minerals Investigation of PGE-Bearing Deposits – Case Study in (2001) European Union of Geosciences Conference XI (OS6)
Atokite
Formula: (Pd,Pt)3Sn
Description: Determined in carbonatitic ores, in sulfide flotation concentrate.
Reference: Nikolay Rudashevsky et al (2001) Efficient Technology of Ore Minerals Investigation of PGE-Bearing Deposits – Case Study in (2001) European Union of Geosciences Conference XI (OS6)
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Reference: Chris DeGrave Collection
Baddeleyite
Formula: ZrO2
Description: Baddeleyite up to 15cm long where found here in the early 1980s. Small crystals to 1cm are quite common.
Reference: Heinrich, E. (1970) The Palabora Carbonatitic Complex - a Unique Copper Deposit. Canadian Mineralogist 10: 585-598.; Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa: 186.; Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43: 2-7.; Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 44.; Lee, M. E., Goosen, W. E., Minnaar, E.G., and Liebenberg, T. Microanalysis of mineral inclusions in primary baddeleyite from the Phalaborwa complex.
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: Minerals of South Africa; Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7
'Biotite'
Reference: [Gliddon, J. P. and Braithwaite, R. S. (1991) - Zeolites and associated minerals from the Palabora mine, Transvaal (Afrique du Sud), Mineralogical Record, 22 (4), 255-262.]
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Reference: Nikolay Rudashevsky et al (2001) Efficient Technology of Ore Minerals Investigation of PGE-Bearing Deposits – Case Study in (2001) European Union of Geosciences Conference XI (OS6); Heinrich, E. (1970) The Palabora Carbonatitic Complex - a Unique Copper Deposit. Can Mineral 10:585-598; Kingman, S. W., Vorster, W., & Rowson, N. A. (2000). The effect of microwave radiation on the processing of Palabora copper ore. Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy(South Africa), 100(3), 197-204.; Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7
'Bravoite'
Formula: (Fe,Ni)S2
Reference: Heinrich, E. (1970) The Palabora Carbonatitic Complex - a Unique Copper Deposit. Can Mineral 10:585-598
Brucite
Formula: Mg(OH)2
Description: Found as blue masses and plates weighing several kilo's, rarely transparent. Also as small euhedral crystals.
Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa: 191. ; Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7
Cabriite
Formula: Pd2CuSn
Description: Determined in carbonatitic ores, in sulfide flotation concentrate.
Reference: Nikolay Rudashevsky et al (2001) Efficient Technology of Ore Minerals Investigation of PGE-Bearing Deposits – Case Study in (2001) European Union of Geosciences Conference XI (OS6)
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Heinrich, E. (1970) The Palabora Carbonatitic Complex - a Unique Copper Deposit. Can Mineral 10:585-598; Cairncross, B., (2004), Field Guide to Rocks & Minerals of Southern Africa. Struik Publishers, Cape Town, South Africa; Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7
Celestine
Formula: SrSO4
Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa: 195. Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 60. ; Braithwaite, R. S. W., Dunn, P. J., Pritchard, R. G., & Parr, W. H. (1994). Iowaite, a reinvestigation. Mineralogical Magazine, 58(390), 77-86.; Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7
'Chabazite'
Reference: [Gliddon, J. P. and Braithwaite, R. S. (1991) - Zeolites and associated minerals from the Palabora mine, Transvaal (Afrique du Sud), Mineralogical Record, 22 (4), 255-262.]; Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Reference: Nikolay Rudashevsky et al (2001) Efficient Technology of Ore Minerals Investigation of PGE-Bearing Deposits – Case Study in (2001) European Union of Geosciences Conference XI (OS6); Heinrich, E. (1970) The Palabora Carbonatitic Complex - a Unique Copper Deposit. Can Mineral 10:585-598; Kingman, S. W., Vorster, W., & Rowson, N. A. (2000). The effect of microwave radiation on the processing of Palabora copper ore. Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy(South Africa), 100(3), 197-204.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Nikolay Rudashevsky et al (2001) Efficient Technology of Ore Minerals Investigation of PGE-Bearing Deposits – Case Study in (2001) European Union of Geosciences Conference XI (OS6); Heinrich, E. (1970) The Palabora Carbonatitic Complex - a Unique Copper Deposit. Can Mineral 10:585-598; Kingman, S. W., Vorster, W., & Rowson, N. A. (2000). The effect of microwave radiation on the processing of Palabora copper ore. Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy(South Africa), 100(3), 197-204.; W. C. J. van Rensburg and L. Liebenberg (1967) Mackinawite from South Africa. American Mineralogist 52:1027-35
Chondrodite
Formula: (Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa; Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: Braithwaite, R. S. W., Dunn, P. J., Pritchard, R. G., & Parr, W. H. (1994). Iowaite, a reinvestigation. Mineralogical Magazine, 58(390), 77-86.; Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Reference: Heinrich, E. (1970) The Palabora Carbonatitic Complex - a Unique Copper Deposit. Can Mineral 10:585-598
Cubanite
Formula: CuFe2S3
Reference: Heinrich, E. (1970) The Palabora Carbonatitic Complex - a Unique Copper Deposit. Can Mineral 10:585-598; Kingman, S. W., Vorster, W., & Rowson, N. A. (2000). The effect of microwave radiation on the processing of Palabora copper ore. Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy(South Africa), 100(3), 197-204.; W. C. J. van Rensburg and L. Liebenberg (1967) Mackinawite from South Africa. American Mineralogist 52:1027-35
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: Kingman, S. W., Vorster, W., & Rowson, N. A. (2000). The effect of microwave radiation on the processing of Palabora copper ore. Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy(South Africa), 100(3), 197-204.
Datolite
Formula: CaB(SiO4)(OH)
Reference: [Gliddon, J. P. and Braithwaite, R. S. (1991) - Zeolites and associated minerals from the Palabora mine, Transvaal (Afrique du Sud), Mineralogical Record, 22 (4), 255-262.]; Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Colour: Pale lime-green
Description: Occurs as large cleavages and crystal remnants.
Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa, Linden 2104, South Africa
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa; Heinrich, E. (1970) The Palabora Carbonatitic Complex - a Unique Copper Deposit. Can Mineral 10:585-598
'Electrum'
Formula: (Au, Ag)
Description: Determined in carbonatitic ores, in sulfide flotation concentrate.
Reference: Nikolay Rudashevsky et al (2001) Efficient Technology of Ore Minerals Investigation of PGE-Bearing Deposits – Case Study in (2001) European Union of Geosciences Conference XI (OS6); Heinrich, E. (1970) The Palabora Carbonatitic Complex - a Unique Copper Deposit. Can Mineral 10:585-598
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'
Reference: Heinrich, E. (1970) The Palabora Carbonatitic Complex - a Unique Copper Deposit. Can Mineral 10:585-598; Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7
Fluoborite
Formula: Mg3(BO3)(F,OH)3
Colour: White
Description: Found in foskorite rocks of the Phalaborwa complex as white mats grown in parallel alignment, associated with Iowaite and Magnetite.
Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa: 206.; Braithwaite, R. S. W., Dunn, P. J., Pritchard, R. G., & Parr, W. H. (1994). Iowaite, a reinvestigation. Mineralogical Magazine, 58(390), 77-86.; Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Reference: [Gliddon, J. P. and Braithwaite, R. S. (1991) - Zeolites and associated minerals from the Palabora mine, Transvaal (Afrique du Sud), Mineralogical Record, 22 (4), 255-262.]; Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7
Fluorapophyllite-(K)
Formula: KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
Reference: Cairncross, B., (2004), Field Guide to Rocks & Minerals of Southern Africa. Struik Publishers, Cape Town, South Africa; Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Reference: Heinrich, E. (1970) The Palabora Carbonatitic Complex - a Unique Copper Deposit. Can Mineral 10:585-598; Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7
Froodite
Formula: α-PdBi2
Description: Determined in carbonatitic ores, in sulfide flotation concentrate.
Reference: Nikolay Rudashevsky et al (2001) Efficient Technology of Ore Minerals Investigation of PGE-Bearing Deposits – Case Study in (2001) European Union of Geosciences Conference XI (OS6)
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Heinrich, E. (1970) The Palabora Carbonatitic Complex - a Unique Copper Deposit. Can Mineral 10:585-598
Geikielite
Formula: MgTiO3
Reference: Minerals of South Africa; Lee, M. E., Goosen, W. E., Minnaar, E. G., & Liebenberg, T. Microanalysis of mineral inclusions in primary baddeleyite from the Phalaborwa complex.
Gold
Formula: Au
Reference: Heinrich, E. (1970) The Palabora Carbonatitic Complex - a Unique Copper Deposit. Can Mineral 10:585-598
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7
Hessite
Formula: Ag2Te
Description: Determined in carbonatitic ores, in sulfide flotation concentrate
Reference: Nikolay Rudashevsky et al (2001) Efficient Technology of Ore Minerals Investigation of PGE-Bearing Deposits – Case Study in (2001) European Union of Geosciences Conference XI (OS6)
'Heulandite subgroup'
Reference: [Gliddon, J. P. and Braithwaite, R. S. (1991) - Zeolites and associated minerals from the Palabora mine, Transvaal (Afrique du Sud), Mineralogical Record, 22 (4), 255-262.]; Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7
Hydrobiotite
Formula: K(Mg,Fe2+)6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · nH2O
Reference: Gunnar Färber
Hydromagnesite
Formula: Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
Reference: Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7
Hydrotalcite
Formula: Mg6Al2(CO3)(OH)16 · 4H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa; Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Reference: Lee, M. E., Goosen, W. E., Minnaar, E. G., & Liebenberg, T. Microanalysis of mineral inclusions in primary baddeleyite from the Phalaborwa complex.
Iowaite
Formula: Mg6Fe3+2(OH)16Cl2 · 4H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa; Braithwaite, R. S. W., Dunn, P. J., Pritchard, R. G., & Parr, W. H. (1994). Iowaite, a reinvestigation. Mineralogical Magazine, 58(390), 77-86.; Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7
Jalpaite
Formula: Ag3CuS2
Description: Determined in carbonatitic ores, in sulfide flotation concentrate
Reference: Nikolay Rudashevsky et al (2001) Efficient Technology of Ore Minerals Investigation of PGE-Bearing Deposits – Case Study in (2001) European Union of Geosciences Conference XI (OS6)
Kyanite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Reference: Bruce Cairncross colelction
Laumontite
Formula: CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Reference: [Gliddon, J. P. and Braithwaite, R. S. (1991) - Zeolites and associated minerals from the Palabora mine, Transvaal (Afrique du Sud), Mineralogical Record, 22 (4), 255-262.]; Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7
Linnaeite
Formula: Co2+Co3+2S4
Reference: Heinrich, E. (1970) The Palabora Carbonatitic Complex - a Unique Copper Deposit. Can Mineral 10:585-598
Mackinawite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)9S8
Reference: W. C. J. van Rensburg and L. Liebenberg (1967) Mackinawite from South Africa. American Mineralogist 52:1027-35
Magnesite
Formula: MgCO3
Reference: Heinrich, E. (1970) The Palabora Carbonatitic Complex - a Unique Copper Deposit. Can Mineral 10:585-598
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: http://www.palabora.com/magnetite.asp; Heinrich, E. (1970) The Palabora Carbonatitic Complex - a Unique Copper Deposit. Can Mineral 10:585-598; Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7
Majakite
Formula: PdNiAs
Description: Determined in carbonatitic ores, in sulfide flotation concentrate.
Reference: Nikolay Rudashevsky et al (2001) Efficient Technology of Ore Minerals Investigation of PGE-Bearing Deposits – Case Study in (2001) European Union of Geosciences Conference XI (OS6)
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Kingman, S. W., Vorster, W., & Rowson, N. A. (2000). The effect of microwave radiation on the processing of Palabora copper ore. Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy(South Africa), 100(3), 197-204.
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Heinrich, E. (1970) The Palabora Carbonatitic Complex - a Unique Copper Deposit. Can Mineral 10:585-598
Mertieite-II
Formula: Pd8Sb2.5As0.5
Description: Determined in carbonatitic ores, in sulfide flotation concentrate.
Reference: Nikolay Rudashevsky et al (2001) Efficient Technology of Ore Minerals Investigation of PGE-Bearing Deposits – Case Study in (2001) European Union of Geosciences Conference XI (OS6)
Mesolite
Formula: Na2Ca2Si9Al6O30 · 8H2O
Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa. 223.; Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7
Millerite
Formula: NiS
Reference: Nikolay Rudashevsky et al (2001) Efficient Technology of Ore Minerals Investigation of PGE-Bearing Deposits – Case Study in (2001) European Union of Geosciences Conference XI (OS6); Heinrich, E. (1970) The Palabora Carbonatitic Complex - a Unique Copper Deposit. Can Mineral 10:585-598
'Monazite'
Reference: Heinrich, E. (1970) The Palabora Carbonatitic Complex - a Unique Copper Deposit. Can Mineral 10:585-598
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Bruce Cairncross colelction
Muscovite var: Fuchsite
Formula: K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
Reference: Bruce Cairncross colelction
Natrolite
Formula: Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Reference: [Gliddon, J. P. and Braithwaite, R. S. (1991) - Zeolites and associated minerals from the Palabora mine, Transvaal (Afrique du Sud), Mineralogical Record, 22 (4), 255-262.]; Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7
Naumannite
Formula: Ag2Se
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Pectolite
Formula: NaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Reference: Gliddon, J. P. and Braithwaite, R. S. (1991) - Zeolites and associated minerals from the Palabora mine, Transvaal (Afrique du Sud), Mineralogical Record, 22 (4), 255-262. Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995), Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa: 229; Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7
Pentlandite
Formula: (FexNiy)Σ9S8
Reference: Nikolay Rudashevsky et al (2001) Efficient Technology of Ore Minerals Investigation of PGE-Bearing Deposits – Case Study in (2001) European Union of Geosciences Conference XI (OS6); Heinrich, E. (1970) The Palabora Carbonatitic Complex - a Unique Copper Deposit. Can Mineral 10:585-598; W. C. J. van Rensburg and L. Liebenberg (1967) Mackinawite from South Africa. American Mineralogist 52:1027-35
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa; Heinrich, E. (1970) The Palabora Carbonatitic Complex - a Unique Copper Deposit. Can Mineral 10:585-598; Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7
Portlandite
Formula: Ca(OH)2
Reference: Sokolov S.V. (2010) On portlandite from carbonatite complexes. Abstracts of XXVII International conference School «Geochemistry of Alkaline rocks». – Moscow-Koktebel’. pp. 240 pp.
Prehnite
Formula: Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Reference: [Gliddon, J. P. and Braithwaite, R. S. (1991) - Zeolites and associated minerals from the Palabora mine, Transvaal (Afrique du Sud), Mineralogical Record, 22 (4), 255-262.]; Cairncross, B., (2004), Field Guide to Rocks & Minerals of Southern Africa. Struik Publishers, Cape Town, South Africa; Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: [Gliddon, J. P. and Braithwaite, R. S. (1991) - Zeolites and associated minerals from the Palabora mine, Transvaal (Afrique du Sud), Mineralogical Record, 22 (4), 255-262.]; Heinrich, E. (1970) The Palabora Carbonatitic Complex - a Unique Copper Deposit. Can Mineral 10:585-598; Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Reference: Heinrich, E. (1970) The Palabora Carbonatitic Complex - a Unique Copper Deposit. Can Mineral 10:585-598
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: [Gliddon, J. P. and Braithwaite, R. S. (1991) - Zeolites and associated minerals from the Palabora mine, Transvaal (Afrique du Sud), Mineralogical Record, 22 (4), 255-262.]
Saponite
Formula: Ca0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Reference: [Gliddon, J. P. and Braithwaite, R. S. (1991) - Zeolites and associated minerals from the Palabora mine, Transvaal (Afrique du Sud), Mineralogical Record, 22 (4), 255-262.]
Scolecite
Formula: CaAl2Si3O10 · 3H2O
Reference: Cairncross, B., (2004), Field Guide to Rocks & Minerals of Southern Africa. Struik Publishers, Cape Town, South Africa; Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7
'Serpentine Subgroup'
Formula: D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Reference: Heinrich, E. (1970) The Palabora Carbonatitic Complex - a Unique Copper Deposit. Can Mineral 10:585-598
Siegenite
Formula: CoNi2S4
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Silver
Formula: Ag
Description: Determined in carbonatitic ores, in sulfide flotation concentrate (from Nikolay Rudashevsky et al (2001) reference).
Reference: Heinrich, E. (1970) The Palabora Carbonatitic Complex - a Unique Copper Deposit. Can Mineral 10:585-598; Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7; Nikolay Rudashevsky et al (2001) Efficient Technology of Ore Minerals Investigation of PGE-Bearing Deposits – Case Study in (2001) European Union of Geosciences Conference XI (OS6)
Silver var: Küstelite
Formula: Ag
Description: Determined in carbonatitic ores, in sulfide flotation concentrate.
Reference: Nikolay Rudashevsky et al (2001) Efficient Technology of Ore Minerals Investigation of PGE-Bearing Deposits – Case Study in (2001) European Union of Geosciences Conference XI (OS6)
Sperrylite
Formula: PtAs2
Description: Determined in carbonatitic ores, in sulfide flotation concentrate.
Reference: Nikolay Rudashevsky et al (2001) Efficient Technology of Ore Minerals Investigation of PGE-Bearing Deposits – Case Study in (2001) European Union of Geosciences Conference XI (OS6)
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Heinrich, E. (1970) The Palabora Carbonatitic Complex - a Unique Copper Deposit. Can Mineral 10:585-598; Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7
Stilbite-Ca
Formula: NaCa4[Al9Si27O72] · nH2O
Reference: [Gliddon, J. P. and Braithwaite, R. S. (1991) - Zeolites and associated minerals from the Palabora mine, Transvaal (Afrique du Sud), Mineralogical Record, 22 (4), 255-262.]; Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7
Stromeyerite
Formula: AgCuS
Description: Determined in carbonatitic ores, in sulfide flotation concentrate
Reference: Nikolay Rudashevsky et al (2001) Efficient Technology of Ore Minerals Investigation of PGE-Bearing Deposits – Case Study in (2001) European Union of Geosciences Conference XI (OS6)
Strontianite
Formula: SrCO3
Reference: Lee, M. E., Goosen, W. E., Minnaar, E. G., & Liebenberg, T. Microanalysis of mineral inclusions in primary baddeleyite from the Phalaborwa complex.; Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7
Taimyrite
Formula: (Pd,Cu,Pt)3Sn
Description: Determined in carbonatitic ores, in sulfide flotation concentrate.
Reference: Nikolay Rudashevsky et al (2001) Efficient Technology of Ore Minerals Investigation of PGE-Bearing Deposits – Case Study in (2001) European Union of Geosciences Conference XI (OS6)
Talnakhite
Formula: Cu9(Fe,Ni)8S16
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Tetra-auricupride
Formula: AuCu
Description: Determined in carbonatitic ores, in sulfide flotation concentrate.
Reference: Nikolay Rudashevsky et al (2001) Efficient Technology of Ore Minerals Investigation of PGE-Bearing Deposits – Case Study in (2001) European Union of Geosciences Conference XI (OS6)
Tetrahedrite
Formula: Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Reference: Heinrich, E. (1970) The Palabora Carbonatitic Complex - a Unique Copper Deposit. Can Mineral 10:585-598
Thomsonite-Ca
Formula: NaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
Reference: [Gliddon, J. P. and Braithwaite, R. S. (1991) - Zeolites and associated minerals from the Palabora mine, Transvaal (Afrique du Sud), Mineralogical Record, 22 (4), 255-262.]; Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7
Thorianite
Formula: ThO2
Reference: Lee, M. E., Goosen, W. E., Minnaar, E. G., & Liebenberg, T. Microanalysis of mineral inclusions in primary baddeleyite from the Phalaborwa complex.
Thorianite var: Uranothorianite
Formula: (Th,U)O2
Reference: Heinrich, E. (1970) The Palabora Carbonatitic Complex - a Unique Copper Deposit. Can Mineral 10:585-598; Lee, M. E., Goosen, W. E., Minnaar, E. G., & Liebenberg, T. Microanalysis of mineral inclusions in primary baddeleyite from the Phalaborwa complex.
Uraninite
Formula: UO2
Reference: Lee, M. E., Goosen, W. E., Minnaar, E. G., & Liebenberg, T. Microanalysis of mineral inclusions in primary baddeleyite from the Phalaborwa complex.
Valleriite
Formula: (Fe2+,Cu)4(Mg,Al)3S4(OH,O)6
Reference: [MinRec 9:114]; Heinrich, E. (1970) The Palabora Carbonatitic Complex - a Unique Copper Deposit. Can Mineral 10:585-598; Kingman, S. W., Vorster, W., & Rowson, N. A. (2000). The effect of microwave radiation on the processing of Palabora copper ore. Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy(South Africa), 100(3), 197-204.; Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7
Vermiculite
Formula: Mg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
Description: Crystals to 20cm across.
Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa. 251.; Heinrich, E. (1970) The Palabora Carbonatitic Complex - a Unique Copper Deposit. Can Mineral 10:585-598
Violarite
Formula: Fe2+Ni3+2S4
Reference: Heinrich, E. (1970) The Palabora Carbonatitic Complex - a Unique Copper Deposit. Can Mineral 10:585-598
Xonotlite
Formula: Ca6(Si6O17)(OH)2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa; Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Reference: Heinrich, E. (1970) The Palabora Carbonatitic Complex - a Unique Copper Deposit. Can Mineral 10:585-598
Zirconolite
Formula: CaZrTi2O7
Reference: Ewing, R. C., Haaker, R. F., Headley, T. J., & Hlava, P. F. (1981, January). Zirconolites from Sri Lanka, South Africa and Brazil. In MRS Proceedings (Vol. 6, p. 249). Cambridge University Press.
Zirconolite var: Niobozirconolite
Formula: CaZr(Ti,Nb)2O7
Reference: No reference listed
Zirkelite
Formula: (Ti,Ca,Zr)O2-x
Reference: Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Atokite1.AG.10(Pd,Pt)3Sn
Cabriite1.AG.30Pd2CuSn
'Electrum'1.AA.05(Au, Ag)
Gold1.AA.05Au
Silver1.AA.05Ag
var: Küstelite1.AA.05Ag
Taimyrite1.AG.15(Pd,Cu,Pt)3Sn
Tetra-auricupride1.AA.10bAuCu
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Argentopentlandite2.BB.15Ag(Fe,Ni)8S8
Arsenopalladinite2.AC.10cPd8(As,Sb)3
Bornite2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Covellite2.CA.05aCuS
Cubanite2.CB.55aCuFe2S3
Froodite2.AC.45aα-PdBi2
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Hessite2.BA.60Ag2Te
Jalpaite2.BA.45Ag3CuS2
Linnaeite2.DA.05Co2+Co3+2S4
Mackinawite2.CC.25(Fe,Ni)9S8
Majakite2.AC.25ePdNiAs
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Mertieite-II2.AC.10bPd8Sb2.5As0.5
Millerite2.CC.20NiS
Naumannite2.BA.55Ag2Se
Pentlandite2.BB.15(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Siegenite2.DA.05CoNi2S4
Sperrylite2.EB.05aPtAs2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Stromeyerite2.BA.40AgCuS
Talnakhite2.CB.10bCu9(Fe,Ni)8S16
Tetrahedrite2.GB.05Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Valleriite2.FD.30(Fe2+,Cu)4(Mg,Al)3S4(OH,O)6
Violarite2.DA.05Fe2+Ni3+2S4
Group 3 - Halides
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Baddeleyite4.DE.35ZrO2
Brucite4.FE.05Mg(OH)2
Cuprite4.AA.10Cu2O
Geikielite4.CB.05MgTiO3
Ilmenite4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
Iowaite4.FL.05Mg6Fe3+2(OH)16Cl2 · 4H2O
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Portlandite4.FE.05Ca(OH)2
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Thorianite4.DL.05ThO2
var: Uranothorianite4.DL.05(Th,U)O2
Uraninite4.DL.05UO2
Zirconolite4.DH.30CaZrTi2O7
var: Niobozirconolite4.DH.30CaZr(Ti,Nb)2O7
Zirkelite4.DL.05(Ti,Ca,Zr)O2-x
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Aragonite5.AB.15CaCO3
Azurite5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Hydromagnesite5.DA.05Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
Hydrotalcite5.DA.50Mg6Al2(CO3)(OH)16 · 4H2O
Magnesite5.AB.05MgCO3
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Strontianite5.AB.15SrCO3
Group 6 - Borates
Fluoborite6.AB.50Mg3(BO3)(F,OH)3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Celestine7.AD.35SrSO4
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Fluorapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 9 - Silicates
Aegirine9.DA.25NaFe3+Si2O6
Analcime9.GB.05Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Antigorite9.ED.15Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Chondrodite9.AF.45(Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2
Clinochlore9.EC.55Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Datolite9.AJ.20CaB(SiO4)(OH)
Diopside9.DA.15CaMgSi2O6
Fluorapophyllite-(K)9.EA.15KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
Hydrobiotite9.EC.60K(Mg,Fe2+)6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · nH2O
Kyanite9.AF.15Al2(SiO4)O
Laumontite9.GB.10CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Mesolite9.GA.05Na2Ca2Si9Al6O30 · 8H2O
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Fuchsite9.EC.15K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
Natrolite9.GA.05Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Pectolite9.DG.05NaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Phlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Prehnite9.DP.20Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Saponite9.EC.45Ca0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Scolecite9.GA.05CaAl2Si3O10 · 3H2O
Stilbite-Ca9.GE.10NaCa4[Al9Si27O72] · nH2O
Thomsonite-Ca9.GA.10NaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
Vermiculite9.EC.50Mg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
Xonotlite9.DG.35Ca6(Si6O17)(OH)2
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Anzaite-(Ce)-Ce3+ 4Fe2+Ti6O18 (OH)2
'Apatite'-
'Biotite'-
'Bravoite'-(Fe,Ni)S2
'Chabazite'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Heulandite subgroup'-
'Monazite'-
'Serpentine Subgroup'-D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Silver1.1.1.2Ag
Tetra-auricupride1.1.2.2AuCu
Platinum Group Metals and Alloys
Atokite1.2.5.3(Pd,Pt)3Sn
Cabriite1.2.11.Pd2CuSn
Taimyrite1.2.10.1(Pd,Cu,Pt)3Sn
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
Hessite2.4.2.1Ag2Te
Jalpaite2.4.4.1Ag3CuS2
Majakite2.4.16.1PdNiAs
Naumannite2.4.1.2Ag2Se
Stromeyerite2.4.6.1AgCuS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 9:8
Argentopentlandite2.7.1.2Ag(Fe,Ni)8S8
Mackinawite2.7.2.1(Fe,Ni)9S8
Pentlandite2.7.1.1(FexNiy)Σ9S8
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Millerite2.8.16.1NiS
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
Cubanite2.9.13.1CuFe2S3
Talnakhite2.9.8.1Cu9(Fe,Ni)8S16
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:4
Linnaeite2.10.1.1Co2+Co3+2S4
Siegenite2.10.1.6CoNi2S4
Violarite2.10.1.8Fe2+Ni3+2S4
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Froodite2.12.15.1α-PdBi2
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Sperrylite2.12.1.13PtAs2
Hydroxysulfides and Hydrated Sulfides
Valleriite2.14.1.1(Fe2+,Cu)4(Mg,Al)3S4(OH,O)6
Miscellaneous
Arsenopalladinite2.16.5.1Pd8(As,Sb)3
Mertieite-II2.16.3.1Pd8Sb2.5As0.5
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
3 <ø < 4
Tetrahedrite3.3.6.1Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
A2X3
Geikielite4.3.5.2MgTiO3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
AX2
Baddeleyite4.4.14.1ZrO2
Group 5 - OXIDES CONTAINING URANIUM OR THORIUM
AXO2·xH2O
Thorianite5.1.1.2ThO2
Uraninite5.1.1.1UO2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
X(OH)2
Brucite6.2.1.1Mg(OH)2
Portlandite6.2.1.4Ca(OH)2
Miscellaneous
Iowaite6.4.5.1Mg6Fe3+2(OH)16Cl2 · 4H2O
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 8 - MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
A2B2O6(O,OH,F)
Zirconolite8.2.5.5CaZrTi2O7
Zirkelite8.2.5.1(Ti,Ca,Zr)O2-x
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Magnesite14.1.1.2MgCO3
Strontianite14.1.3.3SrCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 16b - HYDRATED CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Hydrotalcite16b.6.2.1Mg6Al2(CO3)(OH)16 · 4H2O
Hydromagnesite16b.7.1.1Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
Group 25 - ANHYDROUS BORATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Monoborates
Fluoborite25.1.2.1Mg3(BO3)(F,OH)3
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Celestine28.3.1.2SrSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and >[4] coordination
Kyanite52.2.2c.1Al2(SiO4)O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] coordination only
Chondrodite52.3.2b.2(Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2
Group 54 - NESOSILICATES Borosilicates and Some Beryllosilicates
Borosilicates and Some Beryllosilicates with B in [4] coordination
Datolite54.2.1a.1CaB(SiO4)(OH)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Aegirine65.1.3c.2NaFe3+Si2O6
Diopside65.1.3a.1CaMgSi2O6
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=3
Pectolite65.2.1.4aNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Ca-Na subgroup
Xonotlite66.3.1.1Ca6(Si6O17)(OH)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Antigorite71.1.2a.1Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Hydrobiotite71.2.2d.1K(Mg,Fe2+)6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · nH2O
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Vermiculite71.2.2d.3Mg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 clays
Saponite71.3.1b.2Ca0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Clinochlore71.4.1.4Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Group 72 - PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 4-membered rings
Prehnite72.1.3.1Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 3-, 4-, or 5-membered rings and 8-membered rings
Fluorapophyllite-(K)72.3.1.1KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
Analcime77.1.1.1Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Laumontite77.1.1.4CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Mesolite77.1.5.4Na2Ca2Si9Al6O30 · 8H2O
Natrolite77.1.5.1Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Scolecite77.1.5.5CaAl2Si3O10 · 3H2O
Stilbite-Ca77.1.4.3NaCa4[Al9Si27O72] · nH2O
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Anzaite-(Ce)-Ce3+ 4Fe2+Ti6O18 (OH)2
'Apatite'-
Aragonite-CaCO3
'Biotite'-
'Bravoite'-(Fe,Ni)S2
'Chabazite'-
'Electrum'-(Au, Ag)
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Heulandite subgroup'-
'Monazite'-
Muscovite
var: Fuchsite
-K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
'Serpentine Subgroup'-D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Silver
var: Küstelite
-Ag
Thomsonite-Ca-NaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
Thorianite
var: Uranothorianite
-(Th,U)O2
Zirconolite
var: Niobozirconolite
-CaZr(Ti,Nb)2O7

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H IowaiteMg6Fe23+(OH)16Cl2 · 4H2O
H ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H FluoboriteMg3(BO3)(F,OH)3
H Fluorapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
H MesoliteNa2Ca2Si9Al6O30 · 8H2O
H ScoleciteCaAl2Si3O10 · 3H2O
H Valleriite(Fe2+,Cu)4(Mg,Al)3S4(OH,O)6
H AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
H DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
H LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
H NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
H PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
H PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
H SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
H Stilbite-CaNaCa4[Al9Si27O72] · nH2O
H Thomsonite-CaNaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H VermiculiteMg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
H Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
H BruciteMg(OH)2
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H HydrotalciteMg6Al2(CO3)(OH)16 · 4H2O
H AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
H XonotliteCa6(Si6O17)(OH)2
H PortlanditeCa(OH)2
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H HydrobiotiteK(Mg,Fe2+)6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · nH2O
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H HydromagnesiteMg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
H Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Anzaite-(Ce)Ce 43+Fe2+Ti6O18 (OH)2
BBoron
B FluoboriteMg3(BO3)(F,OH)3
B DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C MagnesiteMgCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C HydrotalciteMg6Al2(CO3)(OH)16 · 4H2O
C StrontianiteSrCO3
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
C AragoniteCaCO3
C HydromagnesiteMg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
OOxygen
O IowaiteMg6Fe23+(OH)16Cl2 · 4H2O
O BaddeleyiteZrO2
O Chondrodite(Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2
O CalciteCaCO3
O ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O FluoboriteMg3(BO3)(F,OH)3
O Fluorapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O MesoliteNa2Ca2Si9Al6O30 · 8H2O
O Zirconolite (var: Niobozirconolite)CaZr(Ti,Nb)2O7
O ScoleciteCaAl2Si3O10 · 3H2O
O Valleriite(Fe2+,Cu)4(Mg,Al)3S4(OH,O)6
O Zirkelite(Ti,Ca,Zr)O2-x
O AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
O DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
O NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
O PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
O PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
O QuartzSiO2
O SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
O Stilbite-CaNaCa4[Al9Si27O72] · nH2O
O Thomsonite-CaNaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O CupriteCu2O
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O VermiculiteMg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
O AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
O Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
O MagnesiteMgCO3
O Thorianite (var: Uranothorianite)(Th,U)O2
O ThorianiteThO2
O ZirconoliteCaZrTi2O7
O BruciteMg(OH)2
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O GeikieliteMgTiO3
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O HydrotalciteMg6Al2(CO3)(OH)16 · 4H2O
O BaryteBaSO4
O CelestineSrSO4
O AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
O XonotliteCa6(Si6O17)(OH)2
O PortlanditeCa(OH)2
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
O StrontianiteSrCO3
O UraniniteUO2
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O HydrobiotiteK(Mg,Fe2+)6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · nH2O
O AragoniteCaCO3
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O HydromagnesiteMg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
O DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
O KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
O Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Anzaite-(Ce)Ce 43+Fe2+Ti6O18 (OH)2
FFluorine
F Chondrodite(Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2
F FluoboriteMg3(BO3)(F,OH)3
F Fluorapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
F FluoriteCaF2
NaSodium
Na MesoliteNa2Ca2Si9Al6O30 · 8H2O
Na AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Na NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Na PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Na SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Na Stilbite-CaNaCa4[Al9Si27O72] · nH2O
Na Thomsonite-CaNaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
Na AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
MgMagnesium
Mg IowaiteMg6Fe23+(OH)16Cl2 · 4H2O
Mg Chondrodite(Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2
Mg ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Mg FluoboriteMg3(BO3)(F,OH)3
Mg Valleriite(Fe2+,Cu)4(Mg,Al)3S4(OH,O)6
Mg SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Mg VermiculiteMg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
Mg Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Mg MagnesiteMgCO3
Mg BruciteMg(OH)2
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg GeikieliteMgTiO3
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Mg HydrotalciteMg6Al2(CO3)(OH)16 · 4H2O
Mg AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Mg HydrobiotiteK(Mg,Fe2+)6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · nH2O
Mg HydromagnesiteMg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
Mg DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
AlAluminium
Al ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Al MesoliteNa2Ca2Si9Al6O30 · 8H2O
Al ScoleciteCaAl2Si3O10 · 3H2O
Al Valleriite(Fe2+,Cu)4(Mg,Al)3S4(OH,O)6
Al AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Al LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Al NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Al PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Al SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Al Stilbite-CaNaCa4[Al9Si27O72] · nH2O
Al Thomsonite-CaNaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
Al VermiculiteMg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
Al Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al HydrotalciteMg6Al2(CO3)(OH)16 · 4H2O
Al HydrobiotiteK(Mg,Fe2+)6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · nH2O
Al KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Al Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si Chondrodite(Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2
Si ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si Fluorapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
Si MesoliteNa2Ca2Si9Al6O30 · 8H2O
Si ScoleciteCaAl2Si3O10 · 3H2O
Si AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Si DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
Si LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Si NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Si PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Si PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Si Stilbite-CaNaCa4[Al9Si27O72] · nH2O
Si Thomsonite-CaNaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
Si VermiculiteMg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
Si AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
Si Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si XonotliteCa6(Si6O17)(OH)2
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
Si HydrobiotiteK(Mg,Fe2+)6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · nH2O
Si DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Si KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Si Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
PPhosphorus
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
SSulfur
S Valleriite(Fe2+,Cu)4(Mg,Al)3S4(OH,O)6
S PyriteFeS2
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S CubaniteCuFe2S3
S ChalcociteCu2S
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
S MilleriteNiS
S Bravoite(Fe,Ni)S2
S LinnaeiteCo2+Co23+S4
S ViolariteFe2+Ni23+S4
S CovelliteCuS
S TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
S SphaleriteZnS
S GalenaPbS
S MarcasiteFeS2
S Mackinawite(Fe,Ni)9S8
S BaryteBaSO4
S CelestineSrSO4
S SiegeniteCoNi2S4
S TalnakhiteCu9(Fe,Ni)8S16
S StromeyeriteAgCuS
S JalpaiteAg3CuS2
S ArgentopentlanditeAg(Fe,Ni)8S8
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
ClChlorine
Cl IowaiteMg6Fe23+(OH)16Cl2 · 4H2O
KPotassium
K Fluorapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K HydrobiotiteK(Mg,Fe2+)6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · nH2O
K Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Fluorapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
Ca MesoliteNa2Ca2Si9Al6O30 · 8H2O
Ca Zirconolite (var: Niobozirconolite)CaZr(Ti,Nb)2O7
Ca ScoleciteCaAl2Si3O10 · 3H2O
Ca Zirkelite(Ti,Ca,Zr)O2-x
Ca DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
Ca LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Ca PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Ca PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Ca SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Ca Stilbite-CaNaCa4[Al9Si27O72] · nH2O
Ca Thomsonite-CaNaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
Ca ZirconoliteCaZrTi2O7
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca XonotliteCa6(Si6O17)(OH)2
Ca PortlanditeCa(OH)2
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
TiTitanium
Ti Zirconolite (var: Niobozirconolite)CaZr(Ti,Nb)2O7
Ti Zirkelite(Ti,Ca,Zr)O2-x
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Ti ZirconoliteCaZrTi2O7
Ti GeikieliteMgTiO3
Ti Anzaite-(Ce)Ce 43+Fe2+Ti6O18 (OH)2
CrChromium
Cr Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
MnManganese
Mn Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
FeIron
Fe IowaiteMg6Fe23+(OH)16Cl2 · 4H2O
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe Valleriite(Fe2+,Cu)4(Mg,Al)3S4(OH,O)6
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Fe VermiculiteMg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
Fe AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
Fe Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe CubaniteCuFe2S3
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Fe Bravoite(Fe,Ni)S2
Fe ViolariteFe2+Ni23+S4
Fe TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe Mackinawite(Fe,Ni)9S8
Fe TalnakhiteCu9(Fe,Ni)8S16
Fe ArgentopentlanditeAg(Fe,Ni)8S8
Fe HydrobiotiteK(Mg,Fe2+)6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · nH2O
Fe Anzaite-(Ce)Ce 43+Fe2+Ti6O18 (OH)2
CoCobalt
Co LinnaeiteCo2+Co23+S4
Co SiegeniteCoNi2S4
NiNickel
Ni Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Ni Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Ni MilleriteNiS
Ni Bravoite(Fe,Ni)S2
Ni ViolariteFe2+Ni23+S4
Ni Mackinawite(Fe,Ni)9S8
Ni SiegeniteCoNi2S4
Ni TalnakhiteCu9(Fe,Ni)8S16
Ni MajakitePdNiAs
Ni ArgentopentlanditeAg(Fe,Ni)8S8
CuCopper
Cu Valleriite(Fe2+,Cu)4(Mg,Al)3S4(OH,O)6
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu CubaniteCuFe2S3
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Cu TalnakhiteCu9(Fe,Ni)8S16
Cu CabriitePd2CuSn
Cu Tetra-auricuprideAuCu
Cu StromeyeriteAgCuS
Cu JalpaiteAg3CuS2
Cu Taimyrite(Pd,Cu,Pt)3Sn
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
ZnZinc
Zn Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Zn TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AsArsenic
As SperrylitePtAs2
As MajakitePdNiAs
As ArsenopalladinitePd8(As,Sb)3
As Mertieite-IIPd8Sb2.5As0.5
SeSelenium
Se NaumanniteAg2Se
SrStrontium
Sr CelestineSrSO4
Sr StrontianiteSrCO3
ZrZirconium
Zr BaddeleyiteZrO2
Zr Zirconolite (var: Niobozirconolite)CaZr(Ti,Nb)2O7
Zr Zirkelite(Ti,Ca,Zr)O2-x
Zr ZirconoliteCaZrTi2O7
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)
NbNiobium
Nb Zirconolite (var: Niobozirconolite)CaZr(Ti,Nb)2O7
PdPalladium
Pd CabriitePd2CuSn
Pd Atokite(Pd,Pt)3Sn
Pd MajakitePdNiAs
Pd ArsenopalladinitePd8(As,Sb)3
Pd Mertieite-IIPd8Sb2.5As0.5
Pd Frooditeα-PdBi2
Pd Taimyrite(Pd,Cu,Pt)3Sn
AgSilver
Ag Electrum(Au, Ag)
Ag NaumanniteAg2Se
Ag Silver (var: Küstelite)Ag
Ag SilverAg
Ag StromeyeriteAgCuS
Ag JalpaiteAg3CuS2
Ag HessiteAg2Te
Ag ArgentopentlanditeAg(Fe,Ni)8S8
SnTin
Sn CabriitePd2CuSn
Sn Atokite(Pd,Pt)3Sn
Sn Taimyrite(Pd,Cu,Pt)3Sn
SbAntimony
Sb TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Sb Mertieite-IIPd8Sb2.5As0.5
TeTellurium
Te HessiteAg2Te
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
CeCerium
Ce Anzaite-(Ce)Ce 43+Fe2+Ti6O18 (OH)2
PtPlatinum
Pt SperrylitePtAs2
Pt Taimyrite(Pd,Cu,Pt)3Sn
AuGold
Au GoldAu
Au Electrum(Au, Ag)
Au Tetra-auricuprideAuCu
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS
BiBismuth
Bi Frooditeα-PdBi2
ThThorium
Th Thorianite (var: Uranothorianite)(Th,U)O2
Th ThorianiteThO2
UUranium
U Thorianite (var: Uranothorianite)(Th,U)O2
U UraniniteUO2

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Rhyacian - Siderian
2050 - 2500 Ma



ID: 2227022
Phalaborwa Complex

Age: Proterozoic (2050 - 2500 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Phalaborwa Complex

Description: Pyroxenite, syenite, pegmatoids, carbonatite

Reference: Council for Geoscience. Geologic map of South Africa, 1:1M. National Science Councils of South Africa. [41]

Mesoarchean - Paleoarchean
2800 - 3600 Ma



ID: 3187538
Archean crystalline metamorphic rocks

Age: Archean (2800 - 3600 Ma)

Lithology: Crystalline metamorphic rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Paleoarchean
3200 - 3600 Ma



ID: 3308787

Age: Paleoarchean (3200 - 3600 Ma)

Lithology: Plutonic and metamorphic

Reference: Thiéblemont, D. (ed.). New edition of the 1:10,000,000 geological map of Africa. CGMW-BRGM. [190]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Sawyer, A.R. (1892) Mining. Geological and general guide to the Murchison range. John Heywood, Amen Corner, London, 96 pp.
Hanekom, H.J., Van Staden, C.M., Smit, P.J., and Pike, D.R. (1965) The geology of the Phalaborwa igneous complex. Memoir of the Geological Society of South Africa 54, 185 pp.
Herbert, I.C. (1967) Palabora. Mining Magazine 116, 4-5, 7, 9-11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 23, 25.
Frick, C. (1975) The Phalaborwa syenite intrusion. Transactions of the Geological Society of South Africa, 78, 201-213.
Mining Annual Review (1985) 411.
Verwoerd, W.J. (1986) Mineral deposits associated with carbonatites and alkaline rocks. In: Mineral deposits of Southern Africa. Vol. II. 2173-2191. Edited by: Annhaeusser and Maske. Geological Society of South Africa.
Gliddon, J.P and Braithwaite, R.S.W. (1991) Zeolites and Associated Minerals from the Palabora Mine, Transvaal. Mineralogical Record, 22(4), 255-262.
Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa.
Karchevskii, P.I. (2000) Minerals of Sr and REE in carbonatites from Loolekop deposit (Palabora, RSA). Zapiski Vserossiiskogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva 129, 99-109.
Groves, D.I. and Vielreicher, N.M. (2001) The Phalaborwa (Palabora) carbonatite-hosted magnetite-copper sulfide deposit, South Africa: an end-member of the iron-oxide copper-gold-rare earth element deposit group? Mineralium Deposita, 36, 189-194.
Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society, 43, 2-7.
Southwood, M. and Cairncross, B. (2017) The minerals of Palabora mine. Rocks & Minerals, 92, 426-452.
Giebel, R.J., Gauert, C.D.K., Marks, M.A.W., Costin, G., and Markl, G. (2017) Multi-stage formation of REE minerals in the Palabora Carbonatite Complex, South Africa. American Mineralogist, 102, 1218-1233.
Giebel, R.J., Marks, M.A.W., Gauert, C.D.K. and Markl, G. (2019): A model for the formation of carbonatite-phoscorite assemblages based on the compositional variations of mica and apatite from the Palabora Carbonatite Complex, South Africa. Lithos. 324-325, 89-104.

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