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Witwatersrand goldfield, South Africai
Regional Level Types
Witwatersrand goldfieldMining Region
South AfricaCountry

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Key
Locality type:
Largest Settlements:
PlacePopulation
Johannesburg2,026,469 (2015)
Soweto1,695,047 (2012)
Benoni605,344 (2012)
Tembisa511,655 (2012)
Vereeniging474,681 (2012)
Boksburg445,168 (2012)


The Witwatersrand is a large basin of metamorphosed conglomerates that forms the greatest goldfield in the world. It occurs across four provinces in South Africa.

It stretches for 350 km long by 200 km wide with a thickness that can exceed 10,000m. The mines have reached depths of 3600m.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Gallery Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded from this region.


Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

109 valid minerals. 2 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Alabandite
Formula: MnS
Reference: D. Pienaar. (2014). A Geometallurgical Characterization of the Vaal Reef A-Facies at the Moab Khotsong Mine, AngloGold Ashanti, with specific focus on gold and uranium deposrtment.. MSc thesis, Department of Geology, University of Johannesburg, South Africa, 217 pages.
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.. The Geological Society of South Africa.
Albite var. Andesine
Formula: (Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.. The Geological Society of South Africa.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'
Reference: Gibson R, Reimold W (2008) Geology of the Vredefort Impact Structure, South Africa Council of Geoscience Memoir 97
'Amphibole Supergroup'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Reference: Gibson R, Reimold W (2008) Geology of the Vredefort Impact Structure, South Africa Council of Geoscience Memoir 97
Anatase
Formula: TiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Fuchs, S. et al (2015) The growth and concentration of uranium and titanium minerals in hydrocarbons of the Carbon Leader Reef, Witwatersrand Supergroup, South Africa. Chemical Geology, Vol 393–394, 55–66.
Andalusite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.. Geological Society of South Africa (1995), page 183
Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Reference: D. Pienaar. (2014). A Geometallurgical Characterization of the Vaal Reef A-Facies at the Moab Khotsong Mine, AngloGold Ashanti, with specific focus on gold and uranium deposrtment.. MSc thesis, Department of Geology, University of Johannesburg, South Africa, 217 pages.
'Apatite'
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Reference: Econ Geol (1994) 89:909-918.
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Reference: Econ Geol (1986) 81:20-31
Augite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.. The Geological Society of South Africa.
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Habit: prismatic
Colour: Amber
Description: The largest (70 x 30cm) baryte crystals in the world were found here in 1997 in a cavity 2600 metres below the surface, attractive amber coloured crystals are associated with quartz, galena, carbon and pyrite.
Reference: Cairncross, B., and Rademeyer, B., (2001) Large barite crystals from the Elandsrand gold mine, South Africa. Mineralogical Record 32(3) 177-180; Cairncross, B., (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa, pg 46;
'Biotite'
Formula: K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3[AlSi3O10(OH)2
Reference: Gibson R, Reimold W (2008) Geology of the Vredefort Impact Structure, South Africa Council of Geoscience Memoir 97
Bismuthinite
Formula: Bi2S3
Reference: D. Pienaar. (2014). A Geometallurgical Characterization of the Vaal Reef A-Facies at the Moab Khotsong Mine, AngloGold Ashanti, with specific focus on gold and uranium deposrtment.. MSc thesis, Department of Geology, University of Johannesburg, South Africa, 217 pages.
Bismutite
Formula: (BiO)2CO3
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Braggite
Formula: (Pt,Pd,Ni)S
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Brannerite
Formula: UTi2O6
Reference: Econ Geol (1986) 81:20-31
Brookite
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Calaverite
Formula: AuTe2
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 15 localities in this region.
Reference: Cairncross photo ID 729104
Cassiterite
Formula: SnO2
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Econ Geol (1986) 81:20-31
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Econ Geol (1994) 89:909-918.
Chloritoid
Formula: (Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Reference: Jeffery, D. G. (2015). Structural discontinuties in the Witwatersrand group on the ERPM mine their geology, geochemistry and rock mechanics behaviour (Doctoral dissertation).
Chromite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Reference: De Jager, E. J. (2015). The analysis of the mine call factor in gold mining, with specific reference to Western Holding Mine (Doctoral dissertation).
Churchite-(Y)
Formula: Y(PO4) · 2H2O
Reference: Smits, G. (1984). Mineral modifications observed in uranium-bearing reefs of the Witwatersrand, South Africa. Transactions of the Geological Society of South Africa, 87(3), 245-256.
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Colour: Pale green
Description: Found associated with calcite and pyrite
Reference: Cairncross photo ID 729686
Cobaltite
Formula: CoAsS
Reference: Econ Geol (1986) 81:20-31
Coesite
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Coffinite
Formula: U(SiO4) · nH2O
Reference: D. Pienaar. (2014). A Geometallurgical Characterization of the Vaal Reef A-Facies at the Moab Khotsong Mine, AngloGold Ashanti, with specific focus on gold and uranium deposrtment.. MSc thesis, Department of Geology, University of Johannesburg, South Africa, 217 pages.
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Cooperite
Formula: PtS
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Corundum
Formula: Al2O3
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Reference: de Waal, S. A. (1982). A Literature Survey of the Metallurgical Aspects of Minerals in Witwatersrand Gold Ores No. M37. Council for Mineral Technology
Cubanite
Formula: CuFe2S3
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Curite
Formula: Pb3(H2O)2[(UO2)4O4(OH)3]2
Reference: Fuchs, S. et al (2015) The growth and concentration of uranium and titanium minerals in hydrocarbons of the Carbon Leader Reef, Witwatersrand Supergroup, South Africa. Chemical Geology, Vol 393–394, 55–66.
Diamond
Formula: C
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: Field, M., Stiefenhofer, J., Robey, J., and Kurszlaukis, S. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 33-75.
Digenite
Formula: Cu9S5
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Colour: Pink
Description: Found in association with water-clear quartz.
Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.. The Geological Society of South Africa, 43;
Dyscrasite
Formula: Ag3Sb
Reference: Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Bruce Cairncross photo ID 697159
Erlichmanite
Formula: OsS2
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Euxenite-(Y)
Formula: (Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
'Feldspar Group'
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
'Florencite'
Reference: D. Pienaar. (2014). A Geometallurgical Characterization of the Vaal Reef A-Facies at the Moab Khotsong Mine, AngloGold Ashanti, with specific focus on gold and uranium deposrtment.. MSc thesis, Department of Geology, University of Johannesburg, South Africa, 217 pages.
Fluorapophyllite-(K)
Formula: KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: [MinRec 32:177]
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Gersdorffite
Formula: NiAsS
Reference: Econ Geol (1986) 81:20-31
Geversite
Formula: PtSb2
Reference: Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
Glaucodot
Formula: (Co0.50Fe0.50)AsS
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Gold
Formula: Au
Localities: Reported from at least 78 localities in this region.
Reference: http://www.harmony.co.za/our-business/our-operations/joel
Graphite
Formula: C
Reference: Econ Geol (1994) 89:909-918.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Hercynite var. Picotite
Formula: (Fe,Mg)(Al,Cr)2O4
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Hollingworthite
Formula: (Rh,Pt,Pd)AsS
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Huntite
Formula: CaMg3(CO3)4
Reference: Martini, I. (1978). Mineralogy of the Transvaal caves. South African Journal of Geology, 81(1), 47-54.
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Reference: D. Pienaar. (2014). A Geometallurgical Characterization of the Vaal Reef A-Facies at the Moab Khotsong Mine, AngloGold Ashanti, with specific focus on gold and uranium deposrtment.. MSc thesis, Department of Geology, University of Johannesburg, South Africa, 217 pages.
Irarsite
Formula: (Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsS
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Iridarsenite
Formula: (Ir,Ru)As2
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Iridium
Formula: (Ir,Os,Ru)
Reference: Econ Geol (1989) 84:1651-1655
Iridium var. Osmiridium
Formula: (Ir,Os,Ru)
Reference: Econ Geol (1989) 84:1651-1655
Iridium var. Platiniridium
Formula: (Ir,Pt)
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Iridium var. Platosmiridium
Formula: (Ir,Pt,Os)
Reference: Feather C.E. (1976) Mineralogy of platinum-group minerals in the Witwatersrand, South Africa, - Econ. Geol., v. 71, pp. 1399-1428.
Iridium var. Ruthenian Iridium
Formula: (IrxRuyOsz)
Reference: Feather C.E. (1976) Mineralogy of platinum-group minerals in the Witwatersrand, South Africa - Economic Geology, v. 71, pp. 1399-1428.
Iridium var. Ruthenosmiridium
Formula: (Ir,Os,Ru)
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Isoferroplatinum (TL)
Formula: Pt3Fe
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Reference: CABRI, L.J. & FEATHER, C.E. (1975): Platinum-iron alloys: a nomenclature based on a study of natural and synthetic alloys. Canadian Mineralogist 13, 117-126. CABRI, L.J., HARRIS, D.C. & WEISER, T.W. (1996): Mineralogy and distribution of platinum-group mineral (PGM) placer deposits of the world. Exploration and Mining Geology 5, 73-167. Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
'K Feldspar'
Reference: Gibson R, Reimold W (2008) Geology of the Vredefort Impact Structure, South Africa Council of Geoscience Memoir 97
Kyanite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Lanarkite
Formula: Pb2(SO4)O
Reference: Fuchs, S.H.J., Schumann, D., Williams-Jones, A.E., Murray, A.J., Couillard, M., Lagarec, K., Phaneuf, M.W., Vali, H. (2017): Gold and uranium concentration by interaction of immiscible fluids (hydrothermal and hydrocarbon) in the Carbon Leader Reef, Witwatersrand Supergroup, South Africa. Precambrian Research 293, 39-55.
Laurite
Formula: RuS2
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Leucophosphite
Formula: KFe3+2(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
Reference: Martini, I. (1978). Mineralogy of the Transvaal caves. South African Journal of Geology, 81(1), 47-54.
'Leucoxene'
Reference: De Jager, E. J. (2015). The analysis of the mine call factor in gold mining, with specific reference to Western Holding Mine (Doctoral dissertation).
Libethenite
Formula: Cu2(PO4)(OH)
Reference: Windisch, W. (2014) An introduction to micromounting.
Linnaeite
Formula: Co2+Co3+2S4
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Löllingite
Formula: FeAs2
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Mackinawite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)9S8
Reference: Econ Geol (1986) 81:20-31
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.. The Geological Society of South Africa.
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Margarite
Formula: CaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Reference: Econ Geol (1994) 89:909-918.
Michenerite
Formula: PdBiTe
Reference: Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
Millerite
Formula: NiS
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Modderite (TL)
Formula: (Co,Fe)As
Reference: Chem.Metall.Min.Soc.S.Africa,(1924) 24, 265
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
'Monazite'
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Moncheite
Formula: (Pt,Pd)(Te,Bi)2
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Econ Geol (1994) 89:909-918.
Muscovite var. Illite
Formula: K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Reference: Nedachi, M., Yamanouchi, H., & Ohmoto, H. (1998). Detrital and hydrothermal origins for quartz, pyrite, and uraninite in Au-U-rich conglomerates of the Witwatersrand gold field, South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine A, 62, 1060-1061.
Muscovite var. Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: De Jager, E. J. (2015). The analysis of the mine call factor in gold mining, with specific reference to Western Holding Mine (Doctoral dissertation).
Natrolite
Formula: Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Reference: Cairncross photo ID 729111
Nickeline
Formula: NiAs
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Osarsite
Formula: (Os,Ru)AsS
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Osmium
Formula: (Os,Ir,Ru)
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Osmium var. Iridosmine
Formula: (Os,Ir)
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Pentlandite
Formula: (FexNiy)Σ9S8
Reference: D. Pienaar. (2014). A Geometallurgical Characterization of the Vaal Reef A-Facies at the Moab Khotsong Mine, AngloGold Ashanti, with specific focus on gold and uranium deposrtment.. MSc thesis, Department of Geology, University of Johannesburg, South Africa, 217 pages.
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Field, M., Stiefenhofer, J., Robey, J., and Kurszlaukis, S. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 33-75.
Proustite
Formula: Ag3AsS3
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Localities: Reported from at least 20 localities in this region.
Reference: Econ Geol (1994) 89:909-918.
'Pyrobitumen'
Reference: Fuchs, S.H.J., Schumann, D., Williams-Jones, A.E., Murray, A.J., Couillard, M., Lagarec, K., Phaneuf, M.W., Vali, H. (2017): Gold and uranium concentration by interaction of immiscible fluids (hydrothermal and hydrocarbon) in the Carbon Leader Reef, Witwatersrand Supergroup, South Africa. Precambrian Research 293, 39-55.
'Pyrobitumen var. Thucholite'
Reference: Fuchs, S. et al (2015) The growth and concentration of uranium and titanium minerals in hydrocarbons of the Carbon Leader Reef, Witwatersrand Supergroup, South Africa. Chemical Geology, Vol 393–394, 55–66.
'Pyrochlore Supergroup'
Formula: A2-mD2X6-wZ1-n
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
'Pyrochlore Supergroup var. Betafite (of Hogarth 1977)'
Formula: (Ca,Na,U)2(Ti, Nb,Ta)2O6Z(OH)
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Pyrophyllite
Formula: Al2Si4O10(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Econ Geol (1994) 89:909-918.
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe1-xS
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Mendelssohn, E. (1944): Notes on some sulphide minerals from the Far East Rand. - Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Volume 45, Issue 5-6, Nov 1944, p. 84 - 90
'Pyrrhotite-6C'
Formula: Fe11S12
Reference: De Villiers, J.P.R. & Liles, D.C. (2010): The crystal-structure and vacancy distribution in 6C pyrrhotite. American Mineralogist 95, 148-152.
'Pyrrhotite Group'
Reference: Cairncross photo ID 728883
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 34 localities in this region.
Reference: Econ Geol (1994) 89:909-918.
Quartz var. Amethyst
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.. The Geological Society of South Africa, 236 pp.
Quartz var. Chalcedony
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.. The Geological Society of South Africa.
Quartz var. Citrine
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.. The Geological Society of South Africa, 236 pp.
Quartz var. Smoky Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.. The Geological Society of South Africa, 236 pp.
Rectorite
Formula: (Na,Ca)Al4((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 2H2O
Reference: Atanasova, M.T., Vyalikh, A., Scheler, U., Focke, W.W. (2916): Characterization of rectorite from the Beatrix Gold Mine in South Africa. Applied Clay Science, 126, 7-16.
Ruthenarsenite
Formula: (Ru,Ni)As
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Econ Geol (1994) 89:909-918.
Safflorite
Formula: (Co,Ni,Fe)As2
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Reference: PMPB Meulenbeld collection
Siderite var. Mg-rich Siderite
Formula: (Fe,Mg)CO3
Reference: PMPB Meulenbeld collection
Silver
Formula: Ag
Reference: http://www.dmr.gov.za/publications/summary/121-directories/763-d1-operating-mines-information-2014.html
Skutterudite
Formula: CoAs3
Reference: de Waal, S. A. (1982). A Literature Survey of the Metallurgical Aspects of Minerals in Witwatersrand Gold Ores No. M37. Council for Mineral Technology
Sperrylite
Formula: PtAs2
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: [MinRec 32:177]
Stibiopalladinite
Formula: Pd5Sb2
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Stibnite
Formula: Sb2S3
Reference: Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
Stishovite
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.. The Geological Society of South Africa.
Stromeyerite
Formula: AgCuS
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Sudburyite
Formula: PdSb
Reference: Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
Sudoite
Formula: Mg2Al3(Si3Al)O10)(OH)8
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Tellurium
Formula: Te
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
'Tennantite Subgroup'
Formula: Cu6(Cu4C2+2)As4S12S
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
'Tetrahedrite Subgroup'
Formula: Cu6(Cu4C2+2)Sb4S12S
Reference: D. Pienaar. (2014). A Geometallurgical Characterization of the Vaal Reef A-Facies at the Moab Khotsong Mine, AngloGold Ashanti, with specific focus on gold and uranium deposrtment.. MSc thesis, Department of Geology, University of Johannesburg, South Africa, 217 pages.
Thorite
Formula: Th(SiO4)
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Thorite var. Uranothorite
Formula: (Th,U)SiO4
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Reference: D. Pienaar. (2014). A Geometallurgical Characterization of the Vaal Reef A-Facies at the Moab Khotsong Mine, AngloGold Ashanti, with specific focus on gold and uranium deposrtment.. MSc thesis, Department of Geology, University of Johannesburg, South Africa, 217 pages.
Torbernite
Formula: Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
Reference: http://www.mining-technology.com/projects/buffelsfonteingoldmi/
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Econ Geol (1994) 89:909-918.
Troilite
Formula: FeS
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Tučekite
Formula: Ni9Sb2S8
Reference: Econ Geol (1986) 81:20-31
'UM1976-02-As:IrPtRhRuS'
Formula: ~(Ru,Rh,Pt,Ir)2(As,S)3
Reference: Feather, C.E. (1976): Mineralogy of platinum-group minerals in the Witwatersrand, South Africa. Econ. Geol.: 71: 1399-1428; in: Fleischer, M., Cabri, L.J., Nickel, E.H., Pabst, A. (1977): New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 62: 598
'UM1976-18-S:RhRu'
Formula: (Rh,Ru)S
Reference: Feather, C.E. (1976): Mineralogy of platinum-group minerals in the Witwatersrand, South Africa. Econ. Geol.:71, 1399-1428; in: Fleischer, M., Cabri, L.J., Nickel, E.H., Pabst, A. (1977): New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 62: 598
'UM1976-19-S:Ru'
Formula: (Ru,Ir,Os,Rh,Pt)3(S,As)4
Reference: Feather, C. (1976): Mineralogy of platinum-group minerals in the Witwatersrand, South Africa. Economic Geology: 71(7): 1399-1428
'UM1978-14-S:CuFePtRh'
Formula: (Rh,Cu,Pt,Fe)S2
Reference: Toma, S.A., Murphy, S. (1978): Exsolution of gold from detrital platinum-group metal grains from Witwatersrand auriferous conglomerates. Canadian Mineralogist: 16: 641-650
'UM1978-15-S:IrOsPtRhRu'
Formula: (Ru,Ir,Rh,Os,Pt)3S2
Reference: Toma, S.A., Murphy, S. (1978): Exsolution of gold from detrital platinum-group metal grains from Witwatersrand auriferous conglomerates. Canadian Mineralogist: 16: 641-650
'UM1978-16-S:IrOsPtRu'
Formula: (Ir,Pt,Os,Ru)S2
Reference: Toma, S.A., Murphy, S. (1978): Exsolution of gold from detrital platinum-group metal grains from Witwatersrand auriferous conglomerates. Canadian Mineralogist: 16: 641-650
'UM1978-17-S:IrOsPtRu'
Formula: (Pt,Os,Ru,Ir)2S3
Reference: Toma, S.A., Murphy, S. (1978): Exsolution of gold from detrital platinum-group metal grains from Witwatersrand auriferous conglomerates. Canadian Mineralogist: 16: 641-650
'UM1978-20-S:PtRh'
Formula: (Rh,Pt,Fe,Ir)14.83S17.17
Reference: Toma, S.A., Murphy, S. (1978): Exsolution of gold from detrital platinum-group metal grains from Witwatersrand auriferous conglomerates. Canadian Mineralogist: 16: 641-650
'Unnamed (Ir-Os Sulphide II)'
Formula: (Ir,Os)3S2
Reference: Toma, S.A., Murphy, S. (1978): Exsolution of gold from detrital platinum-group metal grains from Witwatersrand auriferous conglomerates. Canadian Mineralogist: 16: 641-650
Uraninite
Formula: UO2
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: De Jager, E. J. (2015). The analysis of the mine call factor in gold mining, with specific reference to Western Holding Mine (Doctoral dissertation).
Uraninite var. Pitchblende
Formula: UO2
Reference: Dr Günter Grundmann specimen and analysis.
Xenotime-(Y)
Formula: Y(PO4)
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Econ Geol (1994) 89:909-918.

Gallery:

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Diamond1.CB.10aC
Gold1.AA.05Au
Graphite1.CB.05aC
Iridium1.AF.10(Ir,Os,Ru)
var. Osmiridium1.AF.10(Ir,Os,Ru)
var. Platiniridium1.AF.10(Ir,Pt)
var. Platosmiridium1.AF.10(Ir,Pt,Os)
var. Ruthenian Iridium1.AF.10(IrxRuyOsz)
var. Ruthenosmiridium1.AF.10(Ir,Os,Ru)
Isoferroplatinum (TL)1.AG.35Pt3Fe
Osmium1.AF.05(Os,Ir,Ru)
var. Iridosmine1.AF.05(Os,Ir)
Silver1.AA.05Ag
Tellurium1.CC.10Te
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Alabandite2.CD.10MnS
Arsenopyrite2.EB.20FeAsS
Bismuthinite2.DB.05Bi2S3
Bornite2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
Braggite2.CC.35a(Pt,Pd,Ni)S
Calaverite2.EA.10AuTe2
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Cobaltite2.EB.25CoAsS
Cooperite2.CC.35bPtS
Covellite2.CA.05aCuS
Cubanite2.CB.55aCuFe2S3
Digenite2.BA.10Cu9S5
Dyscrasite2.AA.35Ag3Sb
Erlichmanite2.EB.05aOsS2
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Gersdorffite2.EB.25NiAsS
Geversite2.EB.05aPtSb2
Glaucodot2.EB.10c(Co0.50Fe0.50)AsS
Hollingworthite2.EB.25(Rh,Pt,Pd)AsS
Irarsite2.EB.25(Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsS
Iridarsenite2.AC.45b(Ir,Ru)As2
Laurite2.EB.05aRuS2
Linnaeite2.DA.05Co2+Co3+2S4
Löllingite2.EB.15aFeAs2
Mackinawite2.CC.25(Fe,Ni)9S8
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Michenerite2.EB.25PdBiTe
Millerite2.CC.20NiS
Modderite (TL)2.CC.15(Co,Fe)As
Molybdenite2.EA.30MoS2
Moncheite2.EA.20(Pt,Pd)(Te,Bi)2
Nickeline2.CC.05NiAs
Osarsite2.EB.20(Os,Ru)AsS
Pentlandite2.BB.15(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Proustite2.GA.05Ag3AsS3
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe1-xS
Ruthenarsenite2.CC.15(Ru,Ni)As
Safflorite2.EB.15a(Co,Ni,Fe)As2
Skutterudite2.EC.05CoAs3
Sperrylite2.EB.05aPtAs2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Stibiopalladinite2.AC.20aPd5Sb2
Stibnite2.DB.05Sb2S3
Stromeyerite2.BA.40AgCuS
Sudburyite2.CC.05PdSb
'Tennantite Subgroup'2.GB.05Cu6(Cu4C2+2)As4S12S
'Tetrahedrite Subgroup'2.GB.05Cu6(Cu4C2+2)Sb4S12S
Troilite2.CC.10FeS
Tučekite2.BB.10Ni9Sb2S8
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Anatase4.DD.05TiO2
Brannerite4.DH.05UTi2O6
Brookite4.DD.10TiO2
Cassiterite4.DB.05SnO2
Chromite4.BB.05Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Coesite4.DA.35SiO2
Corundum4.CB.05Al2O3
Curite4.GB.55Pb3(H2O)2[(UO2)4O4(OH)3]2
Euxenite-(Y)4.DG.05(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Hercynite
var. Picotite
4.BB.05(Fe,Mg)(Al,Cr)2O4
Ilmenite4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var. Amethyst4.DA.05SiO2
var. Chalcedony4.DA.05SiO2
var. Citrine4.DA.05SiO2
var. Smoky Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Stishovite4.DA.40SiO2
Uraninite4.DL.05UO2
var. Pitchblende4.DL.05UO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Ankerite5.AB.10Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Aragonite5.AB.15CaCO3
Azurite5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Bismutite5.BE.25(BiO)2CO3
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Huntite5.AB.25CaMg3(CO3)4
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
var. Mg-rich Siderite5.AB.05(Fe,Mg)CO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Lanarkite7.BD.40Pb2(SO4)O
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Churchite-(Y)8.CJ.50Y(PO4) · 2H2O
Leucophosphite8.DH.10KFe3+2(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
Libethenite8.BB.30Cu2(PO4)(OH)
Torbernite8.EB.05Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
Xenotime-(Y)8.AD.35Y(PO4)
Group 9 - Silicates
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
var. Andesine9.FA.35(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Andalusite9.AF.10Al2(SiO4)O
Augite9.DA.15(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Chloritoid9.AF.85(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Clinochlore9.EC.55Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Coffinite9.AD.30U(SiO4) · nH2O
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fluorapophyllite-(K)9.EA.15KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Kyanite9.AF.15Al2(SiO4)O
Margarite9.EC.30CaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var. Illite9.EC.15K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
var. Sericite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Natrolite9.GA.05Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Phlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Pyrophyllite9.EC.10Al2Si4O10(OH)2
Rectorite9.EC.60(Na,Ca)Al4((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 2H2O
Sudoite9.EC.55Mg2Al3(Si3Al)O10)(OH)8
Thorite9.AD.30Th(SiO4)
var. Uranothorite9.AD.30(Th,U)SiO4
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3[AlSi3O10(OH)2
'Chlorite Group'-
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'-
'Feldspar Group'-
'Florencite'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'K Feldspar'-
'Leucoxene'-
'Monazite'-
'Pyrobitumen'-
'var. Thucholite'-
'Pyrochlore Supergroup'-A2-mD2X6-wZ1-n
'var. Betafite (of Hogarth 1977)'-(Ca,Na,U)2(Ti, Nb,Ta)2O6Z(OH)
'Pyrrhotite Group'-
'Pyrrhotite-6C'-Fe11S12
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'UM1976-02-As:IrPtRhRuS'-~(Ru,Rh,Pt,Ir)2(As,S)3
'UM1976-18-S:RhRu'-(Rh,Ru)S
'UM1976-19-S:Ru'-(Ru,Ir,Os,Rh,Pt)3(S,As)4
'UM1978-14-S:CuFePtRh'-(Rh,Cu,Pt,Fe)S2
'UM1978-15-S:IrOsPtRhRu'-(Ru,Ir,Rh,Os,Pt)3S2
'UM1978-16-S:IrOsPtRu'-(Ir,Pt,Os,Ru)S2
'UM1978-17-S:IrOsPtRu'-(Pt,Os,Ru,Ir)2S3
'UM1978-20-S:PtRh'-(Rh,Pt,Fe,Ir)14.83S17.17
'Unnamed (Ir-Os Sulphide II)'-(Ir,Os)3S2

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Silver1.1.1.2Ag
Platinum Group Metals and Alloys
Iridium1.2.1.2(Ir,Os,Ru)
Isoferroplatinum (TL)1.2.5.1Pt3Fe
Osmium1.2.2.1(Os,Ir,Ru)
Semi-metals and non-metals
Diamond1.3.6.1C
Graphite1.3.6.2C
Tellurium1.3.4.2Te
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:1
Dyscrasite2.2.1.1Ag3Sb
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 5:2
Stibiopalladinite2.3.3.1Pd5Sb2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
Digenite2.4.7.3Cu9S5
Stromeyerite2.4.6.1AgCuS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 9:8
Mackinawite2.7.2.1(Fe,Ni)9S8
Pentlandite2.7.1.1(FexNiy)Σ9S8
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Alabandite2.8.1.4MnS
Braggite2.8.5.3(Pt,Pd,Ni)S
Cooperite2.8.5.1PtS
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Millerite2.8.16.1NiS
Nickeline2.8.11.1NiAs
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe1-xS
Ruthenarsenite2.8.17.1(Ru,Ni)As
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
Troilite2.8.9.1FeS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
Cubanite2.9.13.1CuFe2S3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:4
Linnaeite2.10.1.1Co2+Co3+2S4
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Bismuthinite2.11.2.3Bi2S3
Stibnite2.11.2.1Sb2S3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Calaverite2.12.13.2AuTe2
Cobaltite2.12.3.1CoAsS
Erlichmanite2.12.1.16OsS2
Gersdorffite2.12.3.2NiAsS
Geversite2.12.1.14PtSb2
Glaucodot2.12.6.1(Co0.50Fe0.50)AsS
Hollingworthite2.12.3.8(Rh,Pt,Pd)AsS
Irarsite2.12.3.7(Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsS
Iridarsenite2.12.4.5(Ir,Ru)As2
Laurite2.12.1.10RuS2
Löllingite2.12.2.9FeAs2
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Michenerite2.12.3.11PdBiTe
Molybdenite2.12.10.1MoS2
Moncheite2.12.14.3(Pt,Pd)(Te,Bi)2
Osarsite2.12.4.3(Os,Ru)AsS
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Safflorite2.12.2.11(Co,Ni,Fe)As2
Skutterudite2.12.17.1CoAs3
Sperrylite2.12.1.13PtAs2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
ø = 4
Tučekite3.2.5.5Ni9Sb2S8
3 <ø < 4
'Tennantite Subgroup'3.3.6.2Cu6(Cu4C2+2)As4S12S
'Tetrahedrite Subgroup'3.3.6.1Cu6(Cu4C2+2)Sb4S12S
ø = 3
Proustite3.4.1.1Ag3AsS3
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Corundum4.3.1.1Al2O3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
AX2
Anatase4.4.4.1TiO2
Brookite4.4.5.1TiO2
Cassiterite4.4.1.5SnO2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Stishovite4.4.1.9SiO2
Group 5 - OXIDES CONTAINING URANIUM OR THORIUM
AXO2·xH2O
Uraninite5.1.1.1UO2
Miscellaneous
Curite5.9.3.1Pb3(H2O)2[(UO2)4O4(OH)3]2
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Chromite7.2.3.3Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 8 - MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
A2B2O6(O,OH,F)
'Pyrochlore Supergroup
var. Betafite (of Hogarth 1977)'
8.2.3.1(Ca,Na,U)2(Ti, Nb,Ta)2O6Z(OH)
AB2O6
Brannerite8.3.4.1UTi2O6
Euxenite-(Y)8.3.8.2(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
AB(XO3)2
Ankerite14.2.1.2Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Miscellaneous
Huntite14.4.3.1CaMg3(CO3)4
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Bismutite16a.3.5.1(BiO)2CO3
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Lanarkite30.2.1.1Pb2(SO4)O
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
AB2(XO4)2·xH2O, containing (UO2)2+
Torbernite40.2a.13.1Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
(AB)5(XO4)2·xH2O
Churchite-(Y)40.4.6.1Y(PO4) · 2H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A2(XO4)Zq
Libethenite41.6.6.2Cu2(PO4)(OH)
Group 42 - HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)3(XO4)2Zq·xH2O
Leucophosphite42.11.6.1KFe3+2(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Coffinite51.5.2.4U(SiO4) · nH2O
Thorite51.5.2.3Th(SiO4)
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and >[4] coordination
Andalusite52.2.2b.1Al2(SiO4)O
Kyanite52.2.2c.1Al2(SiO4)O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] coordination only
Chloritoid52.3.3.1(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Augite65.1.3a.3(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Margarite71.2.2c.1CaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var. Illite71.2.2d.2K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Pyrophyllite71.2.1.1Al2Si4O10(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Clinochlore71.4.1.4Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Rectorite71.4.2.7(Na,Ca)Al4((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 2H2O
Sudoite71.4.1.3Mg2Al3(Si3Al)O10)(OH)8
Group 72 - PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 3-, 4-, or 5-membered rings and 8-membered rings
Fluorapophyllite-(K)72.3.1.1KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Coesite75.1.4.1SiO2
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
Natrolite77.1.5.1Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Albite
var. Andesine
-(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Aragonite-CaCO3
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3[AlSi3O10(OH)2
'Chlorite Group'-
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'-
'Feldspar Group'-
'Florencite'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
Hercynite
var. Picotite
-(Fe,Mg)(Al,Cr)2O4
Iridium
var. Osmiridium
-(Ir,Os,Ru)
var. Platiniridium-(Ir,Pt)
var. Platosmiridium-(Ir,Pt,Os)
var. Ruthenian Iridium-(IrxRuyOsz)
var. Ruthenosmiridium-(Ir,Os,Ru)
'K Feldspar'-
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Leucoxene'-
Modderite (TL)-(Co,Fe)As
'Monazite'-
Muscovite
var. Sericite
-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Osmium
var. Iridosmine
-(Os,Ir)
'Pyrobitumen'-
'var. Thucholite'-
'Pyrochlore Supergroup'-A2-mD2X6-wZ1-n
'Pyrrhotite Group'-
'Pyrrhotite-6C'-Fe11S12
Quartz
var. Amethyst
-SiO2
var. Chalcedony-SiO2
var. Citrine-SiO2
var. Smoky Quartz-SiO2
Siderite
var. Mg-rich Siderite
-(Fe,Mg)CO3
Sudburyite-PdSb
Thorite
var. Uranothorite
-(Th,U)SiO4
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'UM1976-02-As:IrPtRhRuS'-~(Ru,Rh,Pt,Ir)2(As,S)3
'UM1976-18-S:RhRu'-(Rh,Ru)S
'UM1976-19-S:Ru'-(Ru,Ir,Os,Rh,Pt)3(S,As)4
'UM1978-14-S:CuFePtRh'-(Rh,Cu,Pt,Fe)S2
'UM1978-15-S:IrOsPtRhRu'-(Ru,Ir,Rh,Os,Pt)3S2
'UM1978-16-S:IrOsPtRu'-(Ir,Pt,Os,Ru)S2
'UM1978-17-S:IrOsPtRu'-(Pt,Os,Ru,Ir)2S3
'UM1978-20-S:PtRh'-(Rh,Pt,Fe,Ir)14.83S17.17
'Unnamed (Ir-Os Sulphide II)'-(Ir,Os)3S2
Uraninite
var. Pitchblende
-UO2
Xenotime-(Y)-Y(PO4)

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H MargariteCaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
H ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
H Rectorite(Na,Ca)Al4((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 2H2O
H Muscovite var. SericiteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
H CuritePb3(H2O)2[(UO2)4O4(OH)3]2
H SudoiteMg2Al3(Si3Al)O10)(OH)8
H ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3[AlSi3O10(OH)2
H Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
H CoffiniteU(SiO4) · nH2O
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H Fluorapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
H TorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
H LeucophosphiteKFe23+(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
H Chloritoid(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
H Pyrochlore Supergroup var. Betafite (of Hogarth 1977)(Ca,Na,U)2(Ti, Nb,Ta)2O6Z(OH)
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H Muscovite var. IlliteK0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
H Churchite-(Y)Y(PO4) · 2H2O
BBoron
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
CCarbon
C GraphiteC
C CalciteCaCO3
C AragoniteCaCO3
C DiamondC
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C Siderite var. Mg-rich Siderite(Fe,Mg)CO3
C SideriteFeCO3
C Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
C AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C HuntiteCaMg3(CO3)4
OOxygen
O BaryteBaSO4
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
O QuartzSiO2
O PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O RutileTiO2
O MargariteCaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
O ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O Rectorite(Na,Ca)Al4((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 2H2O
O Muscovite var. SericiteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O UraniniteUO2
O ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
O CalciteCaCO3
O AnataseTiO2
O CuritePb3(H2O)2[(UO2)4O4(OH)3]2
O LanarkitePb2(SO4)O
O SudoiteMg2Al3(Si3Al)O10)(OH)8
O AragoniteCaCO3
O ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
O LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)O
O CoesiteSiO2
O KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
O StishoviteSiO2
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3[AlSi3O10(OH)2
O Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
O Siderite var. Mg-rich Siderite(Fe,Mg)CO3
O SideriteFeCO3
O BranneriteUTi2O6
O Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
O Quartz var. AmethystSiO2
O Quartz var. Smoky QuartzSiO2
O Quartz var. CitrineSiO2
O Uraninite var. PitchblendeUO2
O CoffiniteU(SiO4) · nH2O
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
O Quartz var. ChalcedonySiO2
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O Albite var. Andesine(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O Fluorapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
O TorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
O LeucophosphiteKFe23+(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
O HuntiteCaMg3(CO3)4
O Chloritoid(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
O Pyrochlore Supergroup var. Betafite (of Hogarth 1977)(Ca,Na,U)2(Ti, Nb,Ta)2O6Z(OH)
O BrookiteTiO2
O Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
O CassiteriteSnO2
O CorundumAl2O3
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
O HematiteFe2O3
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O Hercynite var. Picotite(Fe,Mg)(Al,Cr)2O4
O ThoriteTh(SiO4)
O Thorite var. Uranothorite(Th,U)SiO4
O Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)
O Muscovite var. IlliteK0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
O Churchite-(Y)Y(PO4) · 2H2O
FFluorine
F ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
F BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3[AlSi3O10(OH)2
F Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
F Fluorapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
NaSodium
Na Rectorite(Na,Ca)Al4((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 2H2O
Na NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Na Albite var. Andesine(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na Pyrochlore Supergroup var. Betafite (of Hogarth 1977)(Ca,Na,U)2(Ti, Nb,Ta)2O6Z(OH)
MgMagnesium
Mg SudoiteMg2Al3(Si3Al)O10)(OH)8
Mg ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Mg Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Mg BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3[AlSi3O10(OH)2
Mg Siderite var. Mg-rich Siderite(Fe,Mg)CO3
Mg AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Mg HuntiteCaMg3(CO3)4
Mg Chloritoid(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Mg Hercynite var. Picotite(Fe,Mg)(Al,Cr)2O4
AlAluminium
Al PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al MargariteCaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Al Rectorite(Na,Ca)Al4((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 2H2O
Al Muscovite var. SericiteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Al SudoiteMg2Al3(Si3Al)O10)(OH)8
Al ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Al AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)O
Al KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3[AlSi3O10(OH)2
Al Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Al Albite var. Andesine(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al Chloritoid(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Al CorundumAl2O3
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al Hercynite var. Picotite(Fe,Mg)(Al,Cr)2O4
Al Muscovite var. IlliteK0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
SiSilicon
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
Si QuartzSiO2
Si PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si MargariteCaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Si TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Si Rectorite(Na,Ca)Al4((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 2H2O
Si Muscovite var. SericiteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Si SudoiteMg2Al3(Si3Al)O10)(OH)8
Si ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Si AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)O
Si CoesiteSiO2
Si KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Si StishoviteSiO2
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3[AlSi3O10(OH)2
Si Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Si Quartz var. AmethystSiO2
Si Quartz var. Smoky QuartzSiO2
Si Quartz var. CitrineSiO2
Si CoffiniteU(SiO4) · nH2O
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si Quartz var. ChalcedonySiO2
Si Albite var. Andesine(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si Fluorapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
Si Chloritoid(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si ThoriteTh(SiO4)
Si Thorite var. Uranothorite(Th,U)SiO4
Si Muscovite var. IlliteK0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
PPhosphorus
P ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
P LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
P TorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
P LeucophosphiteKFe23+(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
P Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)
P Churchite-(Y)Y(PO4) · 2H2O
SSulfur
S BaryteBaSO4
S SphaleriteZnS
S GalenaPbS
S PyriteFeS2
S CooperitePtS
S LanarkitePb2(SO4)O
S PyrrhotiteFe1-xS
S Pyrrhotite-6CFe11S12
S CobaltiteCoAsS
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S GersdorffiteNiAsS
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S Mackinawite(Fe,Ni)9S8
S TučekiteNi9Sb2S8
S AlabanditeMnS
S BismuthiniteBi2S3
S Tetrahedrite SubgroupCu6(Cu4C22+)Sb4S12S
S Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
S StibniteSb2S3
S CovelliteCuS
S ChalcociteCu2S
S CubaniteCuFe2S3
S DigeniteCu9S5
S ErlichmaniteOsS2
S Glaucodot(Co0.50Fe0.50)AsS
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S Braggite(Pt,Pd,Ni)S
S Hollingworthite(Rh,Pt,Pd)AsS
S Irarsite(Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsS
S LauriteRuS2
S LinnaeiteCo2+Co23+S4
S MarcasiteFeS2
S MilleriteNiS
S MolybdeniteMoS2
S Osarsite(Os,Ru)AsS
S ProustiteAg3AsS3
S StromeyeriteAgCuS
S Tennantite SubgroupCu6(Cu4C22+)As4S12S
S TroiliteFeS
S UM1976-02-As:IrPtRhRuS~(Ru,Rh,Pt,Ir)2(As,S)3
S UM1976-18-S:RhRu(Rh,Ru)S
S UM1976-19-S:Ru(Ru,Ir,Os,Rh,Pt)3(S,As)4
S Unnamed (Ir-Os Sulphide II)(Ir,Os)3S2
S UM1978-14-S:CuFePtRh(Rh,Cu,Pt,Fe)S2
S UM1978-15-S:IrOsPtRhRu(Ru,Ir,Rh,Os,Pt)3S2
S UM1978-17-S:IrOsPtRu(Pt,Os,Ru,Ir)2S3
S UM1978-20-S:PtRh(Rh,Pt,Fe,Ir)14.83S17.17
S UM1978-16-S:IrOsPtRu(Ir,Pt,Os,Ru)S2
ClChlorine
Cl ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Cl Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
KPotassium
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K Muscovite var. SericiteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3[AlSi3O10(OH)2
K Fluorapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
K LeucophosphiteKFe23+(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
K Muscovite var. IlliteK0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca MargariteCaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Ca ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Ca Rectorite(Na,Ca)Al4((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 2H2O
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
Ca Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ca AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Ca Albite var. Andesine(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Ca Fluorapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
Ca HuntiteCaMg3(CO3)4
Ca Pyrochlore Supergroup var. Betafite (of Hogarth 1977)(Ca,Na,U)2(Ti, Nb,Ta)2O6Z(OH)
Ca Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
TiTitanium
Ti RutileTiO2
Ti AnataseTiO2
Ti BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3[AlSi3O10(OH)2
Ti Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Ti BranneriteUTi2O6
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Ti Pyrochlore Supergroup var. Betafite (of Hogarth 1977)(Ca,Na,U)2(Ti, Nb,Ta)2O6Z(OH)
Ti BrookiteTiO2
Ti Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
CrChromium
Cr ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
Cr Hercynite var. Picotite(Fe,Mg)(Al,Cr)2O4
MnManganese
Mn AlabanditeMnS
Mn Chloritoid(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
FeIron
Fe IsoferroplatinumPt3Fe
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Fe PyrrhotiteFe1-xS
Fe BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3[AlSi3O10(OH)2
Fe Siderite var. Mg-rich Siderite(Fe,Mg)CO3
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe Pyrrhotite-6CFe11S12
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe Mackinawite(Fe,Ni)9S8
Fe Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Fe AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Fe LeucophosphiteKFe23+(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
Fe Chloritoid(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Fe CubaniteCuFe2S3
Fe Glaucodot(Co0.50Fe0.50)AsS
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe LöllingiteFeAs2
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe Hercynite var. Picotite(Fe,Mg)(Al,Cr)2O4
Fe TroiliteFeS
Fe UM1978-14-S:CuFePtRh(Rh,Cu,Pt,Fe)S2
Fe UM1978-20-S:PtRh(Rh,Pt,Fe,Ir)14.83S17.17
CoCobalt
Co Modderite(Co,Fe)As
Co CobaltiteCoAsS
Co SkutteruditeCoAs3
Co Glaucodot(Co0.50Fe0.50)AsS
Co LinnaeiteCo2+Co23+S4
Co Safflorite(Co,Ni,Fe)As2
NiNickel
Ni GersdorffiteNiAsS
Ni Mackinawite(Fe,Ni)9S8
Ni TučekiteNi9Sb2S8
Ni NickelineNiAs
Ni Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Ni Braggite(Pt,Pd,Ni)S
Ni MilleriteNiS
Ni Ruthenarsenite(Ru,Ni)As
CuCopper
Cu LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu Tetrahedrite SubgroupCu6(Cu4C22+)Sb4S12S
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu TorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu CubaniteCuFe2S3
Cu DigeniteCu9S5
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu StromeyeriteAgCuS
Cu Tennantite SubgroupCu6(Cu4C22+)As4S12S
Cu UM1978-14-S:CuFePtRh(Rh,Cu,Pt,Fe)S2
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AsArsenic
As Modderite(Co,Fe)As
As CobaltiteCoAsS
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
As GersdorffiteNiAsS
As NickelineNiAs
As SkutteruditeCoAs3
As Glaucodot(Co0.50Fe0.50)AsS
As Hollingworthite(Rh,Pt,Pd)AsS
As Iridarsenite(Ir,Ru)As2
As Irarsite(Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsS
As LöllingiteFeAs2
As Osarsite(Os,Ru)AsS
As ProustiteAg3AsS3
As Ruthenarsenite(Ru,Ni)As
As Safflorite(Co,Ni,Fe)As2
As SperrylitePtAs2
As Tennantite SubgroupCu6(Cu4C22+)As4S12S
As UM1976-02-As:IrPtRhRuS~(Ru,Rh,Pt,Ir)2(As,S)3
As UM1976-19-S:Ru(Ru,Ir,Os,Rh,Pt)3(S,As)4
YYttrium
Y Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
Y Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)
Y Churchite-(Y)Y(PO4) · 2H2O
ZrZirconium
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)
NbNiobium
Nb Pyrochlore Supergroup var. Betafite (of Hogarth 1977)(Ca,Na,U)2(Ti, Nb,Ta)2O6Z(OH)
Nb Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
MoMolybdenum
Mo MolybdeniteMoS2
RuRuthenium
Ru Iridium var. Osmiridium(Ir,Os,Ru)
Ru Iridarsenite(Ir,Ru)As2
Ru Irarsite(Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsS
Ru LauriteRuS2
Ru Osarsite(Os,Ru)AsS
Ru Ruthenarsenite(Ru,Ni)As
Ru Iridium var. Ruthenosmiridium(Ir,Os,Ru)
Ru UM1976-02-As:IrPtRhRuS~(Ru,Rh,Pt,Ir)2(As,S)3
Ru UM1976-18-S:RhRu(Rh,Ru)S
Ru UM1976-19-S:Ru(Ru,Ir,Os,Rh,Pt)3(S,As)4
Ru UM1978-15-S:IrOsPtRhRu(Ru,Ir,Rh,Os,Pt)3S2
Ru UM1978-17-S:IrOsPtRu(Pt,Os,Ru,Ir)2S3
Ru UM1978-16-S:IrOsPtRu(Ir,Pt,Os,Ru)S2
Ru Iridium var. Ruthenian Iridium(IrxRuyOsz)
RhRhodium
Rh Hollingworthite(Rh,Pt,Pd)AsS
Rh Irarsite(Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsS
Rh UM1976-02-As:IrPtRhRuS~(Ru,Rh,Pt,Ir)2(As,S)3
Rh UM1976-18-S:RhRu(Rh,Ru)S
Rh UM1976-19-S:Ru(Ru,Ir,Os,Rh,Pt)3(S,As)4
Rh UM1978-14-S:CuFePtRh(Rh,Cu,Pt,Fe)S2
Rh UM1978-15-S:IrOsPtRhRu(Ru,Ir,Rh,Os,Pt)3S2
Rh UM1978-20-S:PtRh(Rh,Pt,Fe,Ir)14.83S17.17
PdPalladium
Pd StibiopalladinitePd5Sb2
Pd MicheneritePdBiTe
Pd SudburyitePdSb
Pd Braggite(Pt,Pd,Ni)S
Pd Moncheite(Pt,Pd)(Te,Bi)2
AgSilver
Ag SilverAg
Ag DyscrasiteAg3Sb
Ag ProustiteAg3AsS3
Ag StromeyeriteAgCuS
SnTin
Sn CassiteriteSnO2
SbAntimony
Sb StibiopalladinitePd5Sb2
Sb TučekiteNi9Sb2S8
Sb Tetrahedrite SubgroupCu6(Cu4C22+)Sb4S12S
Sb DyscrasiteAg3Sb
Sb GeversitePtSb2
Sb StibniteSb2S3
Sb SudburyitePdSb
TeTellurium
Te MicheneritePdBiTe
Te CalaveriteAuTe2
Te Moncheite(Pt,Pd)(Te,Bi)2
Te TelluriumTe
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
CeCerium
Ce Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
TaTantalum
Ta Pyrochlore Supergroup var. Betafite (of Hogarth 1977)(Ca,Na,U)2(Ti, Nb,Ta)2O6Z(OH)
Ta Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
OsOsmium
Os Iridium var. Osmiridium(Ir,Os,Ru)
Os ErlichmaniteOsS2
Os Osmium var. Iridosmine(Os,Ir)
Os Osarsite(Os,Ru)AsS
Os Osmium(Os,Ir,Ru)
Os Iridium var. Ruthenosmiridium(Ir,Os,Ru)
Os UM1976-19-S:Ru(Ru,Ir,Os,Rh,Pt)3(S,As)4
Os Unnamed (Ir-Os Sulphide II)(Ir,Os)3S2
Os UM1978-15-S:IrOsPtRhRu(Ru,Ir,Rh,Os,Pt)3S2
Os UM1978-17-S:IrOsPtRu(Pt,Os,Ru,Ir)2S3
Os UM1978-16-S:IrOsPtRu(Ir,Pt,Os,Ru)S2
Os Iridium var. Ruthenian Iridium(IrxRuyOsz)
Os Iridium var. Platosmiridium(Ir,Pt,Os)
IrIridium
Ir Iridium var. Osmiridium(Ir,Os,Ru)
Ir Iridium(Ir,Os,Ru)
Ir Iridarsenite(Ir,Ru)As2
Ir Osmium var. Iridosmine(Os,Ir)
Ir Irarsite(Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsS
Ir Iridium var. Platiniridium(Ir,Pt)
Ir Iridium var. Ruthenosmiridium(Ir,Os,Ru)
Ir UM1976-02-As:IrPtRhRuS~(Ru,Rh,Pt,Ir)2(As,S)3
Ir UM1976-19-S:Ru(Ru,Ir,Os,Rh,Pt)3(S,As)4
Ir Unnamed (Ir-Os Sulphide II)(Ir,Os)3S2
Ir UM1978-15-S:IrOsPtRhRu(Ru,Ir,Rh,Os,Pt)3S2
Ir UM1978-17-S:IrOsPtRu(Pt,Os,Ru,Ir)2S3
Ir UM1978-20-S:PtRh(Rh,Pt,Fe,Ir)14.83S17.17
Ir UM1978-16-S:IrOsPtRu(Ir,Pt,Os,Ru)S2
Ir Iridium var. Ruthenian Iridium(IrxRuyOsz)
Ir Iridium var. Platosmiridium(Ir,Pt,Os)
PtPlatinum
Pt IsoferroplatinumPt3Fe
Pt CooperitePtS
Pt GeversitePtSb2
Pt Braggite(Pt,Pd,Ni)S
Pt Irarsite(Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsS
Pt Moncheite(Pt,Pd)(Te,Bi)2
Pt Iridium var. Platiniridium(Ir,Pt)
Pt SperrylitePtAs2
Pt UM1976-02-As:IrPtRhRuS~(Ru,Rh,Pt,Ir)2(As,S)3
Pt UM1976-19-S:Ru(Ru,Ir,Os,Rh,Pt)3(S,As)4
Pt UM1978-14-S:CuFePtRh(Rh,Cu,Pt,Fe)S2
Pt UM1978-15-S:IrOsPtRhRu(Ru,Ir,Rh,Os,Pt)3S2
Pt UM1978-17-S:IrOsPtRu(Pt,Os,Ru,Ir)2S3
Pt UM1978-20-S:PtRh(Rh,Pt,Fe,Ir)14.83S17.17
Pt UM1978-16-S:IrOsPtRu(Ir,Pt,Os,Ru)S2
Pt Iridium var. Platosmiridium(Ir,Pt,Os)
AuGold
Au GoldAu
Au CalaveriteAuTe2
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb CuritePb3(H2O)2[(UO2)4O4(OH)3]2
Pb LanarkitePb2(SO4)O
BiBismuth
Bi Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
Bi BismuthiniteBi2S3
Bi MicheneritePdBiTe
Bi Moncheite(Pt,Pd)(Te,Bi)2
ThThorium
Th Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
Th ThoriteTh(SiO4)
Th Thorite var. Uranothorite(Th,U)SiO4
UUranium
U UraniniteUO2
U CuritePb3(H2O)2[(UO2)4O4(OH)3]2
U BranneriteUTi2O6
U Uraninite var. PitchblendeUO2
U CoffiniteU(SiO4) · nH2O
U TorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
U Pyrochlore Supergroup var. Betafite (of Hogarth 1977)(Ca,Na,U)2(Ti, Nb,Ta)2O6Z(OH)
U Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
U Thorite var. Uranothorite(Th,U)SiO4

Fossils

There are 15 fossil localities from the PaleoBioDB database within this region.

BETA TEST - These data are provided on an experimental basis and are taken from external databases. Mindat.org has no control currently over the accuracy of these data.

Occurrences673
Youngest Fossil Listed0.01 Ma (Pleistocene)
Oldest Fossil Listed359 Ma (Late Devonian)
Stratigraphic UnitsClick here to view 15 stratigraphic units.
Fossils from RegionClick here to show the list.
Accepted NameHierarchy Age
Amphibia
class
Animalia : Chordata : Amphibia5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Reptilia
class
Animalia : Chordata : Reptilia5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Aves
class
Animalia : Chordata : Aves5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Mammalia
class
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Testudinidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Testudinidae5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Struthio
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Aves : Struthioniformes : Struthionidae : Struthio2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Accipitridae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Aves : Accipitriformes : Accipitridae2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Phasianidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Aves : Galliformes : Phasianidae2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Plataleidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Aves : Ciconiiformes : Plataleidae2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Macroscelididae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Macroscelidea : Macroscelididae5.333 - 2.588 Ma
Cenozoic
Elephantulus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Macroscelidea : Macroscelididae : Elephantulus2.588 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Soricidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Soricomorpha : Soricidae5.333 - 0.781 Ma
Cenozoic
Crocidura
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Soricomorpha : Soricidae : Crocidura1.806 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Amblysomus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Afrosoricida : Chrysochloridae : Amblysomus2.588 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Cercopithecidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Primates : Cercopithecidae5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Cercopithecoides
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Primates : Cercopithecidae : Cercopithecoides5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Papio
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Primates : Cercopithecidae : Papio2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Parapapio
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Primates : Cercopithecidae : Parapapio5.333 - 0.781 Ma
Cenozoic
Hominidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Primates : Hominidae2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Homo
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Primates : Hominidae : Homo2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Viverridae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Viverridae2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Atilax
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Herpestidae : Atilax2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Hyaenidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Hyaenidae5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Chasmaporthetes
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Hyaenidae : Chasmaporthetes5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Hyaenictis
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Hyaenidae : Hyaenictis2.588 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Felidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Felidae5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Dinofelis
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Felidae : Dinofelis5.333 - 0.781 Ma
Cenozoic
Homotherium
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Felidae : Homotherium5.333 - 0.781 Ma
Cenozoic
Megantereon
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Felidae : Megantereon5.333 - 0.781 Ma
Cenozoic
Mellivora
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Mustelidae : Mellivora2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Canidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Canidae5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Canis
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Canidae : Canis5.333 - 0.781 Ma
Cenozoic
Lycaon
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Canidae : Lycaon2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Otocyon
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Canidae : Otocyon2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Vulpes
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Canidae : Vulpes2.588 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Palaeomys
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Castoridae : Palaeomys2.588 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Cricetidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Cricetidae2.588 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Mystromys
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Nesomyidae : Mystromys2.588 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Tatera
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Muridae : Tatera2.588 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Muridae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Muridae5.333 - 2.588 Ma
Cenozoic
Aethomys
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Muridae : Aethomys1.806 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Dasymys
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Muridae : Dasymys2.588 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Lemniscomys
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Muridae : Lemniscomys2.588 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Malacothrix
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Nesomyidae : Malacothrix2.588 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Mus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Muridae : Mus2.588 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Otomys
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Murina : Otomys5.333 - 0.781 Ma
Cenozoic
Zelotomys
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Muridae : Zelotomys1.806 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Pedetes
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Glires : Ierboidae : Pedetes2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Cryptomys
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Bathyergidae : Cryptomys5.333 - 0.781 Ma
Cenozoic
Hystrix
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Hystricidae : Hystrix5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Lagomorpha
order
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Lagomorpha2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Leporidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Lagomorpha : Leporidae5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Lepus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Lagomorpha : Leporidae : Lepus2.588 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Suidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Suidae5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Metridiochoerus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Suidae : Metridiochoerus5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Phacochoerus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Suidae : Phacochoerus2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Hippopotamus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Hippopotamidae : Hippopotamus5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Giraffidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Giraffidae2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Bovidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Alcelaphus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Alcelaphus5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Antidorcas
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Antidorcas2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Beatragus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Beatragus2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Damaliscus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Damaliscus5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Gazella
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Gazella5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Makapania
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Makapania2.588 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Megalotragus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Megalotragus5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Oreotragus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Oreotragus5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Pelea
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Pelea2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Raphicerus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Raphicerus2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Syncerus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Syncerus5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Equidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Perissodactyla : Equidae5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Equus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Perissodactyla : Equidae : Equus5.333 - 0.781 Ma
Cenozoic
Hipparion
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Perissodactyla : Equidae : Hipparion2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Rhinocerotidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Perissodactyla : Rhinocerotidae5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Elephas
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Proboscidea : Elephantidae : Elephas2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Procavia
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Hyracoidea : Procaviidae : Procavia2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Orycteropus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Tubulidentata : Orycteropodidae : Orycteropus2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Manis
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Pholidota : Manidae : Manis2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Crocuta
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Hyaenidae : Crocuta5.333 - 0.781 Ma
Cenozoic
Panthera leo
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Felidae : Panthera : Panthera leo5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Asterotheca
genus
Plantae : Tracheophyta : Polypodiopsida : Marattiales : Asterothecaceae : Asterotheca279.3 - 272.3 Ma
Permian
Bryophyta
phylum
Plantae : Bryophyta272.3 - 259.9 Ma
Permian
Spermatophyta
phylum
Plantae : Spermatophyta279.3 - 272.3 Ma
Permian
Cladophlebis
genus
Plantae : Tracheophyta : Polypodiopsida : Osmundales : Osmundaceae : Cladophlebis290.1 - 279.3 Ma
Permian
Sphenopteris
genus
Plantae : Tracheophyta : Lyginopteridaceae : Sphenopteris290.1 - 252.17 Ma
Permian
Hippotragini
tribe
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Hippotragini5.333 - 0.781 Ma
Cenozoic
Taeniopteris
genus
Plantae : Tracheophyta : Cycadopsida : Cycadales : Crossozamiaceae : Taeniopteris290.1 - 272.3 Ma
Permian
Australopithecus africanus
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Primates : Hominidae : Australopithecus : Australopithecus africanus5.333 - 0.781 Ma
Cenozoic
Paranthropus robustus
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Primates : Hominidae : Paranthropus : Paranthropus robustus5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Homo sapiens
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Primates : Hominidae : Homo : Homo sapiens2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Equus quagga
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Perissodactyla : Equidae : Equus : Equus quagga2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Boltimys broomi
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Muridae : Boltimys : Boltimys broomi5.333 - 3.6 Ma
Neogene
Tyto alba
species
Animalia : Chordata : Aves : Strigiformes : Tytonidae : Tyto : Tyto alba0.126 - 0 Ma
Quaternary
Numida
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Aves : Galliformes : Numididae : Numida5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Tragelaphini
tribe
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Tragelaphini5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Antilopini
tribe
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Antilopini2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Alcelaphini
tribe
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Alcelaphini2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Proteles
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Hyaenidae : Proteles2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Hyaena hyaena
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Hyaenidae : Hyaena : Hyaena hyaena5.333 - 0.781 Ma
Cenozoic
Panthera pardus
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Felidae : Panthera : Panthera pardus5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Herpestes ichneumon
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Herpestidae : Herpestes : Herpestes ichneumon2.588 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Dracovenator regenti
species
Animalia : Chordata : Saurischia : Dracovenator : Dracovenator regenti201.3 - 190.8 Ma
Early Jurassic
Orycteropus afer
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Tubulidentata : Orycteropodidae : Orycteropus : Orycteropus afer2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Megantereon cultridens
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Felidae : Megantereon : Megantereon cultridens5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Eurygnathohippus libycum
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Perissodactyla : Equidae : Eurygnathohippus : Eurygnathohippus libycum5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Theropithecus oswaldi
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Primates : Cercopithecidae : Theropithecus : Theropithecus oswaldi2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Palaeoloxodon recki
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Proboscidea : Elephantidae : Elephas : Palaeoloxodon recki5.333 - 0.781 Ma
Cenozoic
Metridiochoerus andrewsi
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Suidae : Metridiochoerus : Metridiochoerus andrewsi5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Sivatherium maurusium
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Giraffidae : Sivatherium : Sivatherium maurusium2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Connochaetes
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Connochaetes5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Varanus niloticus
species
Animalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Squamata : Varanidae : Varanus : Varanus niloticus1.806 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Procavia capensis
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Hyracoidea : Procaviidae : Procavia : Procavia capensis5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Antidorcas marsupialis
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Antidorcas : Antidorcas marsupialis5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Ourebia ourebi
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Ourebia : Ourebia ourebi2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Raphicerus campestris
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Raphicerus : Raphicerus campestris5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Hippotragus niger
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Hippotragus : Hippotragus niger2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Hippotragus equinus
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Hippotragus : Hippotragus equinus5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Kobus ellipsiprymnus
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Kobus : Kobus ellipsiprymnus2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Redunca arundinum
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Redunca : Redunca arundinum5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Pelea capreolus
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Pelea : Pelea capreolus2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Tragelaphus angasii
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Tragelaphus : Tragelaphus angasii5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Glossopteris
genus
Plantae : Tracheophyta : Rigbyaceae : Glossopteris290.1 - 252.17 Ma
Permian
Arberia
genus
Arberia290.1 - 259.9 Ma
Permian
Sphenobaiera
genus
Plantae : Tracheophyta : Ginkgoopsida : Ginkgoales : Karkeniaceae : Sphenobaiera279.3 - 272.3 Ma
Permian
Arberiales
order
Plantae : Peltaspermophyta : Arberiopsida : Arberiales279.3 - 272.3 Ma
Permian
Samaropsis
genus
Plantae : Tracheophyta : Pinopsida : Cordaitaceae : Samaropsis290.1 - 252.17 Ma
Permian
Pecopteris
genus
Plantae : Tracheophyta : Polypodiopsida : Marattiales : Asterothecaceae : Pecopteris290.1 - 279.3 Ma
Permian
Aonyx capensis
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Mustelidae : Aonyx : Aonyx capensis2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Procavia transvaalensis
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Hyracoidea : Procaviidae : Procavia : Procavia transvaalensis5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Herpestidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Herpestidae2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Felis lybica
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Felidae : Felis : Felis lybica2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Acinonyx jubatus
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Felidae : Acinonyx : Acinonyx jubatus5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Caracal caracal
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Felidae : Caracal : Caracal caracal5.333 - 0.781 Ma
Cenozoic
Caracal serval
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Felidae : Caracal : Caracal serval2.588 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Taurotragus oryx
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Taurotragus : Taurotragus oryx5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Genetta tigrina
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Viverridae : Genetta : Genetta tigrina2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Parahyaena brunnea
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Hyaenidae : Parahyaena : Parahyaena brunnea2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Crocuta crocuta
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Hyaenidae : Crocuta : Crocuta crocuta5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Suricata suricatta
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Herpestidae : Suricata : Suricata suricatta2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Proteles cristatus
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Hyaenidae : Proteles : Proteles cristatus2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Cynictis penicillata
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Herpestidae : Cynictis : Cynictis penicillata2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Herpestes sanguineus
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Herpestidae : Herpestes : Herpestes sanguineus2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Canis mesomelas
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Canidae : Canis : Canis mesomelas5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Cryptomys hottentotus
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Bathyergidae : Cryptomys : Cryptomys hottentotus1.806 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Tragelaphus scriptus
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Tragelaphus : Tragelaphus scriptus2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Tragelaphus strepsiceros
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Tragelaphus : Tragelaphus strepsiceros5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Oreotragus oreotragus
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Oreotragus : Oreotragus oreotragus2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Hystrix africaeaustralis
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Hystricidae : Hystrix : Hystrix africaeaustralis5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Vulpes chama
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Canidae : Vulpes : Vulpes chama2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Damaliscus dorcas
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Damaliscus : Damaliscus dorcas5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Equus quagga burchelli
subspecies
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Perissodactyla : Equidae : Equus : Equus quagga burchelli5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Steatomys pratensis
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Nesomyidae : Steatomys : Steatomys pratensis2.588 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Sphenophyllum
genus
Plantae : Tracheophyta : Polypodiopsida : Sphenophyllaceae : Sphenophyllum290.1 - 252.17 Ma
Permian
Flabellofolium
genus
Plantae : Flabellofolium279.3 - 259.9 Ma
Permian
Vertebraria
genus
Plantae : Peltaspermophyta : Arberiopsida : Arberiales : Vertebraria259.9 - 252.17 Ma
Permian
Raniganjia
genus
Raniganjia272.3 - 259.9 Ma
Permian
Phyllotheca
genus
Plantae : Pteridophyta : Phyllotheca272.3 - 252.17 Ma
Permian
Annularia
genus
Plantae : Tracheophyta : Polypodiopsida : Equisetales : Calamitaceae : Annularia272.3 - 259.9 Ma
Permian
Ginkgoites
genus
Plantae : Ginkgophyta : Ginkgoopsida : Ginkgoales : Ginkgoites259.9 - 252.17 Ma
Permian
Schizoneura
genus
Plantae : Tracheophyta : Polypodiopsida : Equisetales : Schizoneura290.1 - 279.3 Ma
Permian
Achatina
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Gastropoda : Stylommatophora : Achatinidae : Achatina2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Equus capensis
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Perissodactyla : Equidae : Equus : Equus capensis5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Pachycrocuta brevirostris
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Hyaenidae : Pachycrocuta : Pachycrocuta brevirostris5.333 - 0.781 Ma
Cenozoic
Adenota recki
species
Adenota : Adenota recki5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Gazella bondi
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Gazella : Gazella bondi5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Antidorcas marsupialis australis
subspecies
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Antidorcas : Antidorcas marsupialis australis2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Numidocapra
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Numidocapra2.588 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Bubalis priscus
species
Bubalis : Bubalis priscus1.806 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Makapania broomi
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Makapania : Makapania broomi5.333 - 0.781 Ma
Cenozoic
Procavia antiqua
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Hyracoidea : Procaviidae : Procavia : Procavia antiqua5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Dinopithecus ingens
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Primates : Cercopithecidae : Dinopithecus : Dinopithecus ingens2.588 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Papio ursinus
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Primates : Cercopithecidae : Papio : Papio ursinus2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Papio izodi
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Primates : Cercopithecidae : Papio : Papio izodi5.333 - 0.781 Ma
Cenozoic
Parapapio broomi
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Primates : Cercopithecidae : Parapapio : Parapapio broomi5.333 - 0.781 Ma
Cenozoic
Parapapio jonesi
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Primates : Cercopithecidae : Parapapio : Parapapio jonesi5.333 - 0.781 Ma
Cenozoic
Parapapio whitei
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Primates : Cercopithecidae : Parapapio : Parapapio whitei5.333 - 0.781 Ma
Cenozoic
Papio robinsoni
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Primates : Cercopithecidae : Papio : Papio robinsoni2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Fossil LocalitiesClick to show 15 fossil localities

References

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Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
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Minter, W. E. L. 1978. A sedimentary synthesis of placer gold, uranium and pyrite concentrations in Proterozoic Witwatersrand sediment: Memoir of the Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists 5:801–829.
Minter, W. E. L. 1999. Irrefutable detrital origin of the Witwatersrand gold and evidence of eolian signatures. Economic Geology 94:665-670.
Minter, W. E. L., M. L. Goedhart, J. Knight and H. E. Frimmel. 1993. Morphology of Witwatersrand gold grains from the Basal Reef: evidence for their detrital origin. Economic Geology 88:237–248.
Minter, W. E. L., W. C. N. Hill, R. J. Kidger, C. S. Kingsley and P. A. Snowden. 1986. In Mineral deposits of southern Africa volume I, eds. C. R. Anhaeusser and S. Maske, 497-540. Geological Society of South Africa.
Munnik. 1896. Discussion on Mr Draper’s paper. Transactions of the Geological Society of South Africa 1(1):27-49.
Myers, R. E., T. S. McCarthy and I. G. Stanistreet. 1990. A tectono-sedimentary reconstruction of the development and evolution of the Witwatersrand Basin, with particular emphasis on the Central Rand Group. South African Journal of Geology 93(1):180-201.
Nagy, B. 1993. Kerogens and bitumens in Precambrian uraniferous ore deposits: Witwatersrand, South Africa, Elliot Lake, Canada and the natural fission track reactors, Oklo, Gabon. In Bitumens in Ore Deposits, ed. J. Z. Parnell, 287-333. Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits, 6, Springer, Berlin.
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Pirow, H. 1920. Distribution of the pebbles in the Rand banket and other features of the rock. Transactions of the Geological Society of South Africa 23:64-97.
Pretorius, D. A. 1975. The depositional environment of the Witwatersrand goldfields: a chronological review of speculations and observations. Minerals Science and Engineering 7(1):18-47.
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Raal, F. A. 1969. A study of some gold mine diamonds. The American Mineralogist 54:292-296.
Ramdohr, P. 1958. New observations on the ores of the Witwatersrand in South Africa and their genetic significance. Transactions of the Geological Society of South Africa 61:1–50
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Sutton, S. J., S. D. Ritger and J. B. Maynard. 1990. Stratigraphic control of chemistry and mineralogy in metamorphosed Witwatersrand quartzites. Journal of Geology 98(3):329-341.
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Wiebols, J. H. 1955. A suggested glacial origin for the Witwatersrand conglomerates. Transactions of the Geological Society of South Africa. 58(1):367-382.
Hoefs, J., and M. Schidlowski. 1967. Carbon isotope composition of carbonaceous matter from the Precambrian of the Witwatersrand System. Science 155:1096-1097.
Hutchinson, R. W. and R. P. Viljoen. 1988. Re-evaluation of gold source in Witwatersrand ore. South African Journal of Geology 91(2):157-173.
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Kirk, J., J. Ruiz, J. Chesley, S. Titley and J. Walshe. 2001. A detrital model for the origin of gold and sulfides in the Witwatersrand basin based on Re-Os isotopes. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 65(13):2149-2159.
Köppel, V. H. and R. Saager. 1974. Lead isotope evidence on the detrital origin of Witwatersrand pyrites and its bearing on the provenance of Witwatersrand gold. Economic Geology 69:318-331.
Kuntz, J. 1896. The Rand conglomerates; how they were formed. Transactions of the Geological Society of South Africa 1(1):113-122.
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