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Porphyry quarries, Quenast, Rebecq, Walloon Brabant, Wallonia, Belgiumi
Regional Level Types
Porphyry quarriesGroup of Quarries
Quenast- not defined -
Rebecq- not defined -
Walloon BrabantProvince
WalloniaRegion
BelgiumCountry

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Name(s) in local language(s):SA Carrières Unis de Porphyre de Quenast, Rebecq, Brabant Wallon Province, Belgique
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 50° 39' 54'' North , 4° 9' 20'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 50.66500,4.15556
GeoHash:G#: u14bnx3cp
Locality type:Group of Quarries
Köppen climate type:Cfb : Temperate oceanic climate


Porphyry is a variety of igneous rock known for its hardness and durability, the Porphyry of Quenast consists for over 80% of Feldspar.
The exploitation of Porphyry in the area goes back to the 16th century.
In 1844 M Zaman purchased the best quarries and in 1864 he grouped the seven quarries into one society, the SA Carrières Unis de Porphyre de Quenast.
Today the quarry has become an immense operation, in area and depth one of the largest quarries in Europe with an annual capacity of 2 million metric tons but at the moment averaging about 1,8 million metric tons a year.
Originally, because of its durability, the Porphyry was used for the production of cobble stones for roads, one can still see them in many old roads in Belgium and France (the annual speed cycling event Paris-Roubaix is an epic event due to the many strips of cobble stones (Pavés or Kasseien) that are very hard physically on the athlete but also ruin many bikes)
Nowadays the main product is gravel for projects where hardness, durability and resistance of the gravel is of great importance.
Porphyry from the area has been used for instance in the huge Delta Works in Holland, in the "Chunnel" (the tunnel under the channel linking France to the United Kingdom) and for the high-speed TGV tracks (they exclusively use Porphyry)
Today four Porphyry quarries are operated (in order from east to west): Quenast, Bierghes, and the side by side located quarries of Lessines and Deux-Acren.

It is strictly forbidden to enter the quarry, and the quarry management does not give any permits for collecting.



Regions containing this locality

Eurasia Plate

Plate - 7,319 mineral species & varietal names listed

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


29 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Actinolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Histoire, industrie, geologie des Carrières de Quenast. Claude Pire, 1993
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Histoire, industrie, geologie des Carrières de Quenast. Claude Pire, 1993
Albite var: Oligoclase
Formula: (Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Reference: Histoire, industrie, geologie des Carrières de Quenast. Claude Pire, 1993
Analcime
Formula: Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Reference: http://www.artistones1.be/chapitres/collection_j_evlard/calcite/les%20carrieres%20belges/quenast.htm
Anatase
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Hatert, F., Deliens, M., Fransolet, A.-M. & van der Meersche, E. (2002): Les minéraux de Belgique. 2ème édition, Muséum des Sciences Naturelles, Bruxelles, Ed., 304 p.
'Apatite'
Reference: Histoire, industrie, geologie des Carrières de Quenast. Claude Pire, 1993
'Apophyllite'
Reference: Hatert, F., Deliens, M., Fransolet, A.-M. & van der Meersche, E. (2002): Les minéraux de Belgique. 2ème édition, Muséum des Sciences Naturelles, Bruxelles, Ed., 304 p.
'Asbestos'
Reference: Histoire, industrie, geologie des Carrières de Quenast. Claude Pire, 1993
'Axinite Group'
Reference: Histoire, industrie, geologie des Carrières de Quenast. Claude Pire, 1993
'Biotite'
Reference: Histoire, industrie, geologie des Carrières de Quenast. Claude Pire, 1993
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Reference: Histoire, industrie, geologie des Carrières de Quenast. Claude Pire, 1993
Brookite
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Histoire, industrie, geologie des Carrières de Quenast. Claude Pire, 1993
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Hatert, F., Deliens, M., Fransolet, A.-M. & van der Meersche, E. (2002): Les minéraux de Belgique. 2ème édition, Muséum des Sciences Naturelles, Bruxelles, Ed., 304 p.
'Chabazite'
Reference: Hatert, F., Deliens, M., Fransolet, A.-M. & van der Meersche, E. (2002): Les minéraux de Belgique. 2ème édition, Muséum des Sciences Naturelles, Bruxelles, Ed., 304 p.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Hatert, F., Deliens, M., Fransolet, A.-M. & van der Meersche, E. (2002): Les minéraux de Belgique. 2ème édition, Muséum des Sciences Naturelles, Bruxelles, Ed., 304 p.
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Histoire, industrie, geologie des Carrières de Quenast. Claude Pire, 1993
'Clinozoisite-Epidote Series'
Reference: Hatert, F., Deliens, M., Fransolet, A.-M. & van der Meersche, E. (2002): Les minéraux de Belgique. 2ème édition, Muséum des Sciences Naturelles, Bruxelles, Ed., 304 p.
Copiapite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Reference: Histoire, industrie, geologie des Carrières de Quenast. Claude Pire, 1993
Coquimbite
Formula: Fe2-xAlx(SO4)3 · 9H2O, x ~0.5
Reference: Histoire, industrie, geologie des Carrières de Quenast. Claude Pire, 1993
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Hatert, F., Deliens, M., Fransolet, A.-M. & van der Meersche, E. (2002): Les minéraux de Belgique. 2ème édition, Muséum des Sciences Naturelles, Bruxelles, Ed., 304 p.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Hatert, F., Deliens, M., Fransolet, A.-M. & van der Meersche, E. (2002): Les minéraux de Belgique. 2ème édition, Muséum des Sciences Naturelles, Bruxelles, Ed., 304 p.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Histoire, industrie, geologie des Carrières de Quenast. Claude Pire, 1993
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Histoire, industrie, geologie des Carrières de Quenast. Claude Pire, 1993
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Histoire, industrie, geologie des Carrières de Quenast. Claude Pire, 1993
'K Feldspar'
Reference: Histoire, industrie, geologie des Carrières de Quenast. Claude Pire, 1993
'K Feldspar var: Adularia'
Formula: KAlSi3O8
Reference: Histoire, industrie, geologie des Carrières de Quenast. Claude Pire, 1993
'Lepidolite'
Reference: Histoire, industrie, geologie des Carrières de Quenast. Claude Pire, 1993
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Histoire, industrie, geologie des Carrières de Quenast. Claude Pire, 1993
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Histoire, industrie, geologie des Carrières de Quenast. Claude Pire, 1993
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Reference: Histoire, industrie, geologie des Carrières de Quenast. Claude Pire, 1993
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Histoire, industrie, geologie des Carrières de Quenast. Claude Pire, 1993
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Histoire, industrie, geologie des Carrières de Quenast. Claude Pire, 1993
'Phillipsite' ?
Reference: http://www.artistones1.be/chapitres/collection_j_evlard/calcite/les%20carrieres%20belges/quenast.htm
'Porphyry'
Reference: Automatically generated from locality name
Prehnite
Formula: Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Reference: Histoire, industrie, geologie des Carrières de Quenast. Claude Pire, 1993
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Hatert, F., Deliens, M., Fransolet, A.-M. & van der Meersche, E. (2002): Les minéraux de Belgique. 2ème édition, Muséum des Sciences Naturelles, Bruxelles, Ed., 304 p.
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Reference: Histoire, industrie, geologie des Carrières de Quenast. Claude Pire, 1993
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Hatert, F., Deliens, M., Fransolet, A.-M. & van der Meersche, E. (2002): Les minéraux de Belgique. 2ème édition, Muséum des Sciences Naturelles, Bruxelles, Ed., 304 p.
Quartz var: Smoky Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Paul De Bondt collection
Rhodochrosite ?
Formula: MnCO3
Reference: Histoire, industrie, geologie des Carrières de Quenast. Claude Pire, 1993
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Histoire, industrie, geologie des Carrières de Quenast. Claude Pire, 1993
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Reference: Histoire, industrie, geologie des Carrières de Quenast. Claude Pire, 1993
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Histoire, industrie, geologie des Carrières de Quenast. Claude Pire, 1993
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: http://www.artistones1.be/chapitres/collection_j_evlard/calcite/les%20carrieres%20belges/quenast.htm
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Reference: Histoire, industrie, geologie des Carrières de Quenast. Claude Pire, 1993

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
'Bornite'2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
'Chalcopyrite'2.CB.10aCuFeS2
'Galena'2.CD.10PbS
'Molybdenite'2.EA.30MoS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Anatase'4.DD.05TiO2
'Brookite'4.DD.10TiO2
'Goethite'4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
'Magnetite'4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Smoky Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
'Calcite'5.AB.05CaCO3
Rhodochrosite ?5.AB.05MnCO3
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
'Copiapite'7.DB.35Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
'Coquimbite'7.CB.55Fe2-xAlx(SO4)3 · 9H2O, x ~0.5
'Gypsum'7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
'Actinolite'9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
'Albite'9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
var: Oligoclase9.FA.35(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
'Analcime'9.GB.05Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
'Epidote'9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
'Kaolinite'9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Microcline'9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
'Muscovite'9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Orthoclase9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Prehnite9.DP.20Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-
'Apophyllite'-
'Asbestos'-
'Axinite Group'-
'Biotite'-
'Chabazite'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'Clinozoisite-Epidote Series'-
'K Feldspar'-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
'Lepidolite'-
Phillipsite ?-
Porphyry-
Tourmaline-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Molybdenite2.12.10.1MoS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
AX2
Anatase4.4.4.1TiO2
Brookite4.4.5.1TiO2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Rhodochrosite ?14.1.1.4MnCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
A2(XO4)3·H2O
Coquimbite29.8.3.1Fe2-xAlx(SO4)3 · 9H2O, x ~0.5
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Miscellaneous
Copiapite31.10.5.1Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 72 - PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 4-membered rings
Prehnite72.1.3.1Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Microcline76.1.1.5K(AlSi3O8)
Orthoclase76.1.1.1K(AlSi3O8)
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
Analcime77.1.1.1Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Actinolite-☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Albite
var: Oligoclase
-(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
'Apatite'-
'Apophyllite'-
'Asbestos'-
'Axinite Group'-
'Biotite'-
'Chabazite'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'Clinozoisite-Epidote Series'-
'K Feldspar'-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Lepidolite'-
'Phillipsite' ?-
'Porphyry'-
Quartz
var: Smoky Quartz
-SiO2
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
H CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
H CoquimbiteFe2-xAlx(SO4)3 · 9H2O, x ~0.5
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
BBoron
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C RhodochrositeMnCO3
C SideriteFeCO3
OOxygen
O Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
O AnataseTiO2
O BrookiteTiO2
O CalciteCaCO3
O CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
O CoquimbiteFe2-xAlx(SO4)3 · 9H2O, x ~0.5
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
O OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
O PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
O QuartzSiO2
O RhodochrositeMnCO3
O RutileTiO2
O SideriteFeCO3
O Quartz (var: Smoky Quartz)SiO2
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Na Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
MgMagnesium
Mg Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Al OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Al PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Si OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Si PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Quartz (var: Smoky Quartz)SiO2
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
SSulfur
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
S CoquimbiteFe2-xAlx(SO4)3 · 9H2O, x ~0.5
S GalenaPbS
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S MolybdeniteMoS2
S PyriteFeS2
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S SphaleriteZnS
KPotassium
K K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
K MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
CaCalcium
Ca Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Ca PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
TiTitanium
Ti AnataseTiO2
Ti BrookiteTiO2
Ti RutileTiO2
MnManganese
Mn RhodochrositeMnCO3
FeIron
Fe Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Fe CoquimbiteFe2-xAlx(SO4)3 · 9H2O, x ~0.5
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe SideriteFeCO3
CuCopper
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
ZrZirconium
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)
MoMolybdenum
Mo MolybdeniteMoS2
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Cenozoic
0 - 66 Ma



ID: 3185279
Cenozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Cenozoic (0 - 66 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Eocene
33.9 - 56 Ma



ID: 3139373
Eocene clay

Age: Eocene (33.9 - 56 Ma)

Lithology: Major:{clay}, Minor{sand,gravel}

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

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Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
- Histoire, industrie et Geologie des Carrières de Quenast. Claude Pire, 1993.


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