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Pioneer District, Pinal Mts, Pinal Co., Arizona, USA

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 33° 16' North , 111° 5' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 33.26667,-111.08333
Other regions containing this locality:Sonoran Desert, North America
Köppen climate type:BSh : Hot semi-arid (steppe) climate

‡Ref.: The Resources of Arizona - A reliable Manual of Information Concerning the Territory, compiled by Patrick Hamilton (1881), Prescott, AZ: 59.

Wilson, E.D., et al (1934), Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 137: 168-169.

Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.: 417.

This district is located in NE Pinal County, in the vicinity of Superior, which lies at 3,000 feet of altitude. It is located at the base of a steep and rugged slope known in part as Apache Leap. This slope is entensively dissected by westward-trending gulches of which Queen Creek Canyon, SE of Superior, is the largest.The following succession of rocks is present in this vicinity: Pre-Cambrain Pinal schist; Pre-Cambrian or Cambrian conglomerate, shale, quartzite, and limestone, intruded by extensive sills of diabase; Cambrian quartzite; Devonian, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian limestones intruded by dikes and sills of quartz monzonite-porphyry; and Tertiary dacite flows.

Before the outpouring of the dacite and immediately after the intrusion of the Central Arizona batholith, as interpreted by Short and Ettlinger, the region was broken by eastward-trending faults and the hypogene copper deposits were formed. After long erosion, the formations were uplifted and tilted approximately 35º eastward, and the region was buried by 1,000 feet or more of dacite flows. Later uplift, accompanied by northward-trending faults of great magnitude, gave rise to the present mountain ranges.

This is a gold-copper-silver mining area. Production was about $2,056,000 in gold before 1932, plus $270,000 in gold ore in the following two years. Copper production was mostly from the Magma Mine, and silver production was substantially from the Silver King mine and the Magma mine, which see for statistics.

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded from this region.

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

81 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

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Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on

Quaternary - Miocene
0 - 23.03 Ma

ID: 3185380
Cenozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Cenozoic (0 - 23.03 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Cryogenian - Ectasian
635 - 1400 Ma

ID: 2937336
Middle Proterozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Proterozoic (635 - 1400 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Grand Canyon Supergroup; Chuar Group; Unkar Group; Apache Group; Troy Quartzite

Description: Red-brown shale and sandstone, buff to orange quartzite, limestone, basalt, black shale, and sparse conglomerate. This unit includes the Grand Canyon Supergroup, Apache Group, and Troy Quartzite. These rocks were deposited in shallow marine, coastal nonmarine, and fluvial settings. (700-1300)

Lithology: Major:{shale,sandstone,quartzite}, Minor:{limestone,basalt,black shale}, Incidental:{conglomerate}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Data and map coding provided by, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

Localities in this Region


This page contains all mineral locality references listed on This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.
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