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Almadén Mine, Almadén, Almadén District, Ciudad Real, Castile-La Mancha, Spain

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 38° 46' 31'' North , 4° 50' 50'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 38.77528,-4.84750
GeoHash:G#: eyus9dy4m
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:Csa : Hot-summer Mediterranean climate


A mercury mine started before 1850. Owned by Minas de Almadén.
Volcano-sedimentary Hg ores hosted in quartzite and volcanic rocks.
Almaden is the largest mercury deposit in the world, having produced more than 8 million recorded flasks of mercury (250,000 metric tons; 1 flask = 76 lb) from a volume of ore of approximately 450 X 600 X 50 m3. Has produced about 1/3 of the world's mercury.

The name Almadén stems from the Arabic "al-ma 'daniy 'yun", "the mine" or "the mineral".

Regions containing this locality

Iberian Peninsula

Peninsula - 1,587 mineral species & varietal names listed

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


29 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Reference: Saupe, F. (1990). Geology of the Almadén mercury deposit, province of Ciudad Real, Spain. Economic Geology, 85(3), 482-510.
'Apatite'
Reference: Saupe, F. (1990). Geology of the Almadén mercury deposit, province of Ciudad Real, Spain. Economic Geology, 85(3), 482-510.
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: Calvo, Miguel. (2014). Minerales y Minas de España. Vol. VI. Sulfatos (Seleniatos, Teluratos), Cromatos, Molibdatos y Wolframatos. Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas de Madrid. Fundación Gómez Pardo. 653 págs.
'Bilibinite'
Reference: Saupe, F. (1990). Geology of the Almadén mercury deposit, province of Ciudad Real, Spain. Economic Geology, 85(3), 482-510.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Saupe, F. (1990). Geology of the Almadén mercury deposit, province of Ciudad Real, Spain. Economic Geology, 85(3), 482-510.
Calomel
Formula: (Hg2)2+Cl2
Reference: Saupe, F. (1990). Geology of the Almadén mercury deposit, province of Ciudad Real, Spain. Economic Geology, 85(3), 482-510.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Saupe, F. (1990). Geology of the Almadén mercury deposit, province of Ciudad Real, Spain. Economic Geology, 85(3), 482-510.
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Saupe, F. (1990). Geology of the Almadén mercury deposit, province of Ciudad Real, Spain. Economic Geology, 85(3), 482-510.
Cinnabar
Formula: HgS
Reference: Saupe, F. (1990). Geology of the Almadén mercury deposit, province of Ciudad Real, Spain. Economic Geology, 85(3), 482-510.
Dickite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Saupe, F. (1990). Geology of the Almadén mercury deposit, province of Ciudad Real, Spain. Economic Geology, 85(3), 482-510.
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: Saupe, F. (1990). Geology of the Almadén mercury deposit, province of Ciudad Real, Spain. Economic Geology, 85(3), 482-510.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Saupe, F. (1990). Geology of the Almadén mercury deposit, province of Ciudad Real, Spain. Economic Geology, 85(3), 482-510.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Ko Jansen collection, photo id 671779
Graphite
Formula: C
Reference: Economic Geology (1990) 85:482-510
Greenockite
Formula: CdS
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Saupe, F. (1990). Geology of the Almadén mercury deposit, province of Ciudad Real, Spain. Economic Geology, 85(3), 482-510.
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Reference: Saupe, F. (1990). Geology of the Almadén mercury deposit, province of Ciudad Real, Spain. Economic Geology, 85(3), 482-510.
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Saupe, F. (1990). Geology of the Almadén mercury deposit, province of Ciudad Real, Spain. Economic Geology, 85(3), 482-510.
Leucoxene
Reference: Economic Geology (1990) 85:482-510
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Saupe, F. (1990). Geology of the Almadén mercury deposit, province of Ciudad Real, Spain. Economic Geology, 85(3), 482-510.
Mercury
Formula: Hg
Reference: Saupe, F. (1990). Geology of the Almadén mercury deposit, province of Ciudad Real, Spain. Economic Geology, 85(3), 482-510.
'commodity:Mercury'
Formula: Hg
Reference:  
Metacinnabar
Formula: HgS
Reference: Calvo, M. (2003) Minerales y Minas de España. Vol II. Sulfuros y sulfosales. Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Alava. Vitoria. 705 págs.
Millerite
Formula: NiS
Reference: Saupe, F. (1990). Geology of the Almadén mercury deposit, province of Ciudad Real, Spain. Economic Geology, 85(3), 482-510.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Economic Geology (1990) 85:482-510
Muscovite var: Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Saupe, F. (1990). Geology of the Almadén mercury deposit, province of Ciudad Real, Spain. Economic Geology, 85(3), 482-510.
'Pumpellyite'
Reference: Saupe, F. (1990). Geology of the Almadén mercury deposit, province of Ciudad Real, Spain. Economic Geology, 85(3), 482-510.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Saupe, F. (1990). Geology of the Almadén mercury deposit, province of Ciudad Real, Spain. Economic Geology, 85(3), 482-510.
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Reference: Economic Geology (1990) 85:482-510
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Saupe, F. (1990). Geology of the Almadén mercury deposit, province of Ciudad Real, Spain. Economic Geology, 85(3), 482-510.
Schuetteite
Formula: Hg2+3(SO4)O2
Reference: Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data, Ignacio Gaspar specimen
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Reference: Saupe, F. (1990). Geology of the Almadén mercury deposit, province of Ciudad Real, Spain. Economic Geology, 85(3), 482-510.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Saupe, F. (1990). Geology of the Almadén mercury deposit, province of Ciudad Real, Spain. Economic Geology, 85(3), 482-510.
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Reference: Economic Geology (1990) 85:482-510
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Reference: Saupe, F. (1990). Geology of the Almadén mercury deposit, province of Ciudad Real, Spain. Economic Geology, 85(3), 482-510.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
'Graphite'1.CB.05aC
'Mercury'1.AD.05Hg
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
'Chalcopyrite'2.CB.10aCuFeS2
'Cinnabar'2.CD.15aHgS
'Galena'2.CD.10PbS
'Greenockite'2.CB.45CdS
'Marcasite'2.EB.10aFeS2
'Metacinnabar'2.CB.05aHgS
'Millerite'2.CC.20NiS
'Pyrite'2.EB.05aFeS2
'Pyrrhotite'2.CC.10Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Group 3 - Halides
'Calomel'3.AA.30(Hg2)2+Cl2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Goethite'4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
'Ilmenite'4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
'Quartz'4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
'Ankerite'5.AB.10Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
'Calcite'5.AB.05CaCO3
'Dolomite'5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
'Baryte'7.AD.35BaSO4
'Gypsum'7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
'Schuetteite'7.BB.40Hg2+3(SO4)O2
Group 9 - Silicates
'Dickite'9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Kaolinite'9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Muscovite'9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Sericite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-
'Bilibinite'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'Leucoxene'-
'Pumpellyite'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Mercury1.1.7.1Hg
Semi-metals and non-metals
Graphite1.3.6.2C
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Cinnabar2.8.14.1HgS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Greenockite2.8.7.2CdS
Metacinnabar2.8.2.3HgS
Millerite2.8.16.1NiS
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX
Calomel9.1.8.1(Hg2)2+Cl2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
AB(XO3)2
Ankerite14.2.1.2Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Schuetteite30.1.13.1Hg2+3(SO4)O2
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Dickite71.1.1.1Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-
'Bilibinite'-
'Chlorite Group'-
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Leucoxene-
Muscovite
var: Sericite
-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
'Pumpellyite'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H DickiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CCarbon
C AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
C CalciteCaCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C GraphiteC
C SideriteFeCO3
OOxygen
O AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
O BaryteBaSO4
O CalciteCaCO3
O DickiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O QuartzSiO2
O SchuetteiteHg32+(SO4)O2
O Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O SideriteFeCO3
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
MgMagnesium
Mg AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
AlAluminium
Al DickiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si DickiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
SSulfur
S BaryteBaSO4
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S CinnabarHgS
S GalenaPbS
S GreenockiteCdS
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S MarcasiteFeS2
S MetacinnabarHgS
S MilleriteNiS
S PyriteFeS2
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S SchuetteiteHg32+(SO4)O2
S SphaleriteZnS
ClChlorine
Cl Calomel(Hg2)2+Cl2
KPotassium
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
TiTitanium
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
FeIron
Fe AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe SideriteFeCO3
NiNickel
Ni MilleriteNiS
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
ZrZirconium
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)
CdCadmium
Cd GreenockiteCdS
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
HgMercury
Hg Calomel(Hg2)2+Cl2
Hg CinnabarHgS
Hg MercuryHg
Hg MetacinnabarHgS
Hg SchuetteiteHg32+(SO4)O2
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Silurian - Ordovician
419.2 - 485.4 Ma



ID: 3191306
Paleozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Paleozoic (419.2 - 485.4 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Late Ordovician - Middle Ordovician
443.8 - 470 Ma



ID: 2499618

Age: Ordovician (443.8 - 470 Ma)

Description: Slate, sandstone, quartzite and limestone or volcaniclastic rocks

Lithology: Quartzite, slate, sandstone and limestone

Reference: Mapa Geológico de la Península Ibérica, Baleares y Canarias a escala 1:1.000.000. Instituto Geológico y Minero de España. [77]

Early Cambrian - Neoproterozoic
511 - 1000 Ma



ID: 3139337
Esquisto-Graovaquisco Complex

Age: Neoproterozoic to Cambrian (511 - 1000 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Esquisto-Graovaquisco Complex

Description: flysch (sediments)

Lithology: Major:{phyllite}, Minor{meta-sandstone,marlstone}

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Mining Annual Review (1985) 119.
Crawford, J.W. (1988) Famous mineral localities: The Almadén mines, Ciudad Real, Spain. Mineralogical Record, 19(5), 297-302.
Saupe, F. (1990) Geology of the Almadén mercury deposit, Province of Ciudad Real, Spain. Economic Geology, 85(3), 482-510.
Hall, C.M., Higueras, P.L., Kesler, S.E., Lunar, R., Dong, H., and Halliday, A.N. (1997) Dating of alteration episodes related to mercury mineralization in the Almadén district, Spain. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 148(1-2), 287-298.
Hernández, A., Jébrak, M., Higueras, P., Oyarzun, R., Morata, D., and Munhá, J. (1999) The Almadén mercury mining district, Spain. Mineralium Deposita, 34(5-6), 539-548.
Calvo, M. (2003) Minerales y Minas de España. Vol II. Sulfuros y sulfosales. Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Alava. Vitoria. 705 pp.

External Links

www.gl.rhul.ac.uk/geode/Variscides/Almaden.html


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