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Koue Bokkeveld meteorite (Cold Bokkeveld), Koue Bokkeveld Mtn, Ceres, Cape Winelands District, Western Cape Province, South Africa

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 33° 8' South , 19° 23' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): -33.13333,19.38333
GeoHash:G#: k6jg90682
Köppen climate type:Csb : Warm-summer Mediterranean climate


Carbonaceous chondrite, fell in 1838.
Classification: CM2 (Mighei-like) Carbonaceous Chondrite

Around mid-morning of 13 October 1838, a NE traveling fireball exploded with detonations and a number of pieces fell to the ground over a large region of/near the Cold Bokkeveld— one piece creating a small crater. The total recovered mass of ~ 5.2 kg included a 2 kg stone. Cold Bokkeveld has been classified as a CM2 (Mighei-like) Carbonaceous Chondrite and is the 4th largest of the 15 observed CM2 Chondrite falls. Like all carbonaceous chondrite, Cold Bokkeveld and other CM carbonaceous chondrites are distinguished by their nearly solar Mg/Si ratios and their somewhat similar oxygen isotope ratios. Within this framework the CM subgroup is further distinguished by small chondrules and inclusions, abundant fine-grained matrix (~70 vol%), and abundant hydrated minerals.

The CM chondrites have received considerable attention for several reasons. The first reason is quite straightforward. Unlike many meteorites, CM Chondrites contain hydrated minerals produced before the meteorites landed on earth. However, it often takes considerable effort to establish that such minerals were not produced after the meteorites reached the earth. A second reason of interest is the presence of complex organic compounds which are significantly different from terrestrial organic compounds of similar molecular weight. A third and more recent discovery driving contemporary research is the presence of diamond, silicon carbide, and other small crystals and phases with presolar gases derived from the epochs before the formation of the solar system.

As Cold Bokkeveld has the 4th largest mass among the recovered CM meteorites, it is an obvious object of interest for those who study meteorites.

Updates, references, photographs are always available from the Meteoritical Society’s “Meteoritical Society Database”.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


31 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Anhydrite
Formula: CaSO4
Description: Intergrown with Hemihydrate
Reference: Brearley, A. J. & Jones, R. H. (1998): Chondritic Meteorites. In: Planetary Materials (Papike, J. J., Editor): Chapter 3, 398 pages. Mineralogical Society of America: Washington, DC, USA. (1998)
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Craig A. Johnson & Martin Prinz (1993). Carbonate compositions in CM and CI chondrites and implications for aqueous alteration. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 57, #12, 2843-2852. (June 2003).
Augite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Reference: Miyahara, M., Uehara, S., Ohtani, E., Nagase, T., Nishijima, M., Vashaei, Z. and Kitagawa, R. (2008): THE ANATOMY OF ALTERED CHONDRULES AND FGRS COVERING THEM IN A CM CHONDRITE BY FIB- TEM/STEM. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIX, 1194.
Barringerite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)2P
Reference: M. A. Nazarov, Franz Brandstaetter, G. Kurat & T. Ntaflos. (1998). Chemistry of P-rich Sulfides in Murchison, Cold Bokkeveld and Nogoya CM Chondrites. 29th Annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, TX, abstract no. 1628. (March 1998).
Bassanite
Formula: CaSO4 · 0.5H2O
Reference: Brearley, A. J. & Jones, R. H. (1998): Chondritic Meteorites. In: Planetary Materials (Papike, J. J., Editor): Chapter 3, 398 pages. Mineralogical Society of America: Washington, DC, USA. (1998)
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Martin R. Lee (1993). The petrography, mineralogy and origins of calcium sulphate within the Cold Bokkeveld CM carbonaceous chondrite. Meteoritics 28, #1, 53-62. (Mar 1993).
Chromite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Reference: MacDougall, J. D. & Phinney, D. (1977) Olivine separates from Murchison and Cold Bokkeveld - Particle tracks and noble gases. In: Lunar Science Conference, 8th, Houston, Tex., March 14-18, 1977, Proceedings. Volume 1. (A78-41551 18-91) New York, Pergamon Press, Inc., 1977, p. 293-311.; Paul Ramdohr (1973). The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages.
Chrysotile
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Thomas J. Zega & Peter R. Buseck (2003). Fine-grained-rim mineralogy of the Cold Bokkeveld CM chondrite. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67, #9, 1711-1721. (May 2003.)
Clinoenstatite
Formula: MgSiO3
Reference: Miyahara, M., Uehara, S., Ohtani, E., Nagase, T., Nishijima, M., Vashaei, Z. and Kitagawa, R. (2008): THE ANATOMY OF ALTERED CHONDRULES AND FGRS COVERING THEM IN A CM CHONDRITE BY FIB- TEM/STEM. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIX, 1194.
Cronstedtite
Formula: Fe2+2Fe3+((Si,Fe3+)2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIV (2003); Thomas J. Zega & Peter R. Buseck (2003). Fine-grained-rim mineralogy of the Cold Bokkeveld CM chondrite. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67, #9, 1711-1721. (May 2003.); Miyahara, M., Uehara, S., Ohtani, E., Nagase, T., Nishijima, M., Vashaei, Z. and Kitagawa, R. (2008): THE ANATOMY OF ALTERED CHONDRULES AND FGRS COVERING THEM IN A CM CHONDRITE BY FIB- TEM/STEM. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIX, 1194.
Daubréelite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2S4
Reference: Paul Ramdohr (1973). The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages.
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Reference: Martin R. Lee (1993). The petrography, mineralogy and origins of calcium sulphate within the Cold Bokkeveld CM carbonaceous chondrite. Meteoritics 28, #1, 53-62. (Mar 1993). ; Miyahara, M., Uehara, S., Ohtani, E., Nagase, T., Nishijima, M., Vashaei, Z. and Kitagawa, R. (2008): THE ANATOMY OF ALTERED CHONDRULES AND FGRS COVERING THEM IN A CM CHONDRITE BY FIB- TEM/STEM. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIX, 1194.
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: Simone de Leuw, Alan Edward Rubin & John T. Wasson (2010). Carbonates in CM2 chondrites: Complex formational histories and comparison to carbonates in CI chondrites. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 45, #4, 513-530. (April 2010).
Enstatite
Formula: MgSiO3
Reference: Miyahara, M., Uehara, S., Ohtani, E., Nagase, T., Nishijima, M., Vashaei, Z. and Kitagawa, R. (2008): THE ANATOMY OF ALTERED CHONDRULES AND FGRS COVERING THEM IN A CM CHONDRITE BY FIB- TEM/STEM. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIX, 1194.
Fayalite
Formula: Fe2+2SiO4
Reference: www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/metsoc2000/pdf/5306.pdf.; MacDougall, J. D. & Phinney, D. (1977) Olivine separates from Murchison and Cold Bokkeveld - Particle tracks and noble gases. In: Lunar Science Conference, 8th, Houston, Tex., March 14-18, 1977, Proceedings. Volume 1. (A78-41551 18-91) New York, Pergamon Press, Inc., 1977, p. 293-311.
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'
Reference: Brian Harold Mason (1963). The Carbonaceous Chondrites. Space Science Reviews 1, #4, 621-646.
Forsterite
Formula: Mg2SiO4
Reference: Martin R. Lee (1993). The petrography, mineralogy and origins of calcium sulphate within the Cold Bokkeveld CM carbonaceous chondrite. Meteoritics 28, #1, 53-62. (Mar 1993). ; Miyahara, M., Uehara, S., Ohtani, E., Nagase, T., Nishijima, M., Vashaei, Z. and Kitagawa, R. (2008): THE ANATOMY OF ALTERED CHONDRULES AND FGRS COVERING THEM IN A CM CHONDRITE BY FIB- TEM/STEM. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIX, 1194.
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Louis H. Fuchs, Edward Olsen and Kenneth J. Jensen (1973). Mineralogy, Mineral-Chemistry, and Composition of the Murchison (C2) Meteorite. Smithsonian Contributions to Earth Science, #10, 39 pages. (14 August 1973).
Hibonite
Formula: (Ca,Ce)(Al,Ti,Mg)12O19
Reference: Richard C. Greenwood, Robert Hutchinson & G. Cressy (1991). Spinel-bearing refractory inclusions in Cold Bokkeveld. Meteoritics 26, #4, 340. (Dec 1991).
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Reference: Paul Ramdohr (1973). The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages.
Iron
Formula: Fe
Reference: Ramdohr, P. (1973) The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York.
Iron var: Kamacite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)
Reference: Ramdohr, P. (1973) The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York.
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/metsoc2000/pdf/5306.pdf.; Paul Ramdohr (1973). The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages.
Montmorillonite
Formula: (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Reference: David J. Barber (1985). Phyllosilicates and other layer-structured materials in stony meteorites. Clay Minerals vol. 20, pp. 415-454. (1985)
Pentlandite
Formula: (FexNiy)Σ9S8
Reference: www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/metsoc2000/pdf/5306.pdf.; MacDougall, J. D. & Phinney, D. (1977) Olivine separates from Murchison and Cold Bokkeveld - Particle tracks and noble gases. In: Lunar Science Conference, 8th, Houston, Tex., March 14-18, 1977, Proceedings. Volume 1. (A78-41551 18-91) New York, Pergamon Press, Inc., 1977, p. 293-311.; Paul Ramdohr (1973). The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages.
Perovskite
Formula: CaTiO3
Reference: Richard C. Greenwood, Robert Hutchinson & G. Cressy (1991). Spinel-bearing refractory inclusions in Cold Bokkeveld. Meteoritics 26, #4, 340. (Dec 1991).
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Reference: Emma S. Bullock, Kevin D. McKeegan, Matthieu Gounelle, Monica M. Grady & Sara S. RussellL (2010 ). Meteoritics & Planetary Science 45, #5, 885–898. (May 2010).
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Reference: M. A. Nazarov, G. Kurat, F. Brandstaetter, T. Ntaflos, M. Chaussidon, and P. Hoppe (2009). Phosphorus-Bearing Sulfides and Their Associations in CM Chondrites. Petrology vol. 17, #2, 101-123.
Schreibersite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)3P
Reference: Paul Ramdohr (1973). The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages.
'Serpentine Subgroup'
Formula: D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Reference: www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/metsoc2000/pdf/5306.pdf.; Brian Harold Mason (1962). Meteorites. John Wiley and Sons, Inc.: New York and London. 274 pages.; Thomas J. Zega & Peter R. Buseck (2003). Fine-grained-rim mineralogy of the Cold Bokkeveld CM chondrite. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67, #9, 1711-1721. (May 2003.)
Spinel
Formula: MgAl2O4
Reference: MacDougall, J. D. & Phinney, D. (1977) Olivine separates from Murchison and Cold Bokkeveld - Particle tracks and noble gases. In: Lunar Science Conference, 8th, Houston, Tex., March 14-18, 1977, Proceedings. Volume 1. (A78-41551 18-91) New York, Pergamon Press, Inc., 1977, p. 293-311.; Martin R. Lee (1993). The petrography, mineralogy and origins of calcium sulphate within the Cold Bokkeveld CM carbonaceous chondrite. Meteoritics 28, #1, 53-62. (Mar 1993).
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Reference: Brian Harold Mason (1962). Meteorites. John Wiley and Sons, Inc.: New York and London. 274 pages.
Tochilinite
Formula: Fe2+5-6(Mg,Fe2+)5S6(OH)10
Reference: www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/metsoc2000/pdf/5306.pdf.; Thomas J. Zega & Peter R. Buseck (2003). Fine-grained-rim mineralogy of the Cold Bokkeveld CM chondrite. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67, #9, 1711-1721. (May 2003.)
Troilite
Formula: FeS
Reference: Paul Ramdohr (1973). The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
'Barringerite'1.BD.10(Fe,Ni)2P
'Iron'1.AE.05Fe
var: Kamacite1.AE.05(Fe,Ni)
Schreibersite1.BD.05(Fe,Ni)3P
Sulphur1.CC.05S8
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
'Daubréelite'2.DA.05Fe2+Cr3+2S4
Pentlandite2.BB.15(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Tochilinite2.FD.35Fe2+5-6(Mg,Fe2+)5S6(OH)10
Troilite2.CC.10FeS
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Chromite'4.BB.05Fe2+Cr3+2O4
'Hibonite'4.CC.45(Ca,Ce)(Al,Ti,Mg)12O19
'Ilmenite'4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Perovskite4.CC.30CaTiO3
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Spinel4.BB.05MgAl2O4
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
'Aragonite'5.AB.15CaCO3
'Calcite'5.AB.05CaCO3
'Dolomite'5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
'Anhydrite'7.AD.30CaSO4
'Bassanite'7.CD.45CaSO4 · 0.5H2O
'Gypsum'7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
'Augite'9.DA.15(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
'Chrysotile'9.ED.15Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Clinoenstatite'9.DA.10MgSiO3
'Cronstedtite'9.ED.15Fe2+2Fe3+((Si,Fe3+)2O5)(OH)4
'Diopside'9.DA.15CaMgSi2O6
'Enstatite'9.DA.05MgSiO3
'Fayalite'9.AC.05Fe2+2SiO4
'Forsterite'9.AC.05Mg2SiO4
Montmorillonite9.EC.40(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
Serpentine Subgroup-D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Barringerite1.1.21.1(Fe,Ni)2P
Iron
var: Kamacite
1.1.11.1(Fe,Ni)
Schreibersite1.1.21.2(Fe,Ni)3P
Semi-metals and non-metals
Sulphur1.3.5.1S8
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 9:8
Pentlandite2.7.1.1(FexNiy)Σ9S8
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Troilite2.8.9.1FeS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:4
Daubréelite2.10.1.11Fe2+Cr3+2S4
Hydroxysulfides and Hydrated Sulfides
Tochilinite2.14.2.1Fe2+5-6(Mg,Fe2+)5S6(OH)10
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
Perovskite4.3.3.1CaTiO3
AX2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Chromite7.2.3.3Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Spinel7.2.1.1MgAl2O4
AB12X19
Hibonite7.4.1.1(Ca,Ce)(Al,Ti,Mg)12O19
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anhydrite28.3.2.1CaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Bassanite29.6.1.1CaSO4 · 0.5H2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with all cations in octahedral [6] coordination
Fayalite51.3.1.1Fe2+2SiO4
Forsterite51.3.1.2Mg2SiO4
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Augite65.1.3a.3(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Clinoenstatite65.1.1.1MgSiO3
Diopside65.1.3a.1CaMgSi2O6
Enstatite65.1.2.1MgSiO3
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Chrysotile71.1.5.1Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Cronstedtite71.1.4.7Fe2+2Fe3+((Si,Fe3+)2O5)(OH)4
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 clays
Montmorillonite71.3.1a.2(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Aragonite-CaCO3
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
Iron-Fe
'Serpentine Subgroup'-D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H BassaniteCaSO4 · 0.5H2O
H ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
H CronstedtiteFe22+Fe3+((Si,Fe3+)2O5)(OH)4
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
H Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
H TochiliniteFe2+5-6(Mg,Fe2+)5S6(OH)10
CCarbon
C AragoniteCaCO3
C CalciteCaCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
OOxygen
O AnhydriteCaSO4
O AragoniteCaCO3
O Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
O BassaniteCaSO4 · 0.5H2O
O CalciteCaCO3
O ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
O ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
O ClinoenstatiteMgSiO3
O CronstedtiteFe22+Fe3+((Si,Fe3+)2O5)(OH)4
O DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O EnstatiteMgSiO3
O FayaliteFe22+SiO4
O ForsteriteMg2SiO4
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O Hibonite(Ca,Ce)(Al,Ti,Mg)12O19
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
O PerovskiteCaTiO3
O RutileTiO2
O Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
O SpinelMgAl2O4
O TochiliniteFe2+5-6(Mg,Fe2+)5S6(OH)10
NaSodium
Na Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
MgMagnesium
Mg Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Mg ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Mg ClinoenstatiteMgSiO3
Mg DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg EnstatiteMgSiO3
Mg ForsteriteMg2SiO4
Mg Hibonite(Ca,Ce)(Al,Ti,Mg)12O19
Mg Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Mg Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Mg SpinelMgAl2O4
Mg TochiliniteFe2+5-6(Mg,Fe2+)5S6(OH)10
AlAluminium
Al Hibonite(Ca,Ce)(Al,Ti,Mg)12O19
Al Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Al Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Al SpinelMgAl2O4
SiSilicon
Si Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Si ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si ClinoenstatiteMgSiO3
Si CronstedtiteFe22+Fe3+((Si,Fe3+)2O5)(OH)4
Si DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Si EnstatiteMgSiO3
Si FayaliteFe22+SiO4
Si ForsteriteMg2SiO4
Si Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Si Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
PPhosphorus
P Barringerite(Fe,Ni)2P
P Schreibersite(Fe,Ni)3P
SSulfur
S AnhydriteCaSO4
S BassaniteCaSO4 · 0.5H2O
S DaubréeliteFe2+Cr23+S4
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S SulphurS8
S TochiliniteFe2+5-6(Mg,Fe2+)5S6(OH)10
S TroiliteFeS
CaCalcium
Ca AnhydriteCaSO4
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
Ca Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Ca BassaniteCaSO4 · 0.5H2O
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca Hibonite(Ca,Ce)(Al,Ti,Mg)12O19
Ca Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Ca PerovskiteCaTiO3
TiTitanium
Ti Hibonite(Ca,Ce)(Al,Ti,Mg)12O19
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Ti PerovskiteCaTiO3
Ti RutileTiO2
CrChromium
Cr ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
Cr DaubréeliteFe2+Cr23+S4
MnManganese
Mn Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
FeIron
Fe Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Fe Barringerite(Fe,Ni)2P
Fe ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
Fe CronstedtiteFe22+Fe3+((Si,Fe3+)2O5)(OH)4
Fe DaubréeliteFe2+Cr23+S4
Fe FayaliteFe22+SiO4
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Fe IronFe
Fe Iron (var: Kamacite)(Fe,Ni)
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe Schreibersite(Fe,Ni)3P
Fe Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Fe TochiliniteFe2+5-6(Mg,Fe2+)5S6(OH)10
Fe TroiliteFeS
NiNickel
Ni Barringerite(Fe,Ni)2P
Ni Iron (var: Kamacite)(Fe,Ni)
Ni Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Ni Schreibersite(Fe,Ni)3P
Ni Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
ZnZinc
Zn Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
CeCerium
Ce Hibonite(Ca,Ce)(Al,Ti,Mg)12O19

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Permian
251.902 - 298.9 Ma



ID: 2232974
Dwyka Group of Karoo Supergroup

Age: Phanerozoic (251.902 - 298.9 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Dwyka Group

Description: Diamictite (polymictic clasts, set in a poorly sorted, fine-grained matrix) with varved shale, mudstone with dropstones and fluvioglacial gravel common in the north

Reference: Council for Geoscience. Geologic map of South Africa, 1:1M. National Science Councils of South Africa. [41]

Permian
251.902 - 298.9 Ma



ID: 3189153
Paleozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Phanerozoic (251.902 - 298.9 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Karoo Supergroup

Comments: Karoo Basin

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Devonian - Ordovician
358.9 - 485.4 Ma



ID: 3306557

Age: Paleozoic (358.9 - 485.4 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary

Reference: Thiéblemont, D. (ed.). New edition of the 1:10,000,000 geological map of Africa. CGMW-BRGM. [190]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

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Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Maclear, T., and Faraday, M., (1839) An Account of the Fall of a Meteoric Stone in the Cold Bokkeveld, Cape of Good Hope. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London: 129: 83-87.
Mason, B, H. (1963) The Carbonaceous Chondrites. Space Science Reviews: 1(4): 621-646.
Ramdohr, P. (1973) The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York.
Vdovykin, G, P., (1973) The Mighei Meteorite. Space Science Reviews: 14: 832-879.
MacDougall, J. D. and Phinney, D. (1977) Olivine separates from Murchison and Cold Bokkeveld - Particle tracks and noble gases. In: Lunar Science Conference, 8th, Houston, Tex., March 14-18, 1977, Proceedings. Volume 1. (A78-41551 18-91) New York, Pergamon Press, Inc., 1977, pp 293-311.
Barber, D, J., (1985) Phyllosilicates and other layer-structured materials in stony meteorites. Clay Minerals: 20: 415-454.
Kallemeyn, G, W., & Wasson J. T., (1991) The compositional classification of chondrites—I. The carbonaceous chondrite groups. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 45: 1217-1230.
Lee, M. R., (1993) The petrography, mineralogy and origins of calcium sulphate within the Cold Bokkeveld CM carbonaceous chondrite. Meteoritics. 28(1): 53-62. (March, 1993).
Grady, M. M., (2000) Catalogue of Meteorites (5/e). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, New York, Oakleigh, Madrid, Cape Town.
Zega, T. J., & Buseck P. R., (2003) Fine-grained-rim mineralogy of the Cold Bokkeveld CM chondrite. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 67(9): 1711-1721. (May, 2003)
Bullock, E. S., McKeegan, K, D., Gounelle, M., Grady M. M., & Russell, S. S., (2010 ) Meteoritics & Planetary Science. 45(5): 885–898. (May, 2010).
de Leuw, S, Rubin, A. E., & Wasson J. T., (2010) Carbonates in CM2 chondrites: Complex formational histories and comparison to carbonates in CI chondrites. Meteoritics & Planetary Science. 45(4): 513-530. (April, 2010).


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