IMPORTANT MESSAGE. We need your support now to keep mindat.org running. Click here to find out why.
Log InRegister
Home PageAbout MindatThe Mindat ManualHistory of MindatCopyright StatusWho We AreContact UsAdvertise on Mindat
Donate to MindatCorporate SponsorshipSponsor a PageSponsored PagesMindat AdvertisersAdvertise on Mindat
Learning CenterWhat is a mineral?The most common minerals on earthInformation for Educators
Minerals by PropertiesMinerals by ChemistryAdvanced Locality SearchRandom MineralRandom LocalitySearch by minIDLocalities Near MeSearch ArticlesSearch GlossaryMore Search Options
Search For:
Mineral Name:
Locality Name:
Keyword(s):
 
The Mindat ManualAdd a New PhotoRate PhotosLocality Edit ReportCoordinate Completion ReportAdd Glossary Item
StatisticsThe ElementsUsersBooks & MagazinesMineral MuseumsMineral Shows & EventsThe Mindat DirectoryDevice Settings
Photo SearchPhoto GalleriesNew Photos TodayNew Photos YesterdayMembers' Photo GalleriesPast Photo of the Day Gallery

Gem gravels, Ratnapura, Ratnapura District, Sabaragamuwa Province, Sri Lanka

This page is currently not sponsored. Click here to sponsor this page.
Key
Lock Map
Location is approximate, estimate based on other nearby localities.
 
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 6° North , 80° East (est.)
Margin of Error:~16km
Köppen climate type:Af : Tropical rainforest climate


The island of Sri Lanka (aka Ceylon or Serendib) has a heritage for gem mining and trading that dates back 2000 years. Sri Lanka is a tropical island situated in the Indian Ocean, off the southern tip of India. Sri Lanka has earned its namesake as the 'Gem Island' or 'Island of Gems' (Ratna Dweepa), with its abundance of corundum gems, chrysoberyl and alexandrite, garnet, moonstone, peridot, spinel, topaz, tourmaline, and zircon. During the 16th century, Portuguese explorer Vasco de Gama said of Sri Lanka: "Ceylon has all the fine cinnamon of the Indies and the best sapphires."

Sapphire & Ruby from Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka is known for its Ceylon Blue, and Padparadscha (aka padmaraga) sapphire, named after the island's lotus flower, and its unique soft pastel orange-pink color. The name 'Padparadscha' comes from the Sanskrit or Singhalese "padma raga" meaning 'lotus blossom.' The traditional mining areas of Ceylon were located in the vicinity of Ratnapura, about 100 kilometers south-east of the capital of Colombo.

Sapphire from Sri Lanka occurs in a wide range of hues from Padparadscha, Ceylon and cornflower-blue, to green, orange, pink, purple, white (geuda) and yellow. Sri Lanka's 'Geuda sapphire' is a semi-opaque milk-white stone that can be heated to a deep blue.

The gem trading center for Sri Lanka is in the town of Ratnapura (Singhalese for "gem town"), about 100 kilometers southeast of the capital, Colombo.

Heat Treated Material from Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka has a two thousand year history of heating their rubies to enhance the reddish-pink color, and remove any bluish or purplish hues. Sri Lanka's "burners" traditionally apply heat treatment using a blow-pipe and charcoal burner, to super-heat the stone.

The government has instituted a five-year program to increase Sri Lanka's share of the heat-treatment industry by advancing experimentation in heat-treatment technologies [3]. The Sri Lankan government is also opening up new lands to sapphire mining in the central part of the country.

It is a common sight to see vendors in Sri Lanka's Ratnapura's Newitigala 'morning gem market,' and Thailand's Muang Chan's (Chanthaburi's) 'weekend market' selling Sri Lankan sapphires alongside of material from Madagascar and Tanzania that was treated in Sri Lanka ("geuda sapphires").

Gem Mining in Sri Lanka

The government works in cooperation with land/farm owners to manage and allocate mining rights to their land in exchange for a percentage of the profit, should any gemstone be found on the property. The government sees to it that the land is not spoiled by mining operations, through strict regulation of low-impact mining proceedures.

Gem mining in Sri Lanka is primarily from alluvial secondary deposits found in gem-bearing river gravels (illam), in ancient flood plains and streams that are now covered with productive farm land and terraced rice paddies. To access the gem-bearing gravel, 5 to 50 foot deep mining pits are hand-dug by teams of several workers, pumping out any ground-water as it enters the hole from below. When the pit is dug to the correct depth, tunnels are dug horizontally in several directions to minimize surface degradation.

Sluicing with conical-shaped baskets is used to extract the gems from the illam clay, gravel and sand slurry. The basket is swirled around until the heavier stones (Jathi) settle to the bottom of the basket.

The Ratnapura region was the first locality to mine sapphire on the island. Significant gem-mines throughout Sri Lanka are the Bibile sapphire mines (central), Elehara Gem Fields (near Ratnapura), Metiyagoda moonstone mines (south-west coastal), Morawaka (south-central), Nuwara Eliya mines (mountainous tea plantation area), and Pelmadulla sapphire mines (15 km south-east of Ratnapura).

Sri Lanka's Bibile area is located in the central-eastern region of the island in the Uva Province. Ceylon-blue sapphire is mined in pits, dug into the rice paddies that carpet the valley floor. Alluvial sapphire deposits are found in gem-bearing river gravels (illam), in ancient flood plains and streams that are now covered with farm land.

Sri Lanka's alluvial Elahera Gem Fields are located in the Matale District near the Wasgomuwa strict natural reserve, in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka; 115 km north-east of Colombo. The Elahera Gem Fields are estimated to produce up to 35% of the gemstones exports from Sri Lanka. The Elahera mines contain a variety of of gem-quality minerals including chrysoberyl, garnet, sapphire, spinel, tourmaline, and zircon.

Sri Lanka's Nuwara Eliya mining region (Tea Country) is located north-east of Adams Peak (2224m) in the northern part of Sabaragamuwa province Nuwara-Eliya District. The high mountainous Nuwara Eliya region of Sri Lanka (1806m) is famous for its tea plantations.

Sri Lanka's Pelmadulla Mine is located 15 km south-east of Ratnapura (aka "City of Gems") in the Sabaragamuwa province of south-central Sri Lanka. Ratnapura's Pelmadulla mines are the traditional hand-dug pit mines found under rice paddies as well as mechanized small-scale mining operations. Ceylon-blue and Padparadscha sapphire is mined in pits, dug in the fields that carpet the valley floor.

The city of Ratnapura (with the Ratnapura Gem Museum) is located 101 kilometers south-east of Colombo, on the Colombo-Ratnapura highway. Alluvial sapphire deposits are found in gem-bearing river gravels (illam), in ancient flood plains and streams that are now covered with farm land throughout this region.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

38 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Almandine
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Andalusite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Andalusite var: Viridine
Formula: (Al,Mn3+)2SiO4O
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Andradite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Andradite var: Demantoid
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Andradite var: Melanite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
'Apatite'
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Econ Geol (1981) 76:733-738
Beryl var: Aquamarine
Formula: Be3Al2Si6O18
Reference: Econ Geol (1981) 76:733-738
Beryl var: Emerald
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Beryl var: Goshenite
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Econ Geol (1981) 76:733-738
Beryl var: Heliodor
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Beryl var: Morganite
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Cassiterite
Formula: SnO2
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
'Cat's Eye'
Reference: Econ Geol (1981) 76:733-738
Chrysoberyl
Formula: BeAl2O4
Reference: Econ Geol (1981) 76:733-738
Chrysoberyl var: Alexandrite
Formula: BeAl2O4
Reference: Econ Geol (1981) 76:733-738
Chrysoberyl var: Cymophane
Formula: BeAl2O4
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Cordierite
Formula: (Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Corundum
Formula: Al2O3
Reference: Econ Geol (1981) 76:733-738
Corundum var: Ruby
Formula: Al2O3
Reference: Econ Geol (1981) 76:733-738
Corundum var: Sapphire
Formula: Al2O3
Reference: Joseph A. Freilich.; Econ Geol (1981) 76:733-738
Corundum var: Star Ruby
Formula: Al2O3
Reference: Econ Geol (1981) 76:733-738
Corundum var: Star Sapphire
Formula: Al2O3
Reference: Econ Geol (1981) 76:733-738
Dravite
Formula: Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Elbaite
Formula: Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Fluor-buergerite
Formula: Na(Fe3+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3F
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
'Fluor-feruvite'
Formula: Ca(Fe2+)3MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Reference: Current analysis
Forsterite
Formula: Mg2SiO4
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Gahnite
Formula: ZnAl2O4
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Gold
Formula: Au
Reference: Econ Geol (1981) 76:733-738
Grossular
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Grossular var: Hessonite
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
'Indicolite'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
'K Feldspar'
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
'K Feldspar var: Adularia'
Formula: KAlSi3O8
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
'Liddicoatite'
Formula: Ca(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Magnesiotaaffeite-2N’2S
Formula: Mg3Al8BeO16
Reference: http://www.multicolour.com/taaffeite.html
'Monazite'
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
'Moonstone'
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Phenakite
Formula: Be2SiO4
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Pyrope
Formula: Mg3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Quartz var: Amethyst
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Quartz var: Citrine
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Quartz var: Rock Crystal
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Quartz var: Rose Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Quartz var: Smoky Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
'Rubellite'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Sanidine
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Scheelite
Formula: Ca(WO4)
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Schorl
Formula: Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Sillimanite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Spessartine
Formula: Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Spinel
Formula: MgAl2O4
Reference: Econ Geol (1981) 76:733-738
Spinel var: Ceylonite
Formula: MgAl2O4
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Spinel var: Gahnospinel
Formula: (Mg,Zn)Al2O4
Reference: [Clark, 1993, 249 - "Hey's Mineral Index - 3rd Edition"]
Spinel var: Pleonaste
Formula: (Mg,Fe)Al2O4
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Spodumene
Formula: LiAlSi2O6
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Spodumene var: Hiddenite
Formula: LiAlSi2O6
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Spodumene var: Kunzite
Formula: LiAlSi2O6
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Staurolite
Formula: Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Stibiotantalite
Formula: Sb(Ta,Nb)O4
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Tantalite-(Mg)
Formula: (Mg,Fe2+)(Ta,Nb)2O6
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Topaz
Formula: Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Reference: Econ Geol (1981) 76:733-738
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Econ Geol (1981) 76:733-738
'Tourmaline var: Achroite'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Uraninite
Formula: UO2
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
'Uvite Series'
Formula: Ca(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(F/OH)
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
'Verdelite'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Xenotime-(Y)
Formula: Y(PO4)
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Reference: Econ Geol (1981) 76:733-738
Zircon var: Hyacinth
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Zircon var: Jargoon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Zircon var: Starlite
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Reference: Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Gold1.AA.05Au
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Cassiterite4.DB.05SnO2
Chrysoberyl4.BA.05BeAl2O4
var: Alexandrite4.BA.05BeAl2O4
var: Cymophane4.BA.05BeAl2O4
Corundum4.CB.05Al2O3
var: Ruby4.CB.05Al2O3
var: Sapphire4.CB.05Al2O3
var: Star Ruby4.CB.05Al2O3
var: Star Sapphire4.CB.05Al2O3
Gahnite4.BB.05ZnAl2O4
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Ilmenite4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
Magnesiotaaffeite-2N’2S4.FC.25Mg3Al8BeO16
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Amethyst4.DA.05SiO2
var: Citrine4.DA.05SiO2
var: Rock Crystal4.DA.05SiO2
var: Rose Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Smoky Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Spinel4.BB.05MgAl2O4
var: Ceylonite4.BB.05MgAl2O4
var: Gahnospinel4.BB.05(Mg,Zn)Al2O4
var: Pleonaste4.BB.05(Mg,Fe)Al2O4
Stibiotantalite4.DE.30Sb(Ta,Nb)O4
Tantalite-(Mg)4.DB.35(Mg,Fe2+)(Ta,Nb)2O6
Uraninite4.DL.05UO2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Scheelite7.GA.05Ca(WO4)
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Xenotime-(Y)8.AD.35Y(PO4)
Group 9 - Silicates
Almandine9.AD.25Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Andalusite9.AF.10Al2(SiO4)O
var: Viridine9.AF.10(Al,Mn3+)2SiO4O
Andradite9.AD.25Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
var: Demantoid9.AD.25Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
var: Melanite9.AD.25Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Beryl9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Aquamarine9.CJ.05Be3Al2Si6O18
var: Emerald9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Goshenite9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Heliodor9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Morganite9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Cordierite9.CJ.10(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Dravite9.CK.05Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Elbaite9.CK.05Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Fluor-buergerite9.CK.05Na(Fe3+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3F
Forsterite9.AC.05Mg2SiO4
Grossular9.AD.25Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
var: Hessonite9.AD.25Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Liddicoatite9.CK.05Ca(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Orthoclase9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Phenakite9.AA.05Be2SiO4
Pyrope9.AD.25Mg3Al2(SiO4)3
Sanidine9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Schorl9.CK.05Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Sillimanite9.AF.05Al2(SiO4)O
Spessartine9.AD.25Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Spodumene9.DA.30LiAlSi2O6
var: Hiddenite9.DA.30LiAlSi2O6
var: Kunzite9.DA.30LiAlSi2O6
Staurolite9.AF.30Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Topaz9.AF.35Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Uvite Series9..Ca(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(F/OH)
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
var: Hyacinth9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
var: Jargoon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
var: Starlite9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Apatite-
Cat's Eye-
Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series-
Fluor-feruvite-Ca(Fe2+)3MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Indicolite-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
K Feldspar-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
Monazite-
Moonstone-
Rubellite-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Tourmaline-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'var: Achroite'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Verdelite-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Corundum4.3.1.1Al2O3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
AX2
Cassiterite4.4.1.5SnO2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 5 - OXIDES CONTAINING URANIUM OR THORIUM
AXO2·xH2O
Uraninite5.1.1.1UO2
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Chrysoberyl7.2.9.1BeAl2O4
Gahnite7.2.1.4ZnAl2O4
Magnesiotaaffeite-2N’2S7.2.11.1Mg3Al8BeO16
Spinel7.2.1.1MgAl2O4
Group 8 - MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
ABO4
Stibiotantalite8.1.6.2Sb(Ta,Nb)O4
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Scheelite48.1.2.1Ca(WO4)
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [4] coordination
Phenakite51.1.1.1Be2SiO4
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with all cations in octahedral [6] coordination
Forsterite51.3.1.2Mg2SiO4
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Almandine51.4.3a.2Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Andradite51.4.3b.1Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Grossular51.4.3b.2Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Pyrope51.4.3a.1Mg3Al2(SiO4)3
Spessartine51.4.3a.3Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and >[4] coordination
Andalusite52.2.2b.1Al2(SiO4)O
Sillimanite52.2.2a.1Al2(SiO4)O
Staurolite52.2.3.1Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] coordination only
Topaz52.3.1.1Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
Beryl61.1.1.1Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Six-Membered Rings with Al substituted rings
Cordierite61.2.1.1(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Six-Membered Rings with borate groups
Dravite61.3.1.9Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Elbaite61.3.1.8Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Fluor-buergerite61.3.1.5Na(Fe3+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3F
'Liddicoatite'61.3.1.2Ca(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Schorl61.3.1.10Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
'Uvite Series'61.3.1.3Ca(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(F/OH)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Spodumene65.1.4.1LiAlSi2O6
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Orthoclase76.1.1.1K(AlSi3O8)
Sanidine76.1.1.2K(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Andalusite
var: Viridine
-(Al,Mn3+)2SiO4O
Andradite
var: Demantoid
-Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
var: Melanite-Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
'Apatite'-
Beryl
var: Aquamarine
-Be3Al2Si6O18
var: Emerald-Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Goshenite-Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Heliodor-Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Morganite-Be3Al2(Si6O18)
'Cat's Eye'-
Chrysoberyl
var: Alexandrite
-BeAl2O4
var: Cymophane-BeAl2O4
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'-
Corundum
var: Ruby
-Al2O3
var: Sapphire-Al2O3
var: Star Ruby-Al2O3
var: Star Sapphire-Al2O3
'Fluor-feruvite'-Ca(Fe2+)3MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Grossular
var: Hessonite
-Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
'Indicolite'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'K Feldspar'-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
'Monazite'-
'Moonstone'-
Quartz
var: Amethyst
-SiO2
var: Citrine-SiO2
var: Rock Crystal-SiO2
var: Rose Quartz-SiO2
var: Smoky Quartz-SiO2
'Rubellite'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Spinel
var: Ceylonite
-MgAl2O4
var: Gahnospinel-(Mg,Zn)Al2O4
var: Pleonaste-(Mg,Fe)Al2O4
Spodumene
var: Hiddenite
-LiAlSi2O6
var: Kunzite-LiAlSi2O6
Tantalite-(Mg)-(Mg,Fe2+)(Ta,Nb)2O6
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'var: Achroite'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'Verdelite'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Xenotime-(Y)-Y(PO4)
Zircon
var: Hyacinth
-Zr(SiO4)
var: Jargoon-Zr(SiO4)
var: Starlite-Zr(SiO4)

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H Fluor-feruviteCa(Fe2+)3MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
H LiddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
H TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
LiLithium
Li ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Li Spodumene (var: Hiddenite)LiAlSi2O6
Li Spodumene (var: Kunzite)LiAlSi2O6
Li LiddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Li SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
BeBeryllium
Be Chrysoberyl (var: Alexandrite)BeAl2O4
Be Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
Be BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Be ChrysoberylBeAl2O4
Be Chrysoberyl (var: Cymophane)BeAl2O4
Be Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Be Beryl (var: Goshenite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Be Beryl (var: Heliodor)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Be Magnesiotaaffeite-2N’2SMg3Al8BeO16
Be Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Be PhenakiteBe2SiO4
BBoron
B Tourmaline (var: Achroite)A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
B DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B Fluor-buergeriteNa(Fe33+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3F
B Fluor-feruviteCa(Fe2+)3MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
B IndicoliteA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
B LiddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B RubelliteA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
B SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
B VerdeliteA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
OOxygen
O Tourmaline (var: Achroite)A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
O Chrysoberyl (var: Alexandrite)BeAl2O4
O AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
O Quartz (var: Amethyst)SiO2
O AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)O
O AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
O Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
O BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
O CassiteriteSnO2
O Spinel (var: Ceylonite)MgAl2O4
O ChrysoberylBeAl2O4
O Quartz (var: Citrine)SiO2
O Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
O CorundumAl2O3
O Chrysoberyl (var: Cymophane)BeAl2O4
O Andradite (var: Demantoid)Ca3Fe23+(SiO4)3
O DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
O Fluor-buergeriteNa(Fe33+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3F
O Fluor-feruviteCa(Fe2+)3MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
O ForsteriteMg2SiO4
O GahniteZnAl2O4
O Spinel (var: Gahnospinel)(Mg,Zn)Al2O4
O Beryl (var: Goshenite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
O GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
O Beryl (var: Heliodor)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
O HematiteFe2O3
O Grossular (var: Hessonite)Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
O Spodumene (var: Hiddenite)LiAlSi2O6
O Zircon (var: Hyacinth)Zr(SiO4)
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O IndicoliteA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O Zircon (var: Jargoon)Zr(SiO4)
O Spodumene (var: Kunzite)LiAlSi2O6
O LiddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O Magnesiotaaffeite-2N’2SMg3Al8BeO16
O Andradite (var: Melanite)Ca3Fe23+(SiO4)3
O Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
O OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
O PhenakiteBe2SiO4
O Spinel (var: Pleonaste)(Mg,Fe)Al2O4
O PyropeMg3Al2(SiO4)3
O QuartzSiO2
O Quartz (var: Rock Crystal)SiO2
O Quartz (var: Rose Quartz)SiO2
O RubelliteA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O Corundum (var: Ruby)Al2O3
O RutileTiO2
O SanidineK(AlSi3O8)
O Corundum (var: Sapphire)Al2O3
O ScheeliteCa(WO4)
O SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)O
O Quartz (var: Smoky Quartz)SiO2
O SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
O SpinelMgAl2O4
O SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
O Zircon (var: Starlite)Zr(SiO4)
O Corundum (var: Star Ruby)Al2O3
O Corundum (var: Star Sapphire)Al2O3
O StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
O StibiotantaliteSb(Ta,Nb)O4
O Tantalite-(Mg)(Mg,Fe2+)(Ta,Nb)2O6
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O UraniniteUO2
O VerdeliteA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O Andalusite (var: Viridine)(Al,Mn3+)2SiO4O
O Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
FFluorine
F Fluor-buergeriteNa(Fe33+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3F
F Fluor-feruviteCa(Fe2+)3MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
F TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
NaSodium
Na DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Na ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Na Fluor-buergeriteNa(Fe33+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3F
Na SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
MgMagnesium
Mg Spinel (var: Ceylonite)MgAl2O4
Mg Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Mg DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Mg Fluor-feruviteCa(Fe2+)3MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Mg ForsteriteMg2SiO4
Mg Spinel (var: Gahnospinel)(Mg,Zn)Al2O4
Mg Magnesiotaaffeite-2N’2SMg3Al8BeO16
Mg Spinel (var: Pleonaste)(Mg,Fe)Al2O4
Mg PyropeMg3Al2(SiO4)3
Mg SpinelMgAl2O4
Mg Tantalite-(Mg)(Mg,Fe2+)(Ta,Nb)2O6
AlAluminium
Al K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Al Chrysoberyl (var: Alexandrite)BeAl2O4
Al AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)O
Al Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
Al BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Al Spinel (var: Ceylonite)MgAl2O4
Al ChrysoberylBeAl2O4
Al Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Al CorundumAl2O3
Al Chrysoberyl (var: Cymophane)BeAl2O4
Al DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Al Fluor-buergeriteNa(Fe33+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3F
Al Fluor-feruviteCa(Fe2+)3MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Al GahniteZnAl2O4
Al Spinel (var: Gahnospinel)(Mg,Zn)Al2O4
Al Beryl (var: Goshenite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Al GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Al Beryl (var: Heliodor)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Al Grossular (var: Hessonite)Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Al Spodumene (var: Hiddenite)LiAlSi2O6
Al Spodumene (var: Kunzite)LiAlSi2O6
Al LiddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al Magnesiotaaffeite-2N’2SMg3Al8BeO16
Al Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Al OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Al Spinel (var: Pleonaste)(Mg,Fe)Al2O4
Al PyropeMg3Al2(SiO4)3
Al Corundum (var: Ruby)Al2O3
Al SanidineK(AlSi3O8)
Al Corundum (var: Sapphire)Al2O3
Al SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Al SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al SpinelMgAl2O4
Al SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Al Corundum (var: Star Ruby)Al2O3
Al Corundum (var: Star Sapphire)Al2O3
Al StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
Al TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Al Andalusite (var: Viridine)(Al,Mn3+)2SiO4O
SiSilicon
Si K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Si AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si Quartz (var: Amethyst)SiO2
Si AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)O
Si AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Si Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
Si BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Si Quartz (var: Citrine)SiO2
Si Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Si Andradite (var: Demantoid)Ca3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Si DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Si Fluor-buergeriteNa(Fe33+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3F
Si Fluor-feruviteCa(Fe2+)3MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Si ForsteriteMg2SiO4
Si Beryl (var: Goshenite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Si GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Si Beryl (var: Heliodor)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Si Grossular (var: Hessonite)Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Si Spodumene (var: Hiddenite)LiAlSi2O6
Si Zircon (var: Hyacinth)Zr(SiO4)
Si Zircon (var: Jargoon)Zr(SiO4)
Si Spodumene (var: Kunzite)LiAlSi2O6
Si LiddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si Andradite (var: Melanite)Ca3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Si Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Si OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Si PhenakiteBe2SiO4
Si PyropeMg3Al2(SiO4)3
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Quartz (var: Rock Crystal)SiO2
Si Quartz (var: Rose Quartz)SiO2
Si SanidineK(AlSi3O8)
Si SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Si Quartz (var: Smoky Quartz)SiO2
Si SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Si Zircon (var: Starlite)Zr(SiO4)
Si StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Si Andalusite (var: Viridine)(Al,Mn3+)2SiO4O
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
PPhosphorus
P Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)
KPotassium
K K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
K OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
K SanidineK(AlSi3O8)
CaCalcium
Ca AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Ca Andradite (var: Demantoid)Ca3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Ca Fluor-feruviteCa(Fe2+)3MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Ca GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Ca Grossular (var: Hessonite)Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Ca LiddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Ca Andradite (var: Melanite)Ca3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Ca ScheeliteCa(WO4)
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
TiTitanium
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Ti RutileTiO2
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
MnManganese
Mn SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Mn Andalusite (var: Viridine)(Al,Mn3+)2SiO4O
FeIron
Fe AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Fe AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Fe Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Fe Andradite (var: Demantoid)Ca3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Fe Fluor-buergeriteNa(Fe33+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3F
Fe Fluor-feruviteCa(Fe2+)3MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Fe Andradite (var: Melanite)Ca3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Fe Spinel (var: Pleonaste)(Mg,Fe)Al2O4
Fe SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Fe StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
Fe Tantalite-(Mg)(Mg,Fe2+)(Ta,Nb)2O6
ZnZinc
Zn GahniteZnAl2O4
Zn Spinel (var: Gahnospinel)(Mg,Zn)Al2O4
YYttrium
Y Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)
ZrZirconium
Zr Zircon (var: Hyacinth)Zr(SiO4)
Zr Zircon (var: Jargoon)Zr(SiO4)
Zr Zircon (var: Starlite)Zr(SiO4)
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)
NbNiobium
Nb Tantalite-(Mg)(Mg,Fe2+)(Ta,Nb)2O6
SnTin
Sn CassiteriteSnO2
SbAntimony
Sb StibiotantaliteSb(Ta,Nb)O4
TaTantalum
Ta StibiotantaliteSb(Ta,Nb)O4
Ta Tantalite-(Mg)(Mg,Fe2+)(Ta,Nb)2O6
WTungsten
W ScheeliteCa(WO4)
AuGold
Au GoldAu
UUranium
U UraniniteUO2

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Econ Geol (1981) 76:733-738
Ceylon Gem Aluvial Mine (2000)

Localities in this Region
Show map

Sri Lanka

This page contains all mineral locality references listed on mindat.org. This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in mindat.org without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.
Mineral and/or Locality  
Mindat.org is an outreach project of the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy, a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization.
Copyright © mindat.org and the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy 1993-2018, except where stated. Mindat.org relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters.
Privacy Policy - Terms & Conditions - Contact Us Current server date and time: October 17, 2018 04:49:02 Page generated: October 16, 2018 09:36:34
Go to top of page