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Welkenraedt, Plombières-Vieille Montagne-Moresnet (Plombières-Altenberg-Moresnet) mining district, Verviers, Liège Province, Belgium

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 50° 39' 50'' North , 5° 57' 24'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 50.66389,5.95667
GeoHash:G#: u1h0px1d8
Köppen climate type:Cfb : Temperate oceanic climate
Name(s) in local language(s):


The zinc mines of Welkenraedt.

The Welkenraedt zinc mines were part of the Altenberg concession with head office in Kelmis.
They were part of the Belgian zinc group Vieille Montagne.


The mines in Welkenraedt were located on 2 fault lines from the NW to the SE.
The mines of Mütshagen and Dickenbusch worked the first fault line.
Wilcour, Nouvelle Espérence, St-Paul, La Bruyère and Heggelsbruck worked the second fault line.
Witter and Pandour lay on a small transverse breach in the SW direction.

The St-Paul mine was opened in 1849 and was the largest mine of this cluster and was also the most important on this second fault line. The other mines were more or less expansions. The St-Paul mine accounted for 150,000 tons of calamine, 25,000 tons of schalenblende and 9,000 tons of galena. St-Paul was active until 1884.
At La Bruyère, which was connected underground with St-Paul, work continued for a few years longer.
Pandour went into service when the other mines closed and was active from 1885 until 1902.
Around 1900, Mützhagen took over the ore production, together with the Lontzen mine.

Around the time that Mützhagen closed in 1935, all the other mines of Vieille Montagne also closed: Schmalgraf, Eschbroich, Lontzen, and Fossey. And with it ended the mine exploitation in the Altenberg concession. The economy was at a low point and the competition with the much larger foreign mines gave the death blow.

At the time the mining in Moresnet ended, the zinc production of Vieille-Montagne was almost completely moved to Balen, in the Campine. This factory was supplied by foreign mines via Antwerp and is still active.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

17 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
'Calamine'
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Coppola, V., Boni, M., Gilg, H.A., Balassone, G., and Dejonghe, L. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 187-210.
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Reference: Braun, M. (1857) Über die Galmeilagerstätte des Altenberges im Zusammenhang mit den Erzlagerstätten des Altenberger Grubenfeldes un der Umgegend. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 354-370.; http://www.minerant.org/archief/fluo-cerussiet-Welkenraedt.pdf
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Braun, M., (1857): Über die Galmeilagerstätte des Altenberges im Zusammenhang mit den Erzlagerstätten des Altenberger Grubenfeldes un der Umgegend, Zeitschrift d. Dt. Geolog. Gesellschaft, 354-370
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Greenockite
Formula: CdS
Reference: Christof Schäfer
'Halloysite'
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Hemimorphite
Formula: Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Reference: Coppola, V., Boni, M., Gilg, H.A., Balassone, G., and Dejonghe, L. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 187-210.
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Braun, M., (1857): Über die Galmeilagerstätte des Altenberges im Zusammenhang mit den Erzlagerstätten des Altenberger Grubenfeldes un der Umgegend, Zeitschrift d. Dt. Geolog. Gesellschaft, 354-370
Pyromorphite
Formula: Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Pyrophyllite
Formula: Al2Si4O10(OH)2
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Coppola, V., Boni, M., Gilg, H.A., Balassone, G., and Dejonghe, L. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 187-210.
Smithsonite
Formula: ZnCO3
Reference: Braun, M., (1857): Über die Galmeilagerstätte des Altenberges im Zusammenhang mit den Erzlagerstätten des Altenberger Grubenfeldes un der Umgegend, Zeitschrift d. Dt. Geolog. Gesellschaft, 354-370
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Braun, M., (1857): Über die Galmeilagerstätte des Altenberges im Zusammenhang mit den Erzlagerstätten des Altenberger Grubenfeldes un der Umgegend, Zeitschrift d. Dt. Geolog. Gesellschaft, 354-370
Sphalerite var: Schalenblende
Reference: Braun, M., (1857): Über die Galmeilagerstätte des Altenberges im Zusammenhang mit den Erzlagerstätten des Altenberger Grubenfeldes un der Umgegend, Zeitschrift d. Dt. Geolog. Gesellschaft, 354-370
'Strickblende'
Formula: PbS
Sulphur
Formula: S8
'Wad'
Willemite
Formula: Zn2SiO4
Reference: Coppola, V., Boni, M., Gilg, H.A., Balassone, G., and Dejonghe, L. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 187-210.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Sulphur1.CC.05S8
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
'Galena'2.CD.10PbS
'Greenockite'2.CB.45CdS
'Marcasite'2.EB.10aFeS2
'Pyrite'2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
var: Schalenblende2.CB.05aZnS
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Goethite'4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
'Hematite'4.CB.05Fe2O3
'Quartz'4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
'Calcite'5.AB.05CaCO3
'Cerussite'5.AB.15PbCO3
Smithsonite5.AB.05ZnCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
'Anglesite'7.AD.35PbSO4
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
'Pyromorphite'8.BN.05Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Group 9 - Silicates
'Halloysite'9.ED.10Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Hemimorphite'9.BD.10Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
'Pyrophyllite'9.EC.10Al2Si4O10(OH)2
Willemite9.AA.05Zn2SiO4
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Calamine'-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Strickblende-PbS
Wad-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Semi-metals and non-metals
Sulphur1.3.5.1S8
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Greenockite2.8.7.2CdS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Smithsonite14.1.1.6ZnCO3
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anglesite28.3.1.3PbSO4
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Pyromorphite41.8.4.1Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [4] coordination
Willemite51.1.1.2Zn2SiO4
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] coordination
Hemimorphite56.1.2.1Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
'Halloysite'71.1.1.4Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Pyrophyllite71.2.1.1Al2Si4O10(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Calamine'-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Sphalerite
var: Schalenblende
-ZnS
'Strickblende'-PbS
'Wad'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C CerussitePbCO3
C SmithsoniteZnCO3
OOxygen
O AnglesitePbSO4
O CalciteCaCO3
O CerussitePbCO3
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O HematiteFe2O3
O HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
O PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2
O QuartzSiO2
O SmithsoniteZnCO3
O WillemiteZn2SiO4
AlAluminium
Al HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Si PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si WillemiteZn2SiO4
PPhosphorus
P PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
SSulfur
S AnglesitePbSO4
S GalenaPbS
S GreenockiteCdS
S MarcasiteFeS2
S PyriteFeS2
S SphaleriteZnS
S StrickblendePbS
S SulphurS8
ClChlorine
Cl PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
FeIron
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe PyriteFeS2
ZnZinc
Zn HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Zn SmithsoniteZnCO3
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn WillemiteZn2SiO4
CdCadmium
Cd GreenockiteCdS
PbLead
Pb AnglesitePbSO4
Pb CerussitePbCO3
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
Pb StrickblendePbS

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Late Cretaceous
66 - 100.5 Ma



ID: 2620892

Age: Late Cretaceous (66 - 100.5 Ma)

Comments: Sandstone: especially Elbe-Bohemia

Lithology: Lime- and marlstone, claystone, sandstone

Reference: Toloczyki, M., P. Trurnit, A. Voges, H. Wittekindt, A. Zitzmann. Geological Map of Germany 1:M. Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe. [94]

Late Devonian - Middle Devonian
358.9 - 393.3 Ma



ID: 3151103
Middle Devonian claystone

Age: Devonian (358.9 - 393.3 Ma)

Lithology: Major:{claystone}, Minor{limestone,sandstone,conglomerate}

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Devonian
358.9 - 419.2 Ma



ID: 3186341
Paleozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Devonian (358.9 - 419.2 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Braun, M. (1857) Über die Galmeilagerstätte des Altenberges im Zusammenhang mit den Erzlagerstätten des Altenberger Grubenfeldes un der Umgegend. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 354-370.
Coppola, V., Boni, M., Gilg, H.A., Balassone, G., and Dejonghe, L. (2008) The “calamine” nonsulfide Zn–Pb deposits of Belgium: Petrographical, mineralogical and geochemical characterization. Ore Geology Reviews 33, 187-210.

External Links

http://www.minerant.org/archief/fluo-cerussiet-Welkenraedt.pdf (possible explanation of the fluorescence of cerussite, in Dutch)

Localities in this Region
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Belgium

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