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Welkenraedt, Plombières-Vieille Montagne-Moresnet mining district (Plombières-Altenberg-Moresnet mining district), Liège, Wallonia, Belgiumi
Regional Level Types
WelkenraedtMunicipality
Plombières-Vieille Montagne-Moresnet mining district (Plombières-Altenberg-Moresnet mining district)Mining District
LiègeProvince
WalloniaRegion
BelgiumCountry

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Key
Locality type:
Largest Settlements:
PlacePopulation
Welkenraedt9,006 (2012)
Other Languages:
French:
Welkenraedt, Province de Liège, Région wallonne, Belgique
German:
Welkenrath, Provinz Lüttich, Wallonische Region, Belgien
Italian:
Welkenraedt, Provincia di Liegi, Vallonia, Belgio
Russian:
Велкенрадт, Льеж, Валлония, Бельгия
Simplified Chinese:
韦尔肯拉特, 列日省, 瓦隆大区, 比利时
Spanish:
Welkenraedt, Provincia de Lieja, Región Valona, Bélgica
Basque:
Welkenraedt, Liejako probintzia, Valonia, Belgika
Breton:
Welkenraedt, Liège, Wallonia, Belgia
Bulgarian:
Велкенрат, Лиеж, Валония, Белгия
Catalan:
Welkenraedt, Província de Lieja, Valònia, Bèlgica
Cebuano:
Welkenraedt, Province de Liège, Wallonia, Belhika
Dutch:
Welkenraat, Luik, Wallonië, België
Esperanto:
Welkenraedt, Lieĝo, Valonio, Belgio
Farsi/Persian:
اوئلکونرئت, استان لیژ, والونی, بلژیک
Hungarian:
Welkenraedt, Liège, Vallónia, Belgium
Japanese:
ウェルカンラト, リエージュ州, ワロン地域, ベルギー
Limburgian:
Wellekete, Luuk, Wallonië, Belsj
Luxembourgish:
Welkenraedt, Provënz Léck, Wallounesch Regioun, Belsch
Norwegian:
Welkenraedt, Liège, Vallonia, Belgia
Occitan:
Welkenraedt, Província de Lièja, Valonia, Belgica
Polish:
Welkenraedt, Liège, Region Waloński, Belgia
Portuguese:
Welkenraedt, Liège, Valônia, Bélgica
Ripuarian:
Wälekete, Lüttish, Belgien
Romanian:
Welkenraedt, Liège, Valonia, Belgia
Slovak:
Welkenraedt, Lutyšsko, Valónsky región, Belgicko
Swedish:
Welkenraedt, Liège, Vallonien, Belgien
Traditional Chinese:
韋爾肯拉特, 華隆, 比利時
Venetian:
Welkenraedt, Belgio
Vietnamese:
Welkenraedt, Liège, Wallonie, Bỉ
Volapük:
Welkenraedt, Liège, Belgän
Walloon:
Welkenrote, Province di Lidje, Walonreye, Beldjike
Waray:
Welkenraedt, Liège, Wallonie, Belhika


The zinc mines of Welkenraedt.

The Welkenraedt zinc mines were part of the Altenberg concession with head office in Kelmis.
They were part of the Belgian zinc group Vieille Montagne.


The mines in Welkenraedt were located on 2 fault lines from the NW to the SE.
The mines of Mütshagen and Dickenbusch worked the first fault line.
Wilcour, Nouvelle Espérence, St-Paul, La Bruyère and Heggelsbruck worked the second fault line.
Witter and Pandour lay on a small transverse breach in the SW direction.

The St-Paul mine was opened in 1849 and was the largest mine of this cluster and was also the most important on this second fault line. The other mines were more or less expansions. The St-Paul mine accounted for 150,000 tons of calamine, 25,000 tons of schalenblende and 9,000 tons of galena. St-Paul was active until 1884.
At La Bruyère, which was connected underground with St-Paul, work continued for a few years longer.
Pandour went into service when the other mines closed and was active from 1885 until 1902.
Around 1900, Mützhagen took over the ore production, together with the Lontzen mine.

Around the time that Mützhagen closed in 1935, all the other mines of Vieille Montagne also closed: Schmalgraf, Eschbroich, Lontzen, and Fossey. And with it ended the mine exploitation in the Altenberg concession. The economy was at a low point and the competition with the much larger foreign mines gave the death blow.

At the time the mining in Moresnet ended, the zinc production of Vieille-Montagne was almost completely moved to Balen, in the Campine. This factory was supplied by foreign mines via Antwerp and is still active.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Gallery Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

18 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Reference: Dejonghe, L., Ladeuze, F., Jans, D. (1993) Atlas des gisements plombo-zincifères du synclinorium de Verviers (Est de la Belgique). Mémoires du Service géologique de Belgique, 33, 483 pages.; Hatert, F., Deliens, M., Fransolet, A.-M., Van Der Meersche, E. (2002) Les minéraux de Belgique. 2ème édition, Muséum des Sciences Naturelles, Bruxelles, Belgium, 304 pages (in French).
'Calamine'
Reference: L. Dejonghe, F. Ladeuze, D.Jans - Atlas des gisements plombo-zinciferes du synclinorium de Verviers - 1993, 483pp
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Coppola, V., Boni, M., Gilg, H.A., Balassone, G., and Dejonghe, L. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 187-210.
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Habit: striated, flattened according to {010}, twins
Reference: Braun, M. (1857) Über die Galmeilagerstätte des Altenberges im Zusammenhang mit den Erzlagerstätten des Altenberger Grubenfeldes un der Umgegend. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 354-370.; Cesàro, G. (1897) Description des minéraux phosphatés, carbonatés et sulfatés du sol belge. Mémoires de l'Académie royale de Belgique, in 4°, 53, 136 pages.; Hatert, F., Deliens, M., Fransolet, A.-M., Van Der Meersche, E. (2002) Les minéraux de Belgique. 2ème édition, Muséum des Sciences Naturelles, Bruxelles, Belgium, 304 pages (in French).; http://www.minerant.org/archief/fluo-cerussiet-Welkenraedt.pdf
Galena
Formula: PbS
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Braun, M. (1857) Über die Galmeilagerstätte des Altenberges im Zusammenhang mit den Erzlagerstätten des Altenberger Grubenfeldes un der Umgegend. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 354-370.; Buttgenbach, H. (1918) Contributions à l'étude des minéraux belges. Annales de la Société géologique de Belgique, 42, M93.; Hatert, F., Deliens, M., Fransolet, A.-M., Van Der Meersche, E. (2002) Les minéraux de Belgique. 2ème édition, Muséum des Sciences Naturelles, Bruxelles, Belgium, 304 pages (in French).
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: L. Dejonghe, F. Ladeuze, D.Jans - Atlas des gisements plombo-zinciferes du synclinorium de Verviers - 1993, 483pp
Greenockite
Formula: CdS
Reference: Christof Schäfer
'Halloysite'
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: L. Dejonghe, F. Ladeuze, D.Jans - Atlas des gisements plombo-zinciferes du synclinorium de Verviers - 1993, 483pp
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Habit: rhombohedra
Reference: Dejonghe, L., Ladeuze, F., Jans, D. (1993) Atlas des gisements plombo-zincifères du synclinorium de Verviers (Est de la Belgique). Mémoires du Service géologique de Belgique, 33, 483 pages.; Hatert, F., Deliens, M., Fransolet, A.-M., Van Der Meersche, E. (2002) Les minéraux de Belgique. 2ème édition, Muséum des Sciences Naturelles, Bruxelles, Belgium, 304 pages (in French).
Hemimorphite
Formula: Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Hatert, F., Deliens, M., Fransolet, A.-M., Van Der Meersche, E. (2002) Les minéraux de Belgique. 2ème édition, Muséum des Sciences Naturelles, Bruxelles, Belgium, 304 pages (in French).; Coppola, V., Boni, M., Gilg, H.A., Balassone, G., Dejonghe, L. (2008) The “calamine” nonsulfide Zn–Pb deposits of Belgium: Petrographical, mineralogical and geochemical characterization. Ore Geology Reviews, 33, 187-210.
Hydrozincite
Formula: Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Reference: Hatert, F., Deliens, M., Fransolet, A.-M., Van Der Meersche, E. (2002) Les minéraux de Belgique. 2ème édition, Muséum des Sciences Naturelles, Bruxelles, Belgium, 304 pages (in French).
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: L. Dejonghe, F. Ladeuze, D.Jans - Atlas des gisements plombo-zinciferes du synclinorium de Verviers - 1993, 483pp
'Manganese Oxides'
Reference: Hatert, F., Deliens, M., Fransolet, A.-M., Van Der Meersche, E. (2002) Les minéraux de Belgique. 2ème édition, Muséum des Sciences Naturelles, Bruxelles, Belgium, 304 pages (in French).
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: L. Dejonghe, F. Ladeuze, D.Jans - Atlas des gisements plombo-zinciferes du synclinorium de Verviers - 1993, 483pp
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Braun, M., (1857): Über die Galmeilagerstätte des Altenberges im Zusammenhang mit den Erzlagerstätten des Altenberger Grubenfeldes un der Umgegend, Zeitschrift d. Dt. Geolog. Gesellschaft, 354-370
Pyromorphite
Formula: Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Reference: Dejonghe, L., Ladeuze, F., Jans, D. (1993) Atlas des gisements plombo-zincifères du synclinorium de Verviers (Est de la Belgique). Mémoires du Service Géologique de Belgique, 483 pages.; Blondieau, M. (1997) Recherches minières, mines et carrières de Famenne. Edition M. Blondiau, 111 pages.; Hatert, F., Deliens, M., Fransolet, A.-M., Van Der Meersche, E. (2002) Les minéraux de Belgique. 2ème édition, Muséum des Sciences Naturelles, Bruxelles, Belgium, 304 pages (in French).
Pyrophyllite
Formula: Al2Si4O10(OH)2
Reference: L. Dejonghe, F. Ladeuze, D.Jans - Atlas des gisements plombo-zinciferes du synclinorium de Verviers - 1993, 483pp
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Coppola, V., Boni, M., Gilg, H.A., Balassone, G., and Dejonghe, L. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 187-210.
Smithsonite
Formula: ZnCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Braun, M. (1857) Über die Galmeilagerstätte des Altenberges im Zusammenhang mit den Erzlagerstätten des Altenberger Grubenfeldes un der Umgegend. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 354-370.; Hatert, F., Deliens, M., Fransolet, A.-M., Van Der Meersche, E. (2002) Les minéraux de Belgique. 2ème édition, Muséum des Sciences Naturelles, Bruxelles, Belgium, 304 pages (in French).
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Braun, M. (1857) Über die Galmeilagerstätte des Altenberges im Zusammenhang mit den Erzlagerstätten des Altenberger Grubenfeldes un der Umgegend. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 354-370.; Hatert, F., Deliens, M., Fransolet, A.-M., Van Der Meersche, E. (2002) Les minéraux de Belgique. 2ème édition, Muséum des Sciences Naturelles, Bruxelles, Belgium, 304 pages (in French).
Sphalerite var. Schalenblende
Reference: Braun, M., (1857): Über die Galmeilagerstätte des Altenberges im Zusammenhang mit den Erzlagerstätten des Altenberger Grubenfeldes un der Umgegend, Zeitschrift d. Dt. Geolog. Gesellschaft, 354-370
'Strickblende'
Formula: PbS
Reference: L. Dejonghe, F. Ladeuze, D.Jans - Atlas des gisements plombo-zinciferes du synclinorium de Verviers - 1993, 483pp
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Reference: Dejonghe, L., Ladeuze, F., Jans, D. (1993) Atlas des gisements plombo-zincifères du synclinorium de Verviers (Est de la Belgique). Mémoires du Service Géologique de Belgique, 483 pages.
'Wad'
Reference: L. Dejonghe, F. Ladeuze, D.Jans - Atlas des gisements plombo-zinciferes du synclinorium de Verviers - 1993, 483pp
Willemite
Formula: Zn2SiO4
Reference: Coppola, V., Boni, M., Gilg, H.A., Balassone, G., and Dejonghe, L. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 187-210.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Sulphur1.CC.05S8
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Greenockite2.CB.45CdS
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
var. Schalenblende2.CB.05aZnS
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
Hydrozincite5.BA.15Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Smithsonite5.AB.05ZnCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Anglesite7.AD.35PbSO4
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Pyromorphite8.BN.05Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Group 9 - Silicates
'Halloysite'9.ED.10Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Hemimorphite9.BD.10Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Pyrophyllite9.EC.10Al2Si4O10(OH)2
Willemite9.AA.05Zn2SiO4
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Calamine'-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Manganese Oxides'-
'Strickblende'-PbS
'Wad'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Semi-metals and non-metals
Sulphur1.3.5.1S8
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Greenockite2.8.7.2CdS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Smithsonite14.1.1.6ZnCO3
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Hydrozincite16a.4.1.1Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anglesite28.3.1.3PbSO4
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Pyromorphite41.8.4.1Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [4] coordination
Willemite51.1.1.2Zn2SiO4
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] coordination
Hemimorphite56.1.2.1Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
'Halloysite'71.1.1.4Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Pyrophyllite71.2.1.1Al2Si4O10(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Calamine'-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Manganese Oxides'-
Sphalerite
var. Schalenblende
-ZnS
'Strickblende'-PbS
'Wad'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
H HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2
CCarbon
C CerussitePbCO3
C HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
C SmithsoniteZnCO3
C CalciteCaCO3
OOxygen
O CerussitePbCO3
O PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
O HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
O SmithsoniteZnCO3
O HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
O WillemiteZn2SiO4
O CalciteCaCO3
O QuartzSiO2
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O HematiteFe2O3
O HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O AnglesitePbSO4
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Si WillemiteZn2SiO4
Si QuartzSiO2
Si HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2
PPhosphorus
P PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
SSulfur
S GalenaPbS
S SphaleriteZnS
S PyriteFeS2
S GreenockiteCdS
S MarcasiteFeS2
S SulphurS8
S AnglesitePbSO4
S StrickblendePbS
ClChlorine
Cl PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
FeIron
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
ZnZinc
Zn HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn SmithsoniteZnCO3
Zn HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Zn WillemiteZn2SiO4
CdCadmium
Cd GreenockiteCdS
PbLead
Pb CerussitePbCO3
Pb PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb AnglesitePbSO4
Pb StrickblendePbS

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Braun, M. (1857) Über die Galmeilagerstätte des Altenberges im Zusammenhang mit den Erzlagerstätten des Altenberger Grubenfeldes un der Umgegend. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 354-370.
Cesàro, G. (1897) Description des minéraux phosphatés, carbonatés et sulfatés du sol belge. Mémoires de l'Académie royale de Belgique, in 4°, 53, 136 pages.
Buttgenbach, H. (1918) Contributions à l'étude des minéraux belges. Annales de la Société géologique de Belgique, 42, M93.
Dejonghe, L., Ladeuze, F., Jans, D. (1993) Atlas des gisements plombo-zincifères du synclinorium de Verviers (Est de la Belgique). Mémoires du Service géologique de Belgique, 33, 483 pages.
Hatert, F., Deliens, M., Fransolet, A.-M., Van Der Meersche, E. (2002) Les minéraux de Belgique. 2ème édition, Muséum des Sciences Naturelles, Bruxelles, Belgium, 304 pages (in French).
Coppola, V., Boni, M., Gilg, H.A., Balassone, G., Dejonghe, L. (2008) The “calamine” nonsulfide Zn–Pb deposits of Belgium: Petrographical, mineralogical and geochemical characterization. Ore Geology Reviews 33, 187-210.

Other Databases

Wikipedia:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Welkenraedt
Wikidata ID:Q152743
GeoNames ID:2783871

External Links

http://www.minerant.org/archief/fluo-cerussiet-Welkenraedt.pdf (possible explanation of the fluorescence of cerussite, in Dutch)

Localities in this Region

Other Regions, Features and Areas that Intersect

Eurasian PlateTectonic Plate

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