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Sponda Alp - Pizzo Forno, Chironico Valley, Leventina, Ticino (Tessin), Switzerland

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Name(s) in local language(s):Alpe Sponda - Pizzo Forno, Val Chironico, Leventina, Ticino (Tessin), Svizzera (Schweiz; Suisse)
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 46° 25' 59'' North , 8° 46' 37'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 46.43306,8.77694
GeoHash:G#: u0q0pszhj
Köppen climate type:Dfc : Subarctic climate


Classic locality for blue (Fe-bearing) kyanite in white mica (Na-bearing muscovite or paragonite).

Two closely related places, and actually only one locality. The Sponda Alp (Alpe Sponda) is located on the south slope of Pizzo Forno.
The grid reference marks the summit of Pizzo Forno (2907 m, Swiss coordinates: 702´860 / 143´285).

Regions containing this locality

The Alps, Europe

Mountain Range - 2,243 mineral species & varietal names listed

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


20 valid minerals. 1 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Weiß, S. (2014): Disthen von der Alpe Sponda. Lapis, 39 (9), 12-25; 62.
Albite var: Oligoclase
Formula: (Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Reference: Weiß, S. (2014): Disthen von der Alpe Sponda. Lapis, 39 (9), 12-25; 62.
Almandine
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Weiß, S. (2014): Disthen von der Alpe Sponda. Lapis, 39 (9), 12-25; 62.
Anatase
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Weiß, S. (2014): Disthen von der Alpe Sponda. Lapis, 39 (9), 12-25; 62.
Andalusite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Reference: Weiß, S. (2014): Disthen von der Alpe Sponda. Lapis, 39 (9), 12-25; 62.
Annite
Formula: KFe2+3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Weiß, S. (2014): Disthen von der Alpe Sponda. Lapis, 39 (9), 12-25; 62.
Chloritoid
Formula: (Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Reference: Erik Vercammen collection
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: Weiß, S. (2014): Disthen von der Alpe Sponda. Lapis, 39 (9), 12-25; 62.
Cordierite
Formula: (Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Reference: Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz. Wepf (Basel), p. 122; Charlotte Redler, Alfred Irouschek, Teresa Jeffries and Reto Gieré (2016): Origin and Formation of Tourmaline-rich Cordierite-bearing Metapelitic Rocks from Alpe Sponda, Central Alps (Switzerland). Journal of Petrology, 57, 277-308.
Dravite
Formula: Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Reference: Charlotte Redler, Alfred Irouschek, Teresa Jeffries and Reto Gieré (2016): Origin and Formation of Tourmaline-rich Cordierite-bearing Metapelitic Rocks from Alpe Sponda, Central Alps (Switzerland). Journal of Petrology, 57, 277-308.
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Reference: Charlotte Redler, Alfred Irouschek, Teresa Jeffries and Reto Gieré (2016): Origin and Formation of Tourmaline-rich Cordierite-bearing Metapelitic Rocks from Alpe Sponda, Central Alps (Switzerland). Journal of Petrology, 57, 277-308.
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Reference: Weiß, S. (2014): Disthen von der Alpe Sponda. Lapis, 39 (9), 12-25; 62.
Kyanite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Habit: Lath-shaped
Colour: Bluish
Reference: [www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]; Weiß, S. (2014): Disthen von der Alpe Sponda. Lapis, 39 (9), 12-25; 62.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz. Wepf (Basel), p. 296.; Weiß, S. (2014): Disthen von der Alpe Sponda. Lapis, 39 (9), 12-25; 62.
Oxy-dravite
Formula: Na(MgAl2)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
Reference: Charlotte Redler, Alfred Irouschek, Teresa Jeffries and Reto Gieré (2016): Origin and Formation of Tourmaline-rich Cordierite-bearing Metapelitic Rocks from Alpe Sponda, Central Alps (Switzerland). Journal of Petrology, 57, 277-308.
Paragonite (TL)
Formula: NaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz. Wepf (Basel), p. 296.; Weiß, S. (2014): Disthen von der Alpe Sponda. Lapis, 39 (9), 12-25; 62; Charlotte Redler, Alfred Irouschek, Teresa Jeffries and Reto Gieré (2016): Origin and Formation of Tourmaline-rich Cordierite-bearing Metapelitic Rocks from Alpe Sponda, Central Alps (Switzerland). Journal of Petrology, 57, 277-308.
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Weiß, S. (2014): Disthen von der Alpe Sponda. Lapis, 39 (9), 12-25; 62.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: No reference listed
Quartz var: Rock Crystal
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Weiß, S. (2014): Disthen von der Alpe Sponda. Lapis, 39 (9), 12-25; 62.
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Weiß, S. (2014): Disthen von der Alpe Sponda. Lapis, 39 (9), 12-25; 62.
Schorl ?
Formula: Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Description: Not analysed; paragenesis suggests dravite is more probable.
Reference: Weiß, S. (2014): Disthen von der Alpe Sponda. Lapis, 39 (9), 12-25; 62.
Sillimanite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Reference: Weiß, S. (2014): Disthen von der Alpe Sponda. Lapis, 39 (9), 12-25; 62.
Staurolite
Formula: Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)
Reference: Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 385.; Weiß, S. (2014): Disthen von der Alpe Sponda. Lapis, 39 (9), 12-25; 62.
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 417.; Weiß, S. (2014): Disthen von der Alpe Sponda. Lapis, 39 (9), 12-25; 62.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Anatase'4.DD.05TiO2
'Ilmenite'4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Rock Crystal4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Group 9 - Silicates
'Albite'9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
var: Oligoclase9.FA.35(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
'Almandine'9.AD.25Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
'Andalusite'9.AF.10Al2(SiO4)O
'Annite'9.EC.20KFe2+3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
'Chloritoid'9.AF.85(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
'Clinochlore'9.EC.55Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
'Cordierite'9.CJ.10(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
'Dravite'9.CK.05Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
'Kyanite'9.AF.15Al2(SiO4)O
'Muscovite'9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Oxy-dravite9.CK.05Na(MgAl2)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
Paragonite (TL)9.EC.15NaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Phlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Schorl ?9.CK.05Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Sillimanite9.AF.05Al2(SiO4)O
Staurolite9.AF.30Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
Tourmaline-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
AX2
Anatase4.4.4.1TiO2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Almandine51.4.3a.2Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and >[4] coordination
Andalusite52.2.2b.1Al2(SiO4)O
Kyanite52.2.2c.1Al2(SiO4)O
Sillimanite52.2.2a.1Al2(SiO4)O
Staurolite52.2.3.1Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] coordination only
Chloritoid52.3.3.1(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with Al substituted rings
Cordierite61.2.1.1(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Six-Membered Rings with borate groups
Dravite61.3.1.9Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Schorl ?61.3.1.10Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Annite71.2.2b.3KFe2+3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Paragonite (TL)71.2.2a.2NaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Clinochlore71.4.1.4Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
var: Oligoclase-(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
Oxy-dravite-Na(MgAl2)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
Quartz
var: Rock Crystal
-SiO2
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H AnniteKFe32+(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Chloritoid(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
H ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Oxy-draviteNa(MgAl2)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
H ParagoniteNaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
BBoron
B DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B Oxy-draviteNa(MgAl2)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
B SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
OOxygen
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
O AnataseTiO2
O AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)O
O AnniteKFe32+(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Chloritoid(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
O ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
O DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
O Oxy-draviteNa(MgAl2)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
O ParagoniteNaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O QuartzSiO2
O Quartz (var: Rock Crystal)SiO2
O RutileTiO2
O SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)O
O StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Na Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Na Oxy-draviteNa(MgAl2)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
Na ParagoniteNaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Na SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
MgMagnesium
Mg ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Mg Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Mg DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Mg Oxy-draviteNa(MgAl2)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)O
Al AnniteKFe32+(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Chloritoid(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Al ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Al Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Al DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Al Oxy-draviteNa(MgAl2)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
Al ParagoniteNaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Al StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
SiSilicon
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)O
Si AnniteKFe32+(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Chloritoid(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Si ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Si DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
Si KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Si Oxy-draviteNa(MgAl2)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
Si ParagoniteNaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Quartz (var: Rock Crystal)SiO2
Si SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Si StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
KPotassium
K AnniteKFe32+(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
TiTitanium
Ti AnataseTiO2
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Ti RutileTiO2
FeIron
Fe AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Fe AnniteKFe32+(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Fe Chloritoid(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Fe Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Fe SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Fe StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Unknown
Ma



ID: 2346984
Metamorphe Gesteine, meist Metasedimente

Age: Anthropocene ( Ma)

Lithology: Gneiss and mica schist

Reference: Geological Institute. Geological Map of Switzerland 1:500,000. isbn: 3906723399. University of Bern. [49]

Paleozoic - Precambrian
251.902 - 4000 Ma



ID: 3147177
Penninic basement, Penninic nappes, Austroalpine nappes, Southern Alpes

Age: Eoarchean to Triassic (251.902 - 4000 Ma)

Description: medium grade metamorphic

Lithology: Gneiss

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Late Paleozoic
251.902 - 358.9 Ma



ID: 3192871
Paleozoic intrusive rocks

Age: Phanerozoic (251.902 - 358.9 Ma)

Comments: Alps

Lithology: Intrusive igneous rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Beitter, T., Wagner, T., Markl, G. (2008) Formation of kyanite-quartz veins of the Alpe Sponda, Central Alps, Switzerland: Implications for Al transport during regional metamorphism. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 156, 689-707.
Weiß, S. (2014): Disthen von der Alpe Sponda. Lapis, 39 (9), 12-25; 62.
Charlotte Redler, Alfred Irouschek, Teresa Jeffries and Reto Gieré (2016): Origin and Formation of Tourmaline-rich Cordierite-bearing Metapelitic Rocks from Alpe Sponda, Central Alps (Switzerland). Journal of Petrology, 57, 277-308.


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