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Virgen de Surumi mine (Pacajake mine; Pakajake mine), Pakajake Canyon (Pacajake Canyon), Chayanta Province, Potosí, Boliviai
Regional Level Types
Virgen de Surumi mine (Pacajake mine; Pakajake mine)Mine
Pakajake Canyon (Pacajake Canyon)Canyon
Chayanta ProvinceProvince
PotosíDepartment
BoliviaCountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
18° 38' 59'' South , 66° 1' 0'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Colquechaca1,706 (2012)5.7km


A silver mine.
NOTE: "Pacajake mine" is a common misnomer for this locality. The famous selenium minerals from this locality have often been falsely attributed to the Hiaco mine (2km west, on the opposite flank of Pakajake canyon) or to the Colquechaca mine (28km southwest), but neither of those mines yields any Se minerals at all; error due to the original type specimens of Pakajake Se minerals having been purchased at a shop in Colquechaca unaccompanied by good locality labels, and then published in the literature with incorrect conjecture.

Old material examination showed the presence of some Al-Cr and Al-Cr-Fe minerals. These minerals might be new phases.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


24 valid minerals. 4 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Ahlfeldite (TL)
Formula: Ni(SeO3) · 2H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Herzenberg (1935) Zentralbl. Min., Abt. A: 189 & 279. Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 635. Petrov, A., Smith, B., Smith, C. (2001) A Guide to Mineral Localities in Bolivia. Mineralogical Record Vol.32(6), pp. 457-482. Hurlbut, C.S., Aristarain, L.F. (1969) Olsacherite Pb₂(SeO₄)(SO₄), A New Mineral from Bolivia. The American Mineralogist. Vol.5, November-December, pp. 1519-1527.
Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Reference: Hurlbut, C.S., Aristarain, L.F. (1969) Olsacherite Pb₂(SeO₄)(SO₄), A New Mineral from Bolivia. The American Mineralogist. Vol.5, November-December, pp. 1519-1527.
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: Petrov, A., Smith, B., Smith, C. (2001) A Guide to Mineral Localities in Bolivia. Mineralogical Record Vol.32(6), pp. 457-482. Hurlbut, C.S., Aristarain, L.F. (1969) Olsacherite Pb₂(SeO₄)(SO₄), A New Mineral from Bolivia. The American Mineralogist. Vol.5, November-December, pp. 1519-1527. Livingstone, A., Jackson, B., Davidson, P.J. (1984) Grimaldiite, CrOOH, a second occurrence, from the Hiaca Mine, Colquechaca, Bolivia. Mineralogical Magazine, December 1984, Vol.48, pp. 560-562.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Hurlbut, C.S., Aristarain, L.F. (1969) Olsacherite Pb₂(SeO₄)(SO₄), A New Mineral from Bolivia. The American Mineralogist. Vol.5, November-December, pp. 1519-1527.
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Reference: Hurlbut, C.S., Aristarain, L.F. (1969) Olsacherite Pb₂(SeO₄)(SO₄), A New Mineral from Bolivia. The American Mineralogist. Vol.5, November-December, pp. 1519-1527.
Chalcomenite
Formula: CuSeO3 · 2H2O
Reference: Petrov, A., Smith, B., Smith, C. (2001) A Guide to Mineral Localities in Bolivia. Mineralogical Record Vol.32(6), pp. 457-482. Hurlbut, C.S., Aristarain, L.F. (1969) Olsacherite Pb₂(SeO₄)(SO₄), A New Mineral from Bolivia. The American Mineralogist. Vol.5, November-December, pp. 1519-1527.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Simon, G., Kesler, S.E., Essene, E.J. (1997) Phase relations among selenides, tellurides, and oxides; II, Applications to selenide-bearing ore deposits. Economic Geology, July 1997, Vol.92, pp. 468-484.
Clausthalite
Formula: PbSe
Reference: Petrov, A., Smith, B., Smith, C. (2001) A Guide to Mineral Localities in Bolivia. Mineralogical Record Vol.32(6), pp. 457-482. Hurlbut, C.S., Aristarain, L.F. (1969) Olsacherite Pb₂(SeO₄)(SO₄), A New Mineral from Bolivia. The American Mineralogist. Vol.5, November-December, pp. 1519-1527.
Cobaltomenite
Formula: CoSeO3 · 2H2O
Reference: Petrov, A., Smith, B., Smith, C. (2001) A Guide to Mineral Localities in Bolivia. Mineralogical Record Vol.32(6), pp. 457-482.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Microprobe analysis by Dr Günter Grundmann.; Dunn P J, Peacor D R, Sturman B D (1978) Mandarinoite, a new ferric-iron selenite from Bolivia. The Canadian Mineralogist 16, 605-609
Grimaldiite ?
Formula: CrO(OH)
Description: The Livingstone reference contained within MINERALOGICAL MAGAZINE, DECEMBER 1984, VOL. 48, PP. 560 2 actually refers to the Hiaca Mine for Grimaldiite and not this mine.
Reference: Petrov, A., Smith, B., Smith, C. (2001) A Guide to Mineral Localities in Bolivia. Mineralogical Record Vol.32(6), pp. 457-482. Livingstone, A., Jackson, B., Davidson, P.J. (1984) Grimaldiite, CrOOH, a second occurrence, from the Hiaca Mine, Colquechaca, Bolivia. Mineraligical Magazine, December 1984, Vol.48, pp. 560-562.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Petrov, A., Smith, B., Smith, C. (2001) A Guide to Mineral Localities in Bolivia. Mineralogical Record Vol.32(6), pp. 457-482. Hurlbut, C.S., Aristarain, L.F. (1969) Olsacherite Pb₂(SeO₄)(SO₄), A New Mineral from Bolivia. The American Mineralogist. Vol.5, November-December, pp. 1519-1527.
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: Hurlbut, C.S., Aristarain, L.F. (1969) Olsacherite Pb₂(SeO₄)(SO₄), A New Mineral from Bolivia. The American Mineralogist. Vol.5, November-December, pp. 1519-1527.
Linarite
Formula: PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Reference: Kempff, O., Tawackoli, S., Paar, W.H. (2003) Minerales de Bolivia 121 p.
Mandarinoite (TL)
Formula: Fe3+2(Se4+O3)3 · (6-x)H2O (x = 0.0-1.0)
Type Locality:
Reference: Dunn, P.J., Peacor, D.R. & Sturman, B.D. (1978) Mandarinoite, a new ferric-iron selenite from Bolivia. Canadian Mineralogist Vol.16, pp.605-609. Hawthorne, F.C. (1984) The crystal structure of mandarinoite, Fe³⁺₂Se₃O₉.6H₂O. Canadian Mineralogist Vol.22, pp. 475-480.
Molybdomenite
Formula: PbSeO3
Reference: Petrov, A., Smith, B., Smith, C. (2001) A Guide to Mineral Localities in Bolivia. Mineralogical Record Vol.32(6), pp. 457-482.
Naumannite
Formula: Ag2Se
Reference: Petrov, A., Smith, B., Smith, C. (2001) A Guide to Mineral Localities in Bolivia. Mineralogical Record Vol.32(6), pp. 457-482. Hurlbut, C.S., Aristarain, L.F. (1969) Olsacherite Pb₂(SeO₄)(SO₄), A New Mineral from Bolivia. The American Mineralogist. Vol.5, November-December, pp. 1519-1527.
Olsacherite (TL)
Formula: Pb2(Se6+O4)(SO4)
Type Locality:
Reference: Hurlbut, C.S., Aristarain, L.F. (1969) Olsacherite Pb₂(SeO₄)(SO₄), A New Mineral from Bolivia. The American Mineralogist. Vol.5, November-December, pp. 1519-1527. Petrov, A., Smith, B., Smith, C. (2001) A Guide to Mineral Localities in Bolivia. Mineralogical Record Vol.32(6), pp. 457-482.
Penroseite (TL)
Formula: (Ni,Co,Cu)Se2
Type Locality:
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 635; Gordon, S. (1926) Penroseite and Trudellite: two new minerals. Proceedings Of The Academy Of Natural Sciences Of Philadelphia. 77, 317-324. Hurlbut, C.S., Aristarain, L.F. (1969) Olsacherite Pb₂(SeO₄)(SO₄), A New Mineral from Bolivia. The American Mineralogist. Vol.5, November-December, pp. 1519-1527. Livingstone, A., Jackson, B., Davidson, P.J. (1984) Grimaldiite, CrOOH, a second occurrence, from the Hiaca Mine, Colquechaca, Bolivia. Mineralogical Magazine, December 1984, Vol.48, pp. 560-562.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Hurlbut, C.S., Aristarain, L.F. (1969) Olsacherite Pb₂(SeO₄)(SO₄), A New Mineral from Bolivia. The American Mineralogist. Vol.5, November-December, pp. 1519-1527.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Dunn P J, Peacor D R, Sturman B D (1978) Mandarinoite, a new ferric-iron selenite from Bolivia. The Canadian Mineralogist 16, 605-609
Selenium
Formula: Se
Reference: Petrov, A., Smith, B., Smith, C. (2001) A Guide to Mineral Localities in Bolivia. Mineralogical Record Vol.32(6), pp. 457-482. Hurlbut, C.S., Aristarain, L.F. (1969) Olsacherite Pb₂(SeO₄)(SO₄), A New Mineral from Bolivia. The American Mineralogist. Vol.5, November-December, pp. 1519-1527.
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Reference: Petrov, A., Smith, B., Smith, C. (2001) A Guide to Mineral Localities in Bolivia. Mineralogical Record Vol.32(6), pp. 457-482. Hurlbut, C.S., Aristarain, L.F. (1969) Olsacherite Pb₂(SeO₄)(SO₄), A New Mineral from Bolivia. The American Mineralogist. Vol.5, November-December, pp. 1519-1527.
Tiemannite
Formula: HgSe
Reference: Petrov, A., Smith, B., Smith, C. (2001) A Guide to Mineral Localities in Bolivia. Mineralogical Record Vol.32(6), pp. 457-482. Hurlbut, C.S., Aristarain, L.F. (1969) Olsacherite Pb₂(SeO₄)(SO₄), A New Mineral from Bolivia. The American Mineralogist. Vol.5, November-December, pp. 1519-1527.
Wulfenite
Formula: Pb(MoO4)
Reference: Hurlbut, C.S., Aristarain, L.F. (1969) Olsacherite Pb₂(SeO₄)(SO₄), A New Mineral from Bolivia. The American Mineralogist. Vol.5, November-December, pp. 1519-1527.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Selenium1.CC.10Se
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Clausthalite2.CD.10PbSe
Naumannite2.BA.55Ag2Se
Penroseite (TL)2.EB.05a(Ni,Co,Cu)Se2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Tiemannite2.CB.05aHgSe
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Ahlfeldite (TL)4.JH.10Ni(SeO3) · 2H2O
Chalcomenite4.JH.05CuSeO3 · 2H2O
Cobaltomenite4.JH.10CoSeO3 · 2H2O
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Grimaldiite ?4.FE.20CrO(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Mandarinoite (TL)4.JH.15Fe3+2(Se4+O3)3 · (6-x)H2O (x = 0.0-1.0)
Molybdomenite4.JF.05PbSeO3
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Anglesite7.AD.35PbSO4
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Linarite7.BC.65PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Olsacherite (TL)7.AD.35Pb2(Se6+O4)(SO4)
Wulfenite7.GA.05Pb(MoO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Semi-metals and non-metals
Selenium1.3.4.1Se
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Naumannite2.4.1.2Ag2Se
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Clausthalite2.8.1.2PbSe
Tiemannite2.8.2.4HgSe
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Penroseite (TL)2.12.1.4(Ni,Co,Cu)Se2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Grimaldiite ?6.1.5.1CrO(OH)
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anglesite28.3.1.3PbSO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Linarite30.2.3.1PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Group 32 - COMPOUND SULFATES
Anhydrous Compound Sulfates
Olsacherite (TL)32.1.3.1Pb2(Se6+O4)(SO4)
Group 34 - SELENITES, TELLURITES AND SULFITES
A(XO3)
Molybdomenite34.1.1.1PbSeO3
A(XO3)·xH2O
Ahlfeldite (TL)34.2.3.3Ni(SeO3) · 2H2O
Chalcomenite34.2.2.1CuSeO3 · 2H2O
Cobaltomenite34.2.3.2CoSeO3 · 2H2O
A2(XO3)3·xH2O
Mandarinoite (TL)34.3.4.1Fe3+2(Se4+O3)3 · (6-x)H2O (x = 0.0-1.0)
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Wulfenite48.1.3.1Pb(MoO4)
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H AhlfelditeNi(SeO3) · 2H2O
H MandarinoiteFe23+(Se4+O3)3 · (6-x)H2O (x = 0.0-1.0)
H ChalcomeniteCuSeO3 · 2H2O
H CobaltomeniteCoSeO3 · 2H2O
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
H GrimaldiiteCrO(OH)
CCarbon
C SideriteFeCO3
C CalciteCaCO3
C CerussitePbCO3
OOxygen
O OlsacheritePb2(Se6+O4)(SO4)
O AhlfelditeNi(SeO3) · 2H2O
O MandarinoiteFe23+(Se4+O3)3 · (6-x)H2O (x = 0.0-1.0)
O BaryteBaSO4
O ChalcomeniteCuSeO3 · 2H2O
O CobaltomeniteCoSeO3 · 2H2O
O HematiteFe2O3
O MolybdomenitePbSeO3
O SideriteFeCO3
O QuartzSiO2
O CalciteCaCO3
O WulfenitePb(MoO4)
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O AnglesitePbSO4
O CerussitePbCO3
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
O GrimaldiiteCrO(OH)
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
SSulfur
S OlsacheritePb2(Se6+O4)(SO4)
S BaryteBaSO4
S PyriteFeS2
S AnglesitePbSO4
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
CrChromium
Cr GrimaldiiteCrO(OH)
FeIron
Fe MandarinoiteFe23+(Se4+O3)3 · (6-x)H2O (x = 0.0-1.0)
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
CoCobalt
Co Penroseite(Ni,Co,Cu)Se2
Co CobaltomeniteCoSeO3 · 2H2O
NiNickel
Ni Penroseite(Ni,Co,Cu)Se2
Ni AhlfelditeNi(SeO3) · 2H2O
CuCopper
Cu Penroseite(Ni,Co,Cu)Se2
Cu ChalcomeniteCuSeO3 · 2H2O
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
SeSelenium
Se OlsacheritePb2(Se6+O4)(SO4)
Se Penroseite(Ni,Co,Cu)Se2
Se AhlfelditeNi(SeO3) · 2H2O
Se MandarinoiteFe23+(Se4+O3)3 · (6-x)H2O (x = 0.0-1.0)
Se ClausthalitePbSe
Se ChalcomeniteCuSeO3 · 2H2O
Se CobaltomeniteCoSeO3 · 2H2O
Se MolybdomenitePbSeO3
Se NaumanniteAg2Se
Se SeleniumSe
Se TiemanniteHgSe
MoMolybdenum
Mo WulfenitePb(MoO4)
AgSilver
Ag NaumanniteAg2Se
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
HgMercury
Hg TiemanniteHgSe
PbLead
Pb OlsacheritePb2(Se6+O4)(SO4)
Pb ClausthalitePbSe
Pb MolybdomenitePbSeO3
Pb WulfenitePb(MoO4)
Pb AnglesitePbSO4
Pb CerussitePbCO3
Pb LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Herzenberg, R. and Ahlfeld, F. (1935) Blockit, ein neues Selenerz aus Bolivien. Zentralblatt für 287 Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie (Abteilung A), 9, 277−279.
Hurlbut, C.S., Aristarain, L.F. (1969) Olsacherite Pb₂(SeO₄)(SO₄), A New Mineral from Bolivia. The American Mineralogist. Vol.5, November-December, pp. 1519-1527.
Dunn, P.J., Peacor, D.R. & Sturman, B.D. (1978) Mandarinoite, a new ferric-iron selenite from Bolivia. Canadian Mineralogist 16, 605-609.
Hawthorne, F.C. (1984) The crystal structure of mandarinoite, Fe³⁺₂Se₃O₉.6H₂O. Canadian Mineralogist 22, 475-480.
Livingstone, A., Jackson, B., Davidson, P.J. (1984) Grimaldiite, CrOOH, a second occurrence, from the Hiaca Mine, Colquechaca, Bolivia. Mineralogical Magazine, 48, 560-562.
Simon, G., Kesler, S.E., Essene, E.J. (1997) Phase relations among selenides, tellurides, and oxides; II, Applications to selenide-bearing ore deposits. Economic Geology, 92, 468-484.
Petrov, A., Smith, B., Smith, C. (2001) A Guide to Mineral Localities in Bolivia. Mineralogical Record 32, 457-482.
Kempff, O., Tawackoli, S., Paar, W.H. (2003) Minerales de Bolivia 121 p.
Redwood, S.D. (2003) Famous Mineral Localities: The Pacajake Selenium Mine, Potosí, Bolivia. Mineralogical Record 34, 339-357.

Other Regions, Features and Areas containing this locality

Altiplano PlateTectonic Plate
South AmericaContinent

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