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Birkeland mines (Sauda mines), Sauda, Rogaland, Norwayi
Regional Level Types
Birkeland mines (Sauda mines)Group of Mines
SaudaMunicipality
RogalandCounty
NorwayCountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
59° 39' 8'' North , 6° 28' 1'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Group of Mines
Age:
1600 to 1000 Ma
Geologic Time:
Reference for age:
Geological Survey of Norway. The Ore Database. 1135 - 001, Sauda
Köppen climate type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Sauda4,290 (2017)6.3km
Røldal357 (2013)28.0km
Dimmelsvik225 (2013)43.2km
Rosendal945 (2014)45.0km
Odda5,359 (2010)46.5km
Other/historical names associated with this locality:
Sauda Sinkgruver, Sinkgruvene i Almannajuvet)
Other Languages:
Norwegian:
Birkeland sinkgruver, Sauda, Rogaland, Norge


Old Zn-mines located in Allmannajuvet, along the RV 520 between Sauda og Hellandsbygd. The zinc deposit was discovered by Gregorius Birkeland in 1881, and mining started the same year by Sauda Grubecompani. In 1887 the mine was sold to the english firm The Norwegian Zink Co. Ltd. Later it was worked by a certain C. D. Gilbert. The mines was closed in 1889. The adits and workings listed as sub-localities are probably not complete

Old reports (Horneman, 1919) state that during this period 12 000 t ore was mined with 36.6 % Zn, and ore left in 1919 contains on average 32.5 % Zn and 1 % Cu. The ore is hosted by fine-grained grey gneisses, which most likely represent altered felsic volcanic rocks. The ore consists of three parallel lenses, which is up to 3 m thick. The richest part of the ore zone consists of sphalerite with chlorite, quartz and amphibole as gangue, surrounded by a zone of amphibole-quartz-chlorite-biotite rock, partly garnet-bearing and with disseminated pyrite, chalcopyrite and sphalerite. This zone is surrounded by cherty quartzite, which in the footwall is very rich in garnet.

Today it is a tourist attraction owned by the Ryfylkemuseet. For information on the museum: see http://www.ryfylkemuseet.no

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Gallery Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

18 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

'Amphibole Supergroup'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Reference: NGU database
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Reference: Kristiansen, H. (1989): Birkeland sinkgruver i Sauda- en ny turistattraksjon. NAGS-nytt 16 (4), 18-19
'Biotite'
Formula: K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3[AlSi3O10(OH)2
Reference: NGU database
Chalcanthite
Formula: CuSO4 · 5H2O
Reference: Kristiansen, H. (1989): Birkeland sinkgruver i Sauda- en ny turistattraksjon. NAGS-nytt 16 (4), 18-19
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: Kristiansen, H. (1989): Birkeland sinkgruver i Sauda- en ny turistattraksjon. NAGS-nytt 16 (4), 18-19
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Pers. Com. Inge Bryhni 1993; Selbekk R.S. (2010): Norges mineraler. En revidert utgave av Norges mineraler (Neumann 1985).Tapir-NGU-NHM.
Cummingtonite
Formula: ◻{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Carstens, C.W. (1919): Cummingtonite from Sauda. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 5: 351-357; Kristiansen, H. (1989): Birkeland sinkgruver i Sauda- en ny turistattraksjon. NAGS-nytt 16 (4), 18-19
'Feldspar Group'
Reference: Geological Survey of Norway. The Ore Database. 1135 - 001, Sauda.
Gahnite
Formula: ZnAl2O4
Habit: Roundish, up to 0,5 cm wide grains
Colour: Dark green
Description: Identified at the Natural History Museum, Oslo in 1989 [Pers. Com. Inge Bryhni 1993]. A major constituent of a cummingtonite-gahnite rock.
Reference: Bryhni I. (1993): Minerals from Sauda, Rogaland. MGM Interne notater, 199-205; Andersson, M..et al (2004): Saudaprosjektet -Tipp Raundalen. Mulige miljøkonsekvenser ved deponering av sinkholdig malm. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse. Rapport 2004-029
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Andersson, M..et al (2004): Saudaprosjektet -Tipp Raundalen. Mulige miljøkonsekvenser ved deponering av sinkholdig malm. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse. Rapport 2004-029
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Reference: NGU database
Glaucocerinite
Formula: (Zn1-xAlx)(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
Description: in mixtures with woodwardite
Reference: Selbekk R.S. (2010): Norges mineraler. En revidert utgave av Norges mineraler (Neumann 1985). Tapir-NGU-NHM.p 245
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Andersson, M..et al (2004): Saudaprosjektet -Tipp Raundalen. Mulige miljøkonsekvenser ved deponering av sinkholdig malm. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse. Rapport 2004-029
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Habit: acicular or slender prismatic crystals up to 0,5 cm long
Description: Found in the walls in the mine
Reference: Kristiansen, H. (1989): Birkeland sinkgruver i Sauda- en ny turistattraksjon. NAGS-nytt 16 (4), 18-19
Hydrozincite
Formula: Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Description: As a blue-green crust found in the wall in the mine. (Color due to contains of Cu)
Reference: Pers. Com. Inge Bryhni 1993
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: NGU database
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Pers. Com. Inge Bryhni 1993
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: NGU database
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe1-xS
Reference: Kristiansen, H. (1989): Birkeland sinkgruver i Sauda- en ny turistattraksjon. NAGS-nytt 16 (4), 18-19
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Pers. Com. Inge Bryhni 1993
Scorodite
Formula: Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Habit: earth-like aggregate
Colour: yellow-green
Description: Identified by XRD
Reference: Pers. Com. Inge Bryhni 1993
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Reference: Andersson, M. et al( 2004): Saudaprosjektet -Tipp Raundalen. Mulige miljøkonsekvenser ved deponering av sinkholdig malm. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse. Rapport 2004-029
'Stilbite subgroup'
Formula: M6-7[Al8-9Si27-28O72] · nH2O
Reference: Kristiansen, H. (1989): Birkeland sinkgruver i Sauda- en ny turistattraksjon. NAGS-nytt 16 (4), 18-19
'Thénardite'
Formula: Na2SO4
Habit: crust on floor in mine
Colour: white
Description: Found as a post-mining mineral
Reference: Pers. Com. Inge Bryhni 1993; Selbekk R.S. (2010): Norges mineraler. En revidert utgave av Norges mineraler (Neumann 1985).Tapir-NGU-NHM.
Woodwardite
Formula: Cu1-xAlx(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
Reference: Pers. Com. G. Raade 12.07.1990 in Geologisk Museum. Interne notater 1961-1990. Published by Geologisk Museums Venner, Oslo 1991. p 146

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Arsenopyrite2.EB.20FeAsS
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe1-xS
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Gahnite4.BB.05ZnAl2O4
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Hydrozincite5.BA.15Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Chalcanthite7.CB.20CuSO4 · 5H2O
Glaucocerinite7.DD.35(Zn1-xAlx)(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
'Thénardite'7.AC.25Na2SO4
Woodwardite7.DD.35Cu1-xAlx(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Scorodite8.CD.10Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Cummingtonite9.DE.05◻{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Phlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3[AlSi3O10(OH)2
'Chlorite Group'-
'Feldspar Group'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Stilbite subgroup'-M6-7[Al8-9Si27-28O72] · nH2O

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe1-xS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Gahnite7.2.1.4ZnAl2O4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Hydrozincite16a.4.1.1Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
A2XO4
'Thénardite'28.2.3.1Na2SO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Chalcanthite29.6.7.1CuSO4 · 5H2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)6(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Woodwardite31.2.2.1Cu1-xAlx(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
(AB)4(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Glaucocerinite31.4.8.1(Zn1-xAlx)(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
(AB)5(XO4)2·xH2O
Scorodite40.4.1.3Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Cummingtonite66.1.1.1◻{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3[AlSi3O10(OH)2
'Chlorite Group'-
'Feldspar Group'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Stilbite subgroup'-M6-7[Al8-9Si27-28O72] · nH2O

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Stilbite subgroupM6-7[Al8-9Si27-28O72] · nH2O
H Cummingtonite◻{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
H ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
H WoodwarditeCu1-xAlx(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
H Glaucocerinite(Zn1-xAlx)(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
H BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3[AlSi3O10(OH)2
H Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
CCarbon
C HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
OOxygen
O Stilbite subgroupM6-7[Al8-9Si27-28O72] · nH2O
O Cummingtonite◻{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O GahniteZnAl2O4
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O QuartzSiO2
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
O ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
O ThénarditeNa2SO4
O WoodwarditeCu1-xAlx(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
O Glaucocerinite(Zn1-xAlx)(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
O BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3[AlSi3O10(OH)2
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
O Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
FFluorine
F BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3[AlSi3O10(OH)2
F Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
NaSodium
Na ThénarditeNa2SO4
MgMagnesium
Mg Cummingtonite◻{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Mg BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3[AlSi3O10(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al Stilbite subgroupM6-7[Al8-9Si27-28O72] · nH2O
Al GahniteZnAl2O4
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al WoodwarditeCu1-xAlx(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
Al Glaucocerinite(Zn1-xAlx)(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
Al BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3[AlSi3O10(OH)2
Al Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
SiSilicon
Si Stilbite subgroupM6-7[Al8-9Si27-28O72] · nH2O
Si Cummingtonite◻{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3[AlSi3O10(OH)2
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
Si Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
SSulfur
S SphaleriteZnS
S PyrrhotiteFe1-xS
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S GalenaPbS
S ThénarditeNa2SO4
S WoodwarditeCu1-xAlx(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
S Glaucocerinite(Zn1-xAlx)(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
S PyriteFeS2
ClChlorine
Cl Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
KPotassium
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3[AlSi3O10(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
TiTitanium
Ti BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3[AlSi3O10(OH)2
Ti Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
FeIron
Fe PyrrhotiteFe1-xS
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Fe BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3[AlSi3O10(OH)2
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe PyriteFeS2
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
Cu WoodwarditeCu1-xAlx(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn GahniteZnAl2O4
Zn HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Zn Glaucocerinite(Zn1-xAlx)(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
AsArsenic
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
As ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Reusch, H.; Helland, A.; Holmsen, P.; Vogt, J.H.L. (1885): Beskrivelser over Saude Grubecomps zinkgrube.. Norges geologiske undersøkelse, Bergarkivet. BA 529, 27 pages
Bryn, E. (1918): Rapport og overslag vedrørende Saude zinkgrube. Norges geologiske undersøkelse, Bergarkivet, BA 4521, 12 pages
Horneman, C.H.S. (1919): Rapport over Saude zinkforekomster.;Norges geologiske undersøkelse, Bergarkivet. BA 4522; 20 pages
Carstens, C. W. (1919): Cummingtonite from Sauda. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 5: 351-357
Nordrum, F.S.; van der Wel, D. , (1981): Mineral-, stein- og ertsforekomster innen kartblad Sauda M 1:250 000. Mineral, rock and ore deposits within the map-sheet Sauda (1:250 000).;Norges geologiske undersøkelse; NGU; Skrifter; No.366; 34;1-58 + map pages
Kristiansen, H. (1989): Birkeland sinkgruver i Sauda- en ny turistattraksjon. NAGS-nytt 16 (4), 18-19
Andersson, M.; Cook, N. J.; Korneliussen , A. & Ottesen, R. T. (2004): Saudaprosjektet -Tipp Raundalen. Mulige miljøkonsekvenser ved deponering av sinkholdig malm. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse. Rapport 2004-029

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