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Flåt Nickel Mines, Flåt, Evje og Hornnes, Aust-Agder, Norwayi
Regional Level Types
Flåt Nickel MinesGroup of Mines
FlåtFarm
Evje og HornnesMunicipality
Aust-AgderCounty
NorwayCountry

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Aerial picture of the smelter "Evje Nikkelverk"

Flåt Nickel Mines, Flåt, Evje og Hornnes, Aust-Agder, Norway
View from the mine over the Setesdal valley.

Flåt Nickel Mines, Flåt, Evje og Hornnes, Aust-Agder, Norway
Aerial picture of the smelter "Evje Nikkelverk"

Flåt Nickel Mines, Flåt, Evje og Hornnes, Aust-Agder, Norway
View from the mine over the Setesdal valley.

Flåt Nickel Mines, Flåt, Evje og Hornnes, Aust-Agder, Norway
Aerial picture of the smelter "Evje Nikkelverk"

Flåt Nickel Mines, Flåt, Evje og Hornnes, Aust-Agder, Norway
View from the mine over the Setesdal valley.

Flåt Nickel Mines, Flåt, Evje og Hornnes, Aust-Agder, Norway
Name in Norwegian:Flåt nikkelgruver, Flåt, Evje og Hornnes, Aust-Agder, Norge
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 58° 35' 56'' North , 7° 52' 12'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 58.59905,7.87026
GeoHash:G#: u4mt75dun
Locality type:Group of Mines
Köppen climate type:Dfc : Subarctic climate
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Byglandsfjord332 (2014)8.2km
Birkeland2,254 (2010)36.5km
Vennesla10,931 (2014)37.2km
Tveit1,397 (2010)43.2km
Justvik1,630 (2014)45.7km


When the demand for nickel increased in the second half of the 19th century, several copper deposits hosted in amphibolite were tested for the presence of nickel.
Some time around 1870 nickel was found in the copper ore of a small copper mine, locally called the Kobberhola, situated at the Myklåsen, not far from a tiny hamlet by the name of Evje. In 1872 mining commenced and during three periods of mining, 3,2 million tonnes of ore were mined.

During a short period the Flåt nickel mine was the largest in its kind in the world, and somewhat longer the largest in Europe. From this ore 20.000 tonnes of nickel and 16.500 tonnes of copper were extracted. In addition some cobalt, gold, platinum and palladium were extracted.
During the Second World War the German occupants exhausted the mine, and the mine was closed for good in 1946.

The mine reached a depth of 422 m, actually below the sea level. An extension of the ore body is present at greater depth, but it is not known if this deposit is economic.

The smelter near the Fennefossen waterfall near the centre of Evje produced an intermediate product, comprising a mix of nickel and copper. This was called "nikkelmatte". The "nikkelmatte" was sent to Kristiansand for further processing in a factory called Falconbridge, a Canadian company involved in the mining and processing of ore in the Sudbury area.
This factory still exists under the name Glencore Nikkel AS, and is a major producer of nickel in the world. However, all the ore is mined and processed elsewhere and the facty processes only the intermediate product, the "nikkelmatte", also called matte.

Here is a nice presentation of the refining processes: http://www.nikkelverk.no/no/OmOss/produksjon/Pages/flytskjema.aspx
Nickel, copper and cobalt are the main products, but additionally gold and platina group metals are produced.

The nickel mine is directly responable for the extensive mining of feldspar in this municipality and neighbouring municipality Iveland.
At first sand was used in the smelting processes, but in 1844 it was decided to use "krystallkvarts", in plain language quartz.

It was already known that in the area around the mine several pegmatites outcropped. Access to plentiful of quartz was thereby secured. The mining of feldspar was to begin with not economic, due to the high cost of transportation to the nearest harbour, Kristiansand.
When in 1896 a railroad connection with Kristiansand was opened, the mining of feldspar became economic.

Around 150 feldspar/quartz quarries and mines have been in operation in the Evje og Hornnes municipality in the period from 1844 and now. Today only two quarries are in operation, mining small amounts of ultra pure feldspar for dental applications.

Thanks to the Flåt nickel mine and all the pegmatite quarries, Evje could grow out to become a regional center and a popular place for tourists.

During the period 2004-2012 the upper parts of the old mine were accessible for tourists, but due to high expenses the proprietor had to shut down the mine.

The mine is located near Evje Mineral Trail, and the road is signposted.

The coordinates are for the entrance of the old Flåt nickel mine. The new mine was 245 m SSW of this one.

For collectors who can read norwegian, there is a set of 3 books available about the history of this mine, written by local historian Sigmund Monen: Gruvedrifrt og Nikkelindustri i Setesdal - Arbeidsfolk fortell m.m.

All in all around 1500 pages and plenty of pictures! It can be obtained by contacting the Evje og Hornnes municipality at: post@e-h.kommune.no


Coordinates © Kartverket - https://www.kartverket.no

Regions containing this locality

Eurasian PlateTectonic Plate
EuropeContinent
Fennoscandian ShieldShield
ScandinaviaRegion

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


18 valid minerals. 1 erroneous literature entry.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

'Apatite'
Reference: Frigstad, O.F. (1985): Flåt gruver. Sørlandets Geologiforening 15 år. p. 40-45
Boothite
Formula: CuSO4 · 7H2O
Description: Boothite occured on the walls and in loose rocks inside on of the mining buildings, where a roof took in water. It was first identified at the Natural History Museum, Oslo, film 22215. Reinvestigation of the results showed that the film corresponded more with melanterite than boothite. (pers. Com Gunnar Raade 18.04.1988 (Interne Notater s 137)
Reference: Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p.109 + pers. Commentary Gunnar Raade 18.04.1988
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Frigstad, O.F. (1985): Flåt gruver. Sørlandets Geologiforening 15 år. p. 40-45
'Chabazite'
Reference: Frigstad, O.F. (1985): Flåt gruver. Sørlandets Geologiforening 15 år. p. 40-45
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p. 28
'Electrum' ?
Formula: (Au, Ag)
Description: Six grains (to 0,1 mm) found by Schönwandt, and containing 16% Ag, and it s probably electrum (Neumann 1985).
Reference: Schønwandt, H. Kr. V. (1974): Contributions to the mineralogy of Norway, No. 56. Gold from Flåt. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift. 54, 63-68.; Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p.8
Fluorapophyllite-(K)
Formula: KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
Reference: Larsen, A.O.(1980): Fluorapofyllitt og hydroksyapofyllitt. NAGS-nytt 7(2),36-37
'Garnierite'
Reference: Frigstad, O.F. (1985): Flåt gruver. Sørlandets Geologiforening 15 år. p. 40-45
Gold
Formula: Au
Reference: Schønwandt, H. Kr. V. (1974): Contributions to the mineralogy of Norway, No. 56. Gold from Flåt. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift. 54, 63-68
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68 p. 28.
Heulandite-Ca
Formula: (Ca,Na)5(Si27Al9)O72 · 26H2O
Reference: Nordrum, F. S. ; Larsen, A. O. & Erambert, M. (2003): Minerals of the heulandite series in Norway - a progress report. Norsk Bergverksmuseum skrift 25: 51-62
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Reference: Koning, L.P.G. (1947): On linnaeite in the Flaad nickel ore deposit, Evje, South Norway. Proc. Kon.Nederland,Akad. Wetensch. 50, 307-314.
Laumontite
Formula: CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Reference: Frigstad, O.F. (1985): Flåt gruver. Sørlandets Geologiforening 15 år. p. 40-45
Linnaeite ?
Formula: Co2+Co3+2S4
Description: The mineral is not investigated good enough to be shure it's linnaeite, but it belong to the linnaeite group.
Reference: Koning, L.P.G. (1947): On linnaeite in the Flaad nickel ore deposit, Evje, South Norway. Proc. Kon.Nederland,Akad. Wetensch. 50, 307-314.
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Bjørlykke, H. (1947): Flåt nickel mine. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse. 168b, 1-39
Melanterite
Formula: Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Description: First descruibed as boothite, but reinvestigation of the results showed it to be melanterite
Reference: Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p.109 + Pers. Commmentary Gunnar Raade 18.04.1988
Millerite
Formula: NiS
Habit: Short prismatic
Description: Occure in zones close to younger pegmatites that have metamorphed the ore.
Reference: Bjørlykke, H. (1940): Milleritt i norske nikkelmalmer. Kongelige Norske Videnskapernes Selskap, Forhandlinger. 13, 181-182
Pentlandite
Formula: (FexNiy)Σ9S8
Reference: Koning, L.P.G. (1947): On linnaeite in the Flaad nickel ore deposit, Evje, South Norway. Proc. Kon.Nederland,Akad. Wetensch. 50, 307-314.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Habit: (111), sometime corners cut of by (100).
Reference: Bjørlykke, H. (1947): Flåt nickel mine. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse. 168b, 1-39.
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Reference: Koning, L.P.G. (1947): On linnaeite in the Flaad nickel ore deposit, Evje, South Norway. Proc. Kon.Nederland,Akad. Wetensch. 50, 307-314.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Frigstad, O.F. (1985): Flåt gruver. Sørlandets Geologiforening 15 år. p. 40-45
'Stilbite subgroup'
Reference: Frigstad, O.F. (1985): Flåt gruver. Sørlandets Geologiforening 15 år. p. 40-45
Violarite
Formula: Fe2+Ni3+2S4
Reference: Bjørlykke, H. (1947): Flåt nickel mine. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse. 168b, 1-39.
Vivianite
Formula: Fe2+3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Reference: Frigstad, O.F. (1985): Flåt gruver. Sørlandets Geologiforening 15 år. p. 40-45

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
'Electrum' ?1.AA.05(Au, Ag)
Gold1.AA.05Au
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Linnaeite ?2.DA.05Co2+Co3+2S4
Millerite2.CC.20NiS
Pentlandite2.BB.15(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Violarite2.DA.05Fe2+Ni3+2S4
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Ilmenite4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Boothite ?7.CB.35CuSO4 · 7H2O
Melanterite7.CB.35Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Vivianite8.CE.40Fe2+3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Fluorapophyllite-(K)9.EA.15KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
Heulandite-Ca9.GE.05(Ca,Na)5(Si27Al9)O72 · 26H2O
Laumontite9.GB.10CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-
'Chabazite'-
'Garnierite'-
'Stilbite subgroup'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 9:8
Pentlandite2.7.1.1(FexNiy)Σ9S8
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Millerite2.8.16.1NiS
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:4
Linnaeite ?2.10.1.1Co2+Co3+2S4
Violarite2.10.1.8Fe2+Ni3+2S4
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Boothite ?29.6.10.2CuSO4 · 7H2O
Melanterite29.6.10.1Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
A3(XO4)2·xH2O
Vivianite40.3.6.1Fe2+3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Group 72 - PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 3-, 4-, or 5-membered rings and 8-membered rings
Fluorapophyllite-(K)72.3.1.1KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
Heulandite-Ca77.1.4.1(Ca,Na)5(Si27Al9)O72 · 26H2O
Laumontite77.1.1.4CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Apatite'-
'Chabazite'-
'Electrum' ?-(Au, Ag)
'Garnierite'-
'Stilbite subgroup'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Fluorapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
H MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
H Heulandite-Ca(Ca,Na)5(Si27Al9)O72 · 26H2O
H VivianiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 8H2O
H LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
H BoothiteCuSO4 · 7H2O
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
OOxygen
O Fluorapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
O MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O HematiteFe2O3
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O Heulandite-Ca(Ca,Na)5(Si27Al9)O72 · 26H2O
O VivianiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 8H2O
O QuartzSiO2
O CalciteCaCO3
O LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
O BoothiteCuSO4 · 7H2O
FFluorine
F Fluorapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
NaSodium
Na Heulandite-Ca(Ca,Na)5(Si27Al9)O72 · 26H2O
AlAluminium
Al Heulandite-Ca(Ca,Na)5(Si27Al9)O72 · 26H2O
Al LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
SiSilicon
Si Fluorapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
Si Heulandite-Ca(Ca,Na)5(Si27Al9)O72 · 26H2O
Si QuartzSiO2
Si LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
PPhosphorus
P VivianiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 8H2O
SSulfur
S Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
S MilleriteNiS
S ViolariteFe2+Ni23+S4
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S PyriteFeS2
S LinnaeiteCo2+Co23+S4
S BoothiteCuSO4 · 7H2O
KPotassium
K Fluorapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
CaCalcium
Ca Fluorapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
Ca Heulandite-Ca(Ca,Na)5(Si27Al9)O72 · 26H2O
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
TiTitanium
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
FeIron
Fe Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Fe ViolariteFe2+Ni23+S4
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Fe VivianiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 8H2O
CoCobalt
Co LinnaeiteCo2+Co23+S4
NiNickel
Ni Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Ni MilleriteNiS
Ni ViolariteFe2+Ni23+S4
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu BoothiteCuSO4 · 7H2O
AgSilver
Ag Electrum(Au, Ag)
AuGold
Au GoldAu
Au Electrum(Au, Ag)

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Proterozoic
541 - 2500 Ma



ID: 3186372
Proterozoic crystalline metamorphic rocks

Age: Proterozoic (541 - 2500 Ma)

Lithology: Granitoid gneiss; orthogneiss/paragneiss

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Mesoproterozoic
1000 - 1600 Ma



ID: 3157897
Proterozoic II granite

Age: Mesoproterozoic (1000 - 1600 Ma)

Lithology: Major:{granite}, Minor{monzonite,meta-granite,meta-monzonite}

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Bjørlykke, H. (1940): Milleritt i norske nikkelmalmer. Kongelige Norske Videnskapernes Selskap, Forhandlinger. 13: 181-182
Bjørlykke, H. (1947): Flåt nickel mine. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse. 168b, 1-39.
Koning, L.P.G. (1947): On linnaeite in the Flaad nickel ore deposit, Evje, South Norway. Proc. Kon.Nederland, Akad. Wetensch. 50, 307-314.
Schønwandt, H. Kr. V. (1974): Contributions to the mineralogy of Norway, No. 56. Gold from Flåt. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift. 54, 63-68
Frigstad, O.F. (1985): Flåt gruver. Sørlandets Geologiforening 15 år. p. 40-45. [published for the Sørlandet Geologcal Society anniversary in 1985]
Nordrum, F. S. , Larsen, A. O. & Erambert, M. (2003): Minerals of the heulandite series in Norway - a progress report. Norsk Bergverksmuseum skrift 25: 51-62 [with analysis on heulandite-Ca]
Monen, S. (2016): Gruvedrift og nikkelindustri i Setesdal. Arbeidsfolk fortel m.m. Box with 3 books, Evje og Hornnes kommune. ISBN Samlekassett: 978-82-690462-0-5

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