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Hindukush Himalayan Region, Asiai
Regional Level Types
Hindukush Himalayan RegionGroup of Mountain Ranges
AsiaContinent

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Key
Locality type:
Largest Settlements:
PlacePopulation
Kunming3,855,346 (2014)
Kabul3,043,532 (2018)
Kathmandu1,442,271 (2015)
Srinagar975,857 (2015)
Muzaffarābād725,000 (2014)
Battagram700,000 (2016)
Other/historical names associated with this locality:
HKH; Hindukush-Himalaya


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Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded from this region.


Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

597 valid minerals. 29 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals. 2 (FRL) - first recorded locality of unapproved mineral/variety/etc. 6 erroneous literature entries.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

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Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

''
Localities:
Acanthite
Formula: Ag2S
Localities: Reported from at least 18 localities in this region.
Actinolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 71 localities in this region.
Aegirine
Formula: NaFe3+Si2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Aegirine-augite
Formula: (NaaCabFe2+cMgd)(Fe3+eAlfFe2+gMgh)Si2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Aenigmatite
Formula: Na4[Fe2+10Ti2]O4[Si12O36]
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189
'Aeschynite'
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189
Afghanite (TL)
Formula: (Na,K)22Ca10(Si24Al24O96)(SO4)6Cl6
Habit: terminated hexagonal prisms
Colour: colourless, white, blue grey, blue
Fluorescence: yellow. orange in LW
Reference: Bariand,P. Cesbron, F. & Giraud, R. (1968): Une nouvelle espèce minérale: l`afghanite de Sar-e-sang, Badakhshan, Afghanistan. Comparaison avec les minéraux du groupe de la cancrinite. Bulletin de la Société Francaise de Minéralogie et Christallographie. 91:34-42; Canadian Mineralogist (1979) 17:47-52
Aikinite
Formula: PbCuBiS3
Reference: Lijuan Ying, Denghong Wang, Juxing Tang, Huan Wang, Zhenyu Chen, Wenbao Zheng, and Fengji Li (2010): Journal of Jilin University, Earth Science Edition 55(4),801-809; Wenbao Zheng, Juxing Tang, Fengji Li, Lijuan Ying, Huan Wang, and Xiaoqian Tang (2011): Geological Journal of China Universities 17(2), 337-350; Zhenghua Hu, Juxing Tang, Feng Ding, Wenbao Zheng, Shilin Deng, Yi Yang, Zhi Zhang, Yiyun Wang, Bin Lin, and Shuai Ding (2011): Acta Geoscientica Sinica 32(6), 668-680
'Aikinite-Bismuthinite Series'
Reference: Kouzmanov, K., I. K. Bonev, R. D. Vassileva (2009): Moraine-hosted Cu-Bi-mineralization from the Modi-Khola valley, southwestern flank of Annapurna-III, central Himalaya. Geochem., Mineral. and Petrol., 47, 11-30.
Åkermanite
Formula: Ca2Mg(Si2O7)
Reference: Xiyue Wang, Huimin Zhang, Sichao Wang, and Yuezhen Wu (1987): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 6(4), 296-306
Aktashite
Formula: Cu6Hg3As4S12
Reference: http://www.idm.gov.vn/Nguon_luc/Xuat_ban/2004/B23/b42.htm
Alabandite
Formula: MnS
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 261 localities in this region.
Albite var: Andesine
Formula: (Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Albite var: Cleavelandite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 28 localities in this region.
Albite var: Low Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: RWMW Collection
Albite var: Oligoclase
Formula: (Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Albite var: Oligoclase-Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Shihong Tian, Zhongxin Yuan, Guilan Zhang, Zengqian Hou, Tiping Ding, Ge Bai, Tianren Zou, and Yuling Xie (2006): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 25(2), 110-118
Albite var: Pericline
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
'Albite-Anorthite Series'
Localities: Reported from at least 32 localities in this region.
'Alkali Feldspar'
Reference: Melluso, L., Srivastava, R. K., Guarino, V., Zanetti, A., & Sinha, A. K. (2010). Mineral compositions and petrogenetic evolution of the ultramafic-alkaline–carbonatitic complex of Sung Valley, northeastern India. The Canadian Mineralogist, 48(1), 205-229.
Allanite-(Ce)
Formula: {CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
'Allanite Group'
Formula: {A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Alleghanyite
Formula: Mn2+5(SiO4)2(OH)2
Allendeite
Formula: Sc4Zr3O12
Reference: Wang, Y. & Hsu, W. (2009). Petrology and Mineralogy of the Ningqiang carbonaceous chondrite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science Vol. 44, #5, 763-780. (May 2009).
Allophane
Formula: (Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Almandine
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Localities: Reported from at least 31 localities in this region.
'Almandine-Pyrope Series'
Reference: Jingsui Yang, Shuguang Song, Zhiqin Xu, Fulai Liu, Shigenori Maruyama, Liou, J.G., Jianxin Zhang, Cailai Wu, Haibing Li, and Rendeng Shi (2001): Presented at the 11th Annual V.M. Goldschmidt Conference, Abstract no. 3088.; American Mineralogist, Volume 94, pages 222–228, 2009
'Almandine-Spessartine Series'
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Altaite
Formula: PbTe
Reference: Zhimin Cao (1991): Journal of Chengdu College of Technology 18(4), 26-36
'Alum Group'
Formula: XAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Aluminium
Formula: Al
Reference: Wenji Bai, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Binggan Yan, and Zhongming Zhang (2001): Earth Science Frontiers 8(3), 111-121
Alum-(K) ?
Formula: KAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
Reference: M. Qasim Jan, P.S.B. Colback & Masood Ahmad , (1985) Low-temperature Secondary Minerals from Tarbela. Geol. Bull. Univ. Peshawar, 18:189-197
Alumohydrocalcite
Formula: CaAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · 4H2O
Reference: Handbook of Mineralogy
Alunite
Formula: KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Amblygonite
Formula: LiAl(PO4)F
'Amblygonite-Montebrasite Series'
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110.
'Amphibole Supergroup'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Localities: Reported from at least 28 localities in this region.
'Amphibole Supergroup var: Byssolite'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
'Amphibole Supergroup var: Uralite'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Analcime
Formula: Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Reference: Siping Liao, Zhenhua Chen, Xiaochuan Luo, and Aijian Zhou (2002): Geological Bulletin of China 21(11), 735-738
Anatase
Formula: TiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Andalusite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
'Andorite'
Formula: AgPbSb3S6
Reference: Jianfang Zhang, Youye Zheng, Gangyang Zhang, Shunbao Gao, Xianren Ye, Zhong Zhang, Minyuan Liu, and Jiqiu Li (2010): Earth Science - Journal of China University of Geosciences 35(6), 1000-1010; Wei Liang, Yuanchuan Zheng, Zhusen Yang, Zhenqing Li, Yingchao Liu, Yunfei Liu, Qiuyun Li, Qingzhong Sun, Qiang Fu, and Zengqian Hou (2014): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 33(1), 64-78; Bin Lin, Juxing Tang, Wenbao Zheng, Qiufeng Leng, Yiyun Wang, MinYuan Liu, Huanhuan Yang, Shuai Ding, Lihua Zhang, and Hongzhang Yang (2013): Mineral Deposits 32(5), 899-914
Andradite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Localities: Reported from at least 28 localities in this region.
'Andradite-Grossular Series'
Anduoite (TL)
Formula: (Ru,Os)As2
Type Locality:
Reference: Yu, T., and Chou, H. (1979): Kexue Tongbao 15, 704-708.
Angelellite
Formula: Fe3+4(AsO4)2O3
Reference: Suiliang Dong, Hanxiao Huang, Bo Liu, Li Zhang, and Hui Zhang (2010): Geology and Exploration 46(2), 207-213; Yunfei Liu, Zhiming Yang, Yuling Xie, Ping Zhou, Denghu Du, Yingxu Li, Qiuyun Li, Huanchun Qu, and Bo Xu (2012): Mineral Deposits 31(4), 727-744
Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Localities: Reported from at least 18 localities in this region.
Anhydrite
Formula: CaSO4
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Localities: Reported from at least 45 localities in this region.
Annabergite
Formula: Ni3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Reference: Dill, H. G., Weber, B., & Botz, R. (2013). Metalliferous duricrusts. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Abhandlungen: Journal of Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 190(2), 123-195.
Annite
Formula: KFe2+3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Melluso, L., Srivastava, R. K., Guarino, V., Zanetti, A., & Sinha, A. K. (2010). Mineral compositions and petrogenetic evolution of the ultramafic-alkaline–carbonatitic complex of Sung Valley, northeastern India. The Canadian Mineralogist, 48(1), 205-229.
Anorthite
Formula: Ca(Al2Si2O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Anorthite var: Bytownite
Formula: (Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si2O8]
Anorthite var: Labradorite
Formula: (Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si2O8]
Reference: Huiwen Liu, Xueping Wang, Ji Shao, Kesi Lu, Fanglian Tian, and Shuya Xiong (2014): Mineral Deposits 33(1), 87-103
'Anorthoclase'
Formula: (Na,K)AlSi3O8
Antigorite
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Antimonselite
Formula: Sb2Se3
Antimony
Formula: Sb
Antimony var: Bismuthian Antimony
Formula: (Sb,Bi)
Reference: Guangfu Zou, Shihua Hu, Dequan Shuai, Caijin Chen, Hongchang Jiang, and Quan Liu (2002): Mineral Deposits 21(suppl.), 804-807; Quan Liu (2003): Mineral Deposits 22(2), 121-128; Hanlong Ying, Denghong Wang, and Xiaofang Fu (2006): Mineral Deposits 25(2), 135-146
Antlerite
Formula: Cu3(SO4)(OH)4
Reference: Dill, H. G., Weber, B., & Botz, R. (2013). Metalliferous duricrusts. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Abhandlungen: Journal of Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 190(2), 123-195.
'Apatite'
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 94 localities in this region.
'Apatite var: Collophane'
Aphthitalite
Formula: (K,Na)3Na(SO4)2
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 19 localities in this region.
Arfvedsonite
Formula: [Na][Na2][Fe2+4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
'Argentine'
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Chenghua Zhang and Guodong Ji (1983): Geology and Prospecting 19(9), 15-20, 40
Armalcolite
Formula: (Mg,Fe2+)Ti2O5
Reference: Lin, Y. T. & Kimura, M. (1996). Discovery of Complex Titanium Oxide Associations in a Plagioclase-Olivine Inclusion (POI) in the Ningqiang Carbonaceous Chondrite. Lunar and Planetary Science, vol. 27, pages 755-756. (1996).
Arsenic
Formula: As
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Localities: Reported from at least 145 localities in this region.
Arsenopyrite var: Danaite
Formula: (Fe0.90Co0.10)AsS - (Fe0.65Co0.35)AsS
'Asbestos'
Localities: Reported from at least 19 localities in this region.
Aspidolite
Formula: NaMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Garnier, V., Giuliani, G., Ohnenstetter, D., Fallick, A.E., Dubessy, J., Banks, D., Vinh, H.Q., Lhomme, T., Maluski, H., Pêcher, A., Bakhsh, K.A., Long, P.V., Trinh, P.T., and Schwarz, D. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 169-191.
Astrophyllite
Formula: K2NaFe2+7Ti2Si8O28(OH)4F
Atheneite
Formula: Pd2As0.75Hg0.25
Reference: Miller, D., & Loucks, R. R. (1991). Platinum-group Element Mineralization in the Jijal Layered Ultramafic-mafic Complex, Pakistani Himalayas. Economic Geology, 86:1093-1102.
Augite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Augite var: Fassaite
Formula: (Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Augite var: Soda-Augite
Reference: Eur. J. Mineral. , 1991, 3, pp. 613-618.
Aurostibite
Formula: AuSb2
Reference: Minghua Zheng, Jiajun Liu, Jianming Liu, and Wenquan Lu (1993): Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology 13(2)
Autunite
Formula: Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
Avdeevite (TL)
Formula: (Na,Cs)(Be2Li)Al2(Si6O18)
Type Locality:
Reference: Agakhanov, A.A., Stepanenko, D.A., Zubkova, N.V., Pekov, I.V., Pautov, L.A., Kasatkin, A.V., Karpenko, V.Y., Agakhanova, V.A., Škoda, R. and Britvin, S.N. (2019) Avdeevite, IMA 2018-109. CNMNC Newsletter No. 47, February 2019, page 199; European Journal of Mineralogy, 31: 199–204.
Avicennite
Formula: Tl2O3
Reference: Shuihe Mao, Wenquan Lu, Youfu Yang, and Yongming Wu (1989): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 9(3), 253-256
Awaruite
Formula: Ni3Fe
Axinite-(Fe)
Formula: Ca2Fe2+Al2BSi4O15OH
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
'Axinite Group'
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 88 localities in this region.
Baotite
Formula: Ba4Ti8Si4O28Cl
Colour: black-greenish yellow
Description: A very small number of crystals were found by Herb Obodda at Zagi Mountain, though these examples rival those from the species' type locality at Baotou
Reference: The Mineralogical Record, Volume 35 Number 3, p. 212
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Localities: Reported from at least 118 localities in this region.
Baryte var: Strontian Baryte
Formula: (Ba,Sr)SO4
Reference: Niu Hecai, Shan Qiang, Chen Xiaoming, and Zhang Haixiang (2003): Science in China, Series D (Earth Sciences), 46(Suppl.), 41-49.
Bassanite
Formula: Ca(SO4) · 0.5H2O
Reference: Botao Li, Yuanyi Zhao, Zuohua Qian, Pengcheng Jiao, Chenglin Liu, and Shijun Wang (2010): Mineral Deposits 29(4), 669-683
'Bastnäsite'
Bastnäsite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce(CO3)F
Bastnäsite-(La)
Formula: La(CO3)F
Reference: Herb Obodda
Bavenite
Formula: Ca4Be2Al2Si9O26(OH)2
'Beegerite'
Formula: Pb6Bi2S9
Bementite
Formula: Mn7Si6O15(OH)8
Berthierite
Formula: FeSb2S4
Reference: Houmin Li, Yuanchao Shen, Zhengguo Hu, and Zhuangzhi Qian (2001): Geology and Prospecting 37(1), 65-69; Changyi Zou and Changyi Shi (2004): Geology in China 31(4), 420-423; Wenkai Ren, Shaofeng Wu, Qiang Ma, Haiqing Zhang, and Hongmei Wu (2012): Gansu Science and Technology 28(16), 28-30, 55
Bertrandite
Formula: Be4(Si2O7)(OH)2
Reference: Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut); Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 36, Part 1, 1998, pp. 1-47.
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Localities: Reported from at least 147 localities in this region.
Beryl var: Alkali-beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Beryl var: Aquamarine
Formula: Be3Al2Si6O18
Localities: Reported from at least 73 localities in this region.
Beryl var: Emerald
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Localities: Reported from at least 24 localities in this region.
Beryl var: Goshenite
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Localities: Reported from at least 19 localities in this region.
Beryl var: Heliodor
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Description: Note that recent information suggests that it is highly likely that all Pakistani Heliodor specimens are irradiated Aquamarine.
Reference: Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut); Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut)
Beryl var: Morganite
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Beryllonite
Formula: NaBePO4
Berzelianite
Formula: Cu2Se
Reference: Minzhi Yang (2000): Bulletin of Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry 19(4), 381-383; Caixia Feng, Jiajun Liu, and Shen Liu (2002): Mineral Deposits 21(suppl.), 812-815; Hanjie Wen, Yuzhuo Qiu, and Shirong Liu (2003): Geochimica 32(1), 21-28
Billwiseite (TL)
Formula: Sb3+5Nb3WO18
Type Locality:
Reference: Hawthorne, F.C., Cámara, F., Cooper, M.A., Ball, N.A., Černý, P. and Laurs, B.M. (2011) Billwiseite, IMA 2010-053. CNMNC Newsletter No. 9, August 2011, page 2535; Mineralogical Magazine, 75, 2535-2540; Hawthorne, F.C., Cooper, M.A., Ball, N.A., Abdu, Y.A., Černý, P., Cámara, F., Laurs, B.M. (2012): Billwiseite, ideally Sb3+5Nb3WO18, a new oxide mineral species from the Stak Nala pegmatite, Nanga Parba – Haramosh massif, Pakistan: description and crystal structure. Canadian Mineralogist, 50, 805-814.
'Biotite'
Formula: K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Localities: Reported from at least 144 localities in this region.
Birnessite
Formula: (Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Reference: Yuchun Yang (1990): Geology and Prospecting 26(8), 20-23
Bischofite
Formula: MgCl2 · 6H2O
Bismite
Formula: Bi2O3
Reference: Liangsheng Ge, Hanguang Li, Keqiang Wang, Yilin Zou, Zhihua Wang, Xuejun Zhang, Shisong Yuan, and Junbing Xing (2006): Mineral Deposits 25(suppl.), 345-348; Zhihua Wang, Xingquan Wu, Keqiang Wang, Wanqiang Yu, Hui Huang, and Dexi Ma (2007): Geology and Prospecting 43(3), 6-10
Bismuth
Formula: Bi
Localities: Reported from at least 14 localities in this region.
Bismuthinite
Formula: Bi2S3
Localities: Reported from at least 18 localities in this region.
Bismutite
Formula: (BiO)2CO3
'Bitumen'
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Blödite
Formula: Na2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Böhmite
Formula: AlO(OH)
Borax (TL)
Formula: Na2(B4O5)(OH)4 · 8H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 19 localities in this region.
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 340.
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Localities: Reported from at least 135 localities in this region.
Borovskite
Formula: Pd3SbTe4
Reference: Yao, Y., and Viljoen, M.J. (2003): Goldschmidt Conference Abstracts 2003, A560
Boulangerite
Formula: Pb5Sb4S11
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Bournonite
Formula: PbCuSbS3
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Braunite
Formula: Mn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
'Bravoite'
Formula: (Fe,Ni)S2
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
'Bravoite var: Hengleinite'
Formula: (Ni,Fe,Co)S2
Reference: Duan Guolian (1991): Geology and Prospecting 27(2), 20-24
Breithauptite
Formula: NiSb
Britholite-(Ce)
Formula: (Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Brookite
Formula: TiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Brucite
Formula: Mg(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
'Bursaite'
Formula: Pb5Bi4S11 (?)
Reference: Hanlong Ying, Denghong Wang, and Xiaofang Fu (2006): Mineral Deposits 25(2), 135-146
'Caichengyunite' (FRL)
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SO4)6 · 30H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Am.Min. 89,894(2004)
Calaverite
Formula: AuTe2
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 358 localities in this region.
Calcite var: Ferroan Calcite
Formula: (Ca,Fe)CO3
Calcite var: Iceland Spar
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Calcite var: Manganoan Calcite
Formula: (Ca,Mn)CO3
Cancrinite
Formula: (Na,Ca,☐)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
Canfieldite
Formula: Ag8SnS6
Reference: Zhixing Feng, Xinbiao Lü, and Tao Wang (2010): Geology and Exploration 46(4), 628-633; Zhixing Feng, Xinbiao Lü, and Tao Wang (2011): Mineral Deposits 30(3), 469-476
Carnallite
Formula: KMgCl3 · 6H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Carrollite
Formula: Cu(Co,Ni)2S4
Reference: Zhang Dequan, Wang Yan, Feng Chengyou, Li Daxin, Yan Shenghao, and Cui Yanhe (2002): Mineral Deposits 21(3), 213-222
Caryopilite
Formula: Mn2+3Si2O5(OH)4
Reference: Yang Yuchun (1996): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 15(2), 186-190
Cassiterite
Formula: SnO2
Localities: Reported from at least 115 localities in this region.
Cattierite
Formula: CoS2
Reference: Houmin Li, Yuanchao Shen, and Zhengguo Hu (2000): Bulletin of Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry 19(4), 321-322; Zhang Dequan, Wang Yan, Feng Chengyou, Li Daxin, Yan Shenghao, and Cui Yanhe (2002): Mineral Deposits 21(3), 213-222
Celestine
Formula: SrSO4
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Celestine var: Barian Celestine
Formula: (Sr,Ba)SO4
Reference: Congde Chen and Guangping Pu (1991): Geology and Prospecting 27(5), 18-23
Celsian
Formula: Ba(Al2Si2O8)
Reference: Can. J. Earth Sci. 44: 479–492 (2007)
Cerianite-(Ce)
Formula: (Ce4+,Th)O2
Reference: Zhang Peishan, Yang Zhuming, Tao Kejie, and Yang Xueming (1996): "Mineralogy and Geology of Rare Earths in China", Science Press (Beijing), 226 pp.; Yuling Xie, Zengqian Hou, Jiuhua Xu, Zhongxin Yuan, Ge Bai, and Xiaoyu Li (2005): Science in China, Series D (Earth Sciences) 35(6), 572-577
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 28 localities in this region.
Cervantite
Formula: Sb3+Sb5+O4
Reference: Yi Yang, Xuanhua Chen, Hong Ji, Qiang Li, and Rui Wang (2006): Xinjiang Geology 24(3), 261-266
Chalcanthite
Formula: CuSO4 · 5H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Localities: Reported from at least 95 localities in this region.
Chalcophyllite
Formula: Cu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
Colour: Bluish Green
Fluorescence: No Fluorescence under LWUV
Reference: Sapphirious Collection
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Localities: Reported from at least 430 localities in this region.
Chalcostibite
Formula: CuSbS2
Chamosite
Formula: (Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Chevkinite-(Ce)
Formula: (Ce,La,Ca,Th)4(Fe2+,Mg)(Fe2+,Ti,Fe3+)2(Ti,Fe3+)2(Si2O7)2O8
Childrenite
Formula: Fe2+Al(PO4)(OH)2 · H2O
Reference: Lyckberg, P. (2011): Edelstein-Pegmatite in Afghanistan: Paprok. Mineralien-Welt. 22 (3): 46-57
'Childrenite-Eosphorite Series'
Reference: William A. Thomas Collection
Chlorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3Cl
Chlorargyrite
Formula: AgCl
Reference: Jiajun Liu, Degao Zhai, Zhiming Li, Mingqin He, Yuping Liu, and Chaoyang Li (2010): Acta Petrologica Sinica 26(6), 1646-1660
'Chlorite Group'
Localities: Reported from at least 308 localities in this region.
'Chlorite Group var: Brunsvigite'
Formula: (Fe2+,Mg,Al)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8
Chloritoid
Formula: (Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Reference: Herb Obodda
Chondrodite
Formula: (Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
'Chrome-Spinel (of Dana)'
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Chromferide
Formula: Fe3Cr1-x (x=0.6)
Reference: Norman King specimen
Chromite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Localities: Reported from at least 43 localities in this region.
Chromite var: Ferrichromite
Formula: Fe2+(Cr3+,Fe3+)2O4
Reference: Jan, M. Q., & Khan, M. A. (1996). Petrology of gem peridot from Sapat mafic-ultramafic complex, Kohistan, NW Himalaya. Geological Bulletin, University of Peshawar, 29, 17-26.
Chromium (TL)
Formula: Cr
Reference: Mingyu Zhu and Yunxiang Liu (1981): Chinese Science Bulletin 26(11), 1014-1017
'Chromium-dravite'
Formula: Na(Mg3)Cr3+6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Description: Mentioned as inclusions in emeralds from this deposit. (extraLapis v.2, p.24)
Reference: [Emeralds of the World - p24 English extraLapis Vol2 2002]
Chrysoberyl
Formula: BeAl2O4
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Chrysoberyl var: Alexandrite
Formula: BeAl2O4
Reference: Themelis, Ted, 2008, Gems and Mines of Mogok.; Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Localities: Reported from at least 19 localities in this region.
'Chrysoprase'
Reference: Harald Schillhammer collection
Chrysotile
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Cinnabar
Formula: HgS
Localities: Reported from at least 74 localities in this region.
Clausthalite
Formula: PbSe
'Clays'
Localities: Reported from at least 27 localities in this region.
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Clinochlore var: Pennine
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: Changhua Huang, Chengjiang Zhang, and Zhiheng Liu (2010): Geoscience 24(1), 18-25
Clinochlore var: Pyknochlorite
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: Yushuai Yu, Zhusen Yang, Yingchao Liu, Shihong Tian, Can Zhao, Yuan Gao, Xianhua Ji, Weizheng Hu, and Shenghua Cao (2012): Mineral Deposits 31(4), 775-790
Clinochlore var: Ripidolite
Formula: (Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8
Reference: Zhi Zhang, Juxing Tang, Yuchuan Chen, Zhijun Li, Junlong Song, Xiaofeng Yao, Yi Yang, Zhenghua Hu, Wei Chen, and Hongxing Wang (2013): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 32(3), 305-317
Clinoenstatite
Formula: MgSiO3
Reference: P Haas collection; Thomas P.Moore (2016) Moore`s Compendium of Mineral Discoveries. Vol. 1, p.8
Clinohedrite
Formula: CaZn(SiO4) · H2O
Reference: Hanjie Wen, Carignan, J., Yuzhuo Qiu, and Shirong Liu (2006): Environmental Science and Technology 40(4), 1126-1132.
Clinohumite
Formula: Mg9(SiO4)4F2
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Clino-suenoite
Formula: □{Mn2+2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Clinozoisite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
'Clinozoisite-Epidote Series'
Reference: [www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]
Cobaltite
Formula: CoAsS
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Cobaltpentlandite
Formula: (Co,Ni,Fe)9S8
Coesite
Formula: SiO2
Coffinite
Formula: U(SiO4) · nH2O
Reference: K.K. Dwivedy (1993) Possibility Of New Uranium Discoveries In The Environs Of Domiasiat, Meghalaya, India. in IAEA-TECDOC-823 pp145-161
Colemanite
Formula: Ca[B3O4(OH)3] · H2O
Reference: Rathore, I.S. (2015) Exploration Potential and Economic Significance of Puga Valley Borax Deposit, Ladakh, India. International Journal for Scientific Research & Development 3:1, 191-195.
Columbite-(Fe)
Formula: Fe2+Nb2O6
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Columbite-(Mn)
Formula: Mn2+Nb2O6
'Columbite-Tantalite'
Localities: Reported from at least 28 localities in this region.
Colusite
Formula: Cu13VAs3S16
Conichalcite
Formula: CaCu(AsO4)(OH)
Reference: Mu Yang and Shenglin Peng (2006): Contributions to Geology and Mineral Resources Research 21(4), 227-231
Cookeite
Formula: (Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: Tom D. La Touche (1890): The sapphire mines of Kashmir, palagems.com reprinted from Records of the geological survey of India Vol 23, pt2, pp 59-69.
Copper
Formula: Cu
Localities: Reported from at least 23 localities in this region.
Copper var: Stanniferous Copper
Formula: (Cu,Sn)
Cordierite
Formula: (Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Cordierite var: Iolite
Formula: (Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Corundum
Formula: Al2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 79 localities in this region.
Corundum var: Ruby
Formula: Al2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 59 localities in this region.
Corundum var: Sapphire
Formula: Al2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 44 localities in this region.
Corundum var: Star Ruby
Formula: Al2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Corundum var: Star Sapphire
Formula: Al2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Cosalite
Formula: Pb2Bi2S5
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Localities: Reported from at least 90 localities in this region.
Covellite var: Selenian Covellite
Formula: Cu(S,Se)
Cristobalite
Formula: SiO2
'Crossite'
Reference: Kapp, P., Yin, A., Manning, C.E., Murphy, M., Harrison, T.M., Spurlin, M., Lin, D., Xiguang, D., and Cunming, W. (2000): Geology 28(1), 19-22.
Cryptomelane
Formula: K(Mn4+7Mn3+)O16
Reference: Xingyu Yang (1989): Geology and Prospecting 25(8), 23-27; Yuchun Yang (1990): Geology and Prospecting 26(8), 20-23
Cubanite
Formula: CuFe2S3
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Localities: Reported from at least 21 localities in this region.
Cuproauride ?
Formula: Cu3Au
Description: From the context of the paper, it is not entirely sure whether copper-gold minerals in general or cuproauride specifically are meant (while 铜金矿 is cuproauride, it also literally translates to copper-gold mineral).
Reference: Zhijun Li, Juxing Tang, Xiaofeng Yao, Ji Duo, Hongfei Liu, Shilin Deng, Zhi Zhang, Jinshu Zhang, and Zhenghua Hu (2011): Mineral Deposits 30(6), 1149-1153
Cuprocopiapite
Formula: CuFe4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Reference: Dill, H. G., Weber, B., & Botz, R. (2013). Metalliferous duricrusts. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Abhandlungen: Journal of Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 190(2), 123-195.
Cymrite
Formula: BaAl2Si2(O,OH)8 · H2O
Reference: Can. J. Earth Sci. 44: 479–492 (2007)
Danbaite (TL)
Formula: CuZn2
Type Locality:
Reference: American Mineralogist 69, 566 (1984)
Danburite
Formula: CaB2Si2O8
Localities: Reported from at least 14 localities in this region.
Delafossite
Formula: CuFeO2
'Delessite'
Formula: (Mg,Fe,Fe,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(O,OH)8
Reference: Miao Yu, Chengyou Feng, Guangying Bao, Hongchuan Liu, Yiming Zhao, Daxin Li, Ye Xiao, and Jiannan Liu (2013): Mineral Deposits 32(1), 55-76
Descloizite
Formula: PbZn(VO4)(OH)
Reference: Qingmin Jin, Huaguang Xie, and Wenguang Wang (1992): Volcanology and Mineral Resources 13(2), 48-58
Diamond
Formula: C
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Diaphorite
Formula: Ag3Pb2Sb3S8
Description: This mineral is reported as occurring here in the English abstract of the paper by Qu et al. (2001). However, the name used for this mineral in the Chinese text is 辉锑银铅矿, which translates as ramdohrite, and the analytical data also indicate ramdohrite rather than diaphorite (辉锑铅银矿). Note that the Chinese names only differ by the order of the characters 银 (silver) and 铅 (lead).
Reference: Xiaoming Qu, Qiling Zhang, Zengqian Hou, Yuanping Xu, and Jinzhong Li (2001): Mineral Deposits 20(3), 199-207
Diaspore
Formula: AlO(OH)
Reference: Ruijun Chen, Jingquan Zhu, Renwei Li, Hui Chen, Rufan Zhang, and Daxing Lin (1993): Acta Petrologica Sinica 9(1), 94-105
Dickite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Digenite
Formula: Cu9S5
Localities: Reported from at least 14 localities in this region.
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 127 localities in this region.
Diopside var: Chromian Diopside
Formula: Ca(Mg,Cr)Si2O6
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Localities: Reported from at least 173 localities in this region.
Dolomite var: Ferroan Dolomite
Formula: Ca(Mg,Fe)(CO3)2
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Dravite
Formula: Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
'Dravite-Schorl Series'
Reference: Xiangping Zhu, Mingjie Wang, Peng Yao, Jinsha Xu, Jianzhong Li, Minhua Chen, and Gaolin Tang (2008): Acta Petrologica Sinica 24(3), 562-568
'Dravite-Uvite Series'
Habit: trigonal prism
Colour: blue and green
Description: Ian Nicastro notes at https://www.mindat.org/forum.php?read,105,414229,414229,page=1#msg-414229 that "Dravite and Dravite-Uvite attributed to Koksha Valley are likely from Hazrat Saeed specifically, since multiple specimens attributed to Koksha Valley have turned up with both sapphire and blue dravite in the same mica matrix. And Hazrat Saeed appears to be the only Sapphire source in Koksha Valley."
Reference: https://www.gia.edu/gems-gemology/winter-2016-gemnews-blue-dravite-uvite-tourmaline-koksha-valley-afghanistan
Dyscrasite
Formula: Ag3Sb
Dzhalindite
Formula: In(OH)3
Reference: Yan Liu, Yuanyi Zhao, Ruijiang Wang, Yubin Cui, Liang Song, and Changqing Yang (2010): Mineral Deposits 29(6), 1054-1078
Eastonite
Formula: KMg2Al(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Reference: Xianfan Liu, Fufeng Zhao, Zhuan Tao, Xiangfeng Song, Yongwen Cai, and Feiyue Cai (2009): Mineral Deposits 28(2), 185-194
Edenite
Formula: {Na}{Ca2}{Mg5}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Ekanite
Formula: Ca2ThSi8O20
Reference: Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data, Sieghard Ellenberger specimens
Elbaite
Formula: Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 30 localities in this region.
Elbaite var: Chromian Elbaite
Formula: Na(Li1.5Al1.5)(Al,Cr)6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Reference: Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
'Elbaite-Schorl Series'
Reference: Jamison K. Brizendine collection
'Electrum'
Formula: (Au, Ag)
Localities: Reported from at least 52 localities in this region.
Emplectite
Formula: CuBiS2
Enargite
Formula: Cu3AsS4
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Enstatite
Formula: MgSiO3
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Enstatite var: Bronzite
Formula: (Mg,Fe2+)2[SiO3]2
Reference: Huiwen Liu, Xueping Wang, Ji Shao, Kesi Lu, Fanglian Tian, and Shuya Xiong (2014): Mineral Deposits 33(1), 87-103
Eosphorite
Formula: Mn2+Al(PO4)(OH)2 · H2O
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 158 localities in this region.
Epsomite
Formula: MgSO4 · 7H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Erlichmanite
Formula: OsS2
Erythrite
Formula: Co3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Euclase
Formula: BeAl(SiO4)(OH)
Reference: Themelis, Ted, 2008, Gems and Mines of Mogok.
Eudidymite
Formula: Na2Be2Si6O15 · H2O
Reference: The Mineralogical Record, Volume 35 Number 3, p. 212
Eulytine
Formula: Bi4(SiO4)3
Reference: Natural History Museum Vienna collection
Famatinite
Formula: Cu3SbS4
Famatinite var: Seleniferous Famatinite
Formula: Cu3Sb(S,Se)4
Reference: Jiajun Liu, Jianming Liu, Wenquan Lu, Xianfan Liu, and Hongfei Ling (2000): Geological Journal of China Universities 6(2), 210-214
Fayalite
Formula: Fe2+2SiO4
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'
Localities: Reported from at least 32 localities in this region.
'Feldspar Group'
Localities: Reported from at least 46 localities in this region.
'Feldspar Group var: Perthite'
Ferberite
Formula: FeWO4
Reference: Ikram Mineralogy
'Fergusonite'
Reference: Congde Chen and Guangping Pu (1991): Geology and Prospecting 27(5), 18-23
Ferrisepiolite (TL)
Formula: (Fe3+,Fe2+,Mg)4((Si,Fe3+)6O15)(O,OH)2 · 6H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Xiangping Gu, Xiande Xie, Xiangbin Wu, Jianqing Lai, Hoshino Kenich, and Guchang Zhu (2010): CNMNC Newsletter 7, 30
'Ferritchromit'
Reference: Arif, M. & Moon, C. J. (2007) Nickel-rich chromian muscovite from the Indus suture ophiolite, NW Pakistan: Implications for emerald genesis and exploration. Geochemical Journal, 41:475-482
Ferro-actinolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Fe2+5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
'Ferro-Actinolite-Tremolite Series'
Ferro-edenite
Formula: {Na}{Ca2}{Fe2+5}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Reference: Yu, M., Feng, C. Y., Zhu, Y. F., Mao, J. W., Zhao, Y. M., & Li, D. X. (2016). Multistage amphiboles from the Galinge iron skarn deposit in Qiman Tagh, western China: evidence of igneous rocks replacement. Mineralogy and Petrology, 1-17.
Ferro-glaucophane
Formula: ◻[Na2][Fe2+3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
Reference: Kapp, P., Yin, A., Manning, C.E., Murphy, M., Harrison, T.M., Spurlin, M., Lin, D., Xiguang, D., and Cunming, W. (2000): Geology 28(1), 19-22.
Ferroselite
Formula: FeSe2
Reference: Hanjie Wen, Yuzhuo Qiu, and Shirong Liu (2003): Geochimica 32(1), 21-28
Ferrowodginite
Formula: Fe2+Sn4+Ta2O8
'Fluocerite'
Reference: Xu Jiuhua, Xie Yuling, Li Jianping, and Hou Zengqian (2001): Progress in Natural Science 11(11), 833-837.
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Localities: Reported from at least 43 localities in this region.
Fluorapatite var: Carbonate-rich Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(F,O)
Reference: S. C. Tripathi (1985) Framboidal pyrite from Mussoorie phosphorite and its geological implication — Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, Earth and Planetary Sciences, 94, 315-321.
Fluor-dravite
Formula: Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Reference: Gunnar Färber
Fluor-elbaite
Formula: Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Reference: Natkaniec-Nowak, L., Dumańska-Słowik, M. & Ertl, A. (2009): “Watermelon” tourmaline from the Paprok mine (Nuristan, Afghanistan). Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Abhandlungen, 186, 185-193.
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Localities: Reported from at least 108 localities in this region.
Fluornatromicrolite
Formula: (Na1.5Bi0.5)Ta2O6F
Fluornatropyrochlore
Formula: (Na,Pb,Ca,REE,U)2Nb2O6F
Reference: Yin Jingwu, Li Guowu, Yang Guangming, Xiong Ming, Ge Xiangkun und Pan Baoming (2013) Fluornatropyrochlore, IMA 2013-056. CNMNC Newsletter No. 17, October 2013, page 3003; Mineralogical Magazine, 77, 2997 - 3005.
Fluoro-edenite
Formula: {Na}{Ca2}{Mg5}(AlSi7O22)(F,OH)2
Reference: Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data, Sieghard Ellenberger material
Fluoro-richterite
Formula: {Na}{CaNa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(F,OH)2
Habit: Prismatic xls to a few cm
Colour: white
Fluorescence: none
Description: A translucent white 'richterite' with purple hackmanite under Raman analysis gave a tiny Hydroxyl peak characteristic of Fluorine replacement making the 'richterite', fluororichterite
Reference: RWMW Collection;
Fluorvesuvianite ?
Formula: Ca19(Al,Mg,Fe2+)13(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10O(F,OH)9
Description: Method of identification not specified.
Reference: Gunnar Färber
Foitite
Formula: (□,Na)(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Forsterite
Formula: Mg2SiO4
Localities: Reported from at least 14 localities in this region.
Forsterite var: Peridot
Formula: Mg2SiO4
Freibergite
Formula: (Ag,Cu,◻)10Fe2+2Sb4S12
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Gadolinite-(Ce)
Formula: (Ce,La,Nd,Y)2Fe2+Be2Si2O10
Reference: RUFF
Gadolinite-(Y)
Formula: Y2Fe2+Be2Si2O10
Reference: Herb Obodda
Galena
Formula: PbS
Localities: Reported from at least 309 localities in this region.
Galena var: Argentiferous Galena
Formula: PbS
Galenobismutite
Formula: PbBi2S4
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Localities: Reported from at least 112 localities in this region.
'Garnierite'
Gaylussite
Formula: Na2Ca(CO3)2 · 5H2O
Gedrite
Formula: ☐{Mg2}{Mg3Al2}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Reference: Deer, Howie and Zussman (1978) Rock-forming Minerals, Vol. 2A, Single-Chain Silicates. (2nd ed.)
Geerite
Formula: Cu8S5
Reference: YANG, C., TANG, J., WANG, Y., YANG, H., WANG, Q., DING, S. and FANG, X. (2014), Minerals, Alteration and Fluid Basic Researchonthe First High Sulfidation Epithermal-Porphyry Cu (Au) Deposit (Southern Tiegelong Deposit) in Tibet, China. Acta Geologica Sinica, 88: 817–819.
Gehlenite
Formula: Ca2Al(AlSiO7)
Geikielite
Formula: MgTiO3
Genthelvite
Formula: Be3Zn4(SiO4)3S
Geocronite
Formula: Pb14(Sb,As)6S23
Gersdorffite
Formula: NiAsS
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Getchellite
Formula: AsSbS3
Giessenite
Formula: Pb27Cu2(Bi,Sb)19S57
Reference: Yingchen Ren (1999): Contributions to Geology and Mineral Resources Research 14(1), 1-12, 38
Gladite
Formula: PbCuBi5S9
'Glass'
Glauberite
Formula: Na2Ca(SO4)2
Reference: Wei Dongyan, Deng Xiaolin, Liu Zhenmin, and Yang Gengsheng (2000): On Biochemical Formation of Salt Deposits. Acta Geologica Sinica 74(3), 613-617.
Glaucodot
Formula: (Co0.50Fe0.50)AsS
Reference: Xingyu Yang (1982): Geology and Prospecting 18(9), 14-18
'Glauconite' ?
Formula: (K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Reference: Zejiang Wang and Anru Wang (1985): Geology and Prospecting 21(10), 8-15
Glaucophane
Formula: ◻[Na2][Mg3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
'Glockerite'
Formula: Fe3+4(SO4)(OH)10·1-3H2O ?
Reference: Jing Xue, Tagen Dai, and Chaozhuang Xi (2012): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 31(1), 28-38
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 41 localities in this region.
Gold
Formula: Au
Localities: Reported from at least 218 localities in this region.
Gold var: Argentian Mercurian Gold
Formula: (Au,Ag,Hg)
Gonnardite
Formula: (Na,Ca)2(Si,Al)5O10 · 3H2O
Habit: Pseudomorphing Hauyne dodecs
Colour: white
Fluorescence: White in LW, MW & SW UV
Description: This was initially called plagioclase, confirmed by EDS. The EDS pattern has the same 1:1 ratio of Al: Si as plagioclase and sodalite group minerals. Gonnardite can have this same EDS. The PXRD of Gonnardite is attached to the Marialite specimen it came from.
Reference: RWMW Collection
Gorceixite
Formula: BaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Reference: Qingmin Jin, Huaguang Xie, and Wenguang Wang (1992): Volcanology and Mineral Resources 13(2), 48-58
Goyazite
Formula: SrAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Reference: YANG, C., TANG, J., WANG, Y., YANG, H., WANG, Q., DING, S. and FANG, X. (2014), Minerals, Alteration and Fluid Basic Researchonthe First High Sulfidation Epithermal-Porphyry Cu (Au) Deposit (Southern Tiegelong Deposit) in Tibet, China. Acta Geologica Sinica, 88: 817–819.
Graphite
Formula: C
Localities: Reported from at least 31 localities in this region.
Gratonite
Formula: Pb9As4S15
Greenockite
Formula: CdS
Grossite
Formula: CaAl4O7
Reference: Wang, Y. & Hsu, W. (2009). Petrology and Mineralogy of the Ningqiang carbonaceous chondrite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science Vol. 44, #5, 763-780. (May 2009).
Grossular
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Localities: Reported from at least 29 localities in this region.
Grossular var: Hessonite
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: TVM Specimen; Lapis 34 (12): 48
Gudmundite
Formula: FeSbS
Reference: Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990; Econ Geol (1997) 92:308-324; Seetharam, R. (1981). Gudmundite from Base Metal Sulphide Deposit of Askot, Pithoragarh District,(UP). Geological Society of India, 22(5), 216-219.; Sharma, R., & Rao, D. R. (2008). Stannoidite and cubanite from Askot polymetallic sulphide ores, Kumaun Lesser Himalaya, India. Current science, 95(4), 527-531.
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 82 localities in this region.
'Hackmanite'
Formula: Na8Al6Si6O24(Cl2,S)
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Halite
Formula: NaCl
Localities: Reported from at least 48 localities in this region.
'Halloysite'
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Halloysite-10Å
Formula: Al2Si2O5(OH)4 · 2H2O
Reference: Zengqian Hou, Yuling Xie, Wenyi Xu, Yinqing Li, Xlangkun Zhu, Zaw Khin, Beaudoin, G., Zongyao Rui, Wei Huang, and Ciren Luobu (2007): International Geology Review 49(3), 235-258.
Hambergite
Formula: Be2(BO3)(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Hastingsite
Formula: {Na}{Ca2}{Fe2+4Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Reference: Miao Yu, Chengyou Feng, Guangying Bao, Hongchuan Liu, Yiming Zhao, Daxin Li, Ye Xiao, and Jiannan Liu (2013): Mineral Deposits 32(1), 55-76; Yu, M., Feng, C. Y., Zhu, Y. F., Mao, J. W., Zhao, Y. M., & Li, D. X. (2016). Multistage amphiboles from the Galinge iron skarn deposit in Qiman Tagh, western China: evidence of igneous rocks replacement. Mineralogy and Petrology, 1-17.
Hausmannite
Formula: Mn2+Mn3+2O4
Haüyne
Formula: (Na,K)3(Ca,Na)(Al3Si3O12)(SO4,S,Cl)
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Heazlewoodite
Formula: Ni3S2
Hedenbergite
Formula: CaFe2+Si2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Hedenbergite var: Manganoan Hedenbergite
Formula: Ca(Fe,Mn)2+Si2O6
Reference: Miao Yu, Chengyou Feng, Guangying Bao, Hongchuan Liu, Yiming Zhao, Daxin Li, Ye Xiao, and Jiannan Liu (2013): Mineral Deposits 32(1), 55-76
Helvine
Formula: Be3Mn2+4(SiO4)3S
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 186 localities in this region.
Hematite var: Martite
Formula: Fe2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Hematite var: Specularite
Formula: Fe2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 24 localities in this region.
Hemimorphite
Formula: Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Hercynite
Formula: Fe2+Al2O4
Hercynite var: Picotite
Formula: (Fe,Mg)(Al,Cr)2O4
Reference: Zhang Wusheng and Chen Jie (1996): Qinghai Guotu Jinglue 5(1)
Herderite ?
Formula: CaBePO4(F,OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
'Herderite-Hydroxylherderite Series'
Reference: TVM minerals
Hessite
Formula: Ag2Te
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Hexahydrite
Formula: MgSO4 · 6H2O
'Hexatestibiopanickelite'
Formula: (Pd,Ni)(Sb,Te)
Reference: American Mineralogist (1979), 64, 464; Xiaoqiang Hu, Yunquan Li, and Dequan Shuai (2001): Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology 21(1), 14-18
Hibonite
Formula: CaAl12O19
Reference: Wang, Y. & Hsu, W. (2009). Petrology and Mineralogy of the Ningqiang carbonaceous chondrite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science Vol. 44, #5, 763-780. (May 2009).
Hingganite-(Nd) (TL)
Formula: Nd2☐Be2Si2O8(OH)2
Type Locality:
Reference: Kasatkin A.V., Nestola F., Škoda R., Chukanov N.V., Agakhanov A.A., Belakovskiy D.I., Lanza A., Holá M. (2019): Hingganite-(Nd), IMA 2019-028. CNMNC Newsletter No. 50; Mineralogical Magazine: 31, doi: 10.1180/mgm.2019.46; http://forum.amiminerals.it/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=15578&sid=813c77a70706fa166a7b80754bd6a1e5 (visited 23.07.2019)
Hingganite-(Y)
Formula: (Y,REE,Ca)2(□,Fe2+)Be2[SiO4]2(OH)2
Reference: Ikram Mineralogy
'Högbomite'
Formula: (Mg,Fe)2(Al,Ti)5O10
Reference: Changbi Li (1991): Tibet Geology 2(1), 75-85
Hollandite
Formula: Ba(Mn4+6Mn3+2)O16
Reference: The Mineralogical Record, Volume 35 Number 3, p. 212
Hopeite
Formula: Zn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Reference: Runsheng Han, Congqiang Liu, Zhilong Huang, Jin Chen, Deyun Ma, Li Lei, and Gengsheng Ma (2007): Ore Geology Reviews 31(1-4), 360-383.
'Hornblende'
Localities: Reported from at least 25 localities in this region.
Hübnerite
Formula: MnWO4
Reference: Ikram Mineralogy
Humite
Formula: (Mg,Fe2+)7(SiO4)3(F,OH)2
Reference: Yushuai Yu, Zhusen Yang, Yingchao Liu, Shihong Tian, Can Zhao, Yuan Gao, Xianhua Ji, Weizheng Hu, and Shenghua Cao (2012): Mineral Deposits 31(4), 775-790
'Humite Group'
Reference: Dan Weinrich photo
Huntite
Formula: CaMg3(CO3)4
Reference: M. Qasim Jan, P.S.B. Colback & Masood Ahmad , (1985) Low-temperature Secondary Minerals from Tarbela. Geol. Bull. Univ. Peshawar, 18:189-197
Hydrochlorborite
Formula: Ca4B8O15Cl2 · 21H2O
Description: Reported from Tertiary (Pliocenic) salt deposits in the Qaidam basin (Yang, 1991). Those deposits are concentrated in the northwestern part of the basin, i.e. in Mangnai County (Fan et al., 2007).
Reference: Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10; Qishun Fan, Haizhou Ma, Hongbing Tan, Tingwei Li, and Jianxin Xu (2007): Acta Geoscientica Sinica 28(5), 446-455
Hydroglauberite
Formula: Na10Ca3(SO4)8 · 6H2O
Hydrohalite
Formula: NaCl · 2H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
'Hydrohausmannite'
Reference: Zhangxiang Peng (1990): Geology and Prospecting 26(10), 14-18
Hydromagnesite
Formula: Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
'Hydromuscovite'
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Hydroniumjarosite ?
Formula: (H3O)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: M. Qasim Jan, P.S.B. Colback & Masood Ahmad , (1985) Low-temperature Secondary Minerals from Tarbela. Geol. Bull. Univ. Peshawar, 18:189-197
Hydrotalcite
Formula: Mg6Al2(CO3)(OH)16 · 4H2O
Hydroxycalciopyrochlore (TL)
Formula: (Ca,Na,U,□)2(Nb,Ti)2O6(OH)
Type Locality:
Reference: Yang, G., Li, G., Xiong, M., Pan, B. and Yan, C. (2011): Hydroxycalciopyrochlore, IMA 2011-026. CNMNC Newsletter no. 10, October 2011, page 2554; Yang, G., Li, G., Xiong, M., Pan, B., Yan C. (2014): Hydroxycalciopyrochlore, a new mineral species from Sichuan, China. Acta Geologica Sinica - English Edition, 88, 748–753.
Hydroxylapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
Hydroxylapatite var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine 1988 52 : 505-508
Hydroxylclinohumite
Formula: Mg9(SiO4)4(OH)2
Hydroxylherderite
Formula: CaBe(PO4)(OH,F)
Localities: Reported from at least 18 localities in this region.
Hydrozincite
Formula: Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
'Hypersthene'
Formula: (Mg,Fe)SiO3
Reference: Xianfan Liu, Fufeng Zhao, Zhuan Tao, Xiangfeng Song, Yongwen Cai, and Feiyue Cai (2009): Mineral Deposits 28(2), 185-194
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Localities: Reported from at least 59 localities in this region.
Ilvaite
Formula: CaFe3+Fe2+2(Si2O7)O(OH)
Inderite
Formula: MgB3O3(OH)5 · 5H2O
Reference: Xiyu Zheng and Shengsong Yu (1981): Scientia Geographica Sinica 1(1), 66-76; Mianping Zheng and Wengao Liu (1982): Geological Review 28(3), 263-266; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10; Xiyu Zheng (1994): Journal of Lake Sciences 6(3), 267-275; Xifang Liu and Mianping Zheng (2010): Acta Geologica Sinica 89(11), 1601-1612; Mianping Zheng and Xifang Liu (2010): Acta Geologica Sinica 84(11), 1585-1600
'Indicolite'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Ingodite
Formula: Bi2TeS
Reference: Jinhua Hao, Jingwu Yin, and Jianping Chen (2010): Journal of the Chinese Electron Microscopy Society 29(6)
Inyoite
Formula: Ca(H4B3O7)(OH) · 4H2O
Reference: Xiyu Zheng and Shengsong Yu (1981): Scientia Geographica Sinica 1(1), 66-76; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
Irarsite
Formula: (Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsS
Iridarsenite
Formula: (Ir,Ru)As2
Iridium
Formula: (Ir,Os,Ru)
Iridium var: Osmiridium
Formula: (Ir,Os,Ru)
Iridium var: Rutheniridium
Formula: (Ir,Ru)
Reference: Wenji Bai, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Binggan Yan, and Zhongming Zhang (2001): Earth Science Frontiers 8(3), 111-121
Iridium var: Ruthenosmiridium
Formula: (Ir,Os,Ru)
Reference: Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
Iron
Formula: Fe
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Iron var: Kamacite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)
Isocubanite
Formula: CuFe2S3
Reference: Ramdohr, P. (1973). The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages.
Isoferroplatinum
Formula: Pt3Fe
Reference: Xuecui Zhou and Shuihe Mao (1989): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 9(3), 257-261
Ixiolite ?
Formula: (Ta,Nb,Sn,Fe,Mn)4O8
Reference: Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut); Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut)
Jacobsite
Formula: Mn2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Yuchun Yang (1990): Geology and Prospecting 26(8), 20-23
Jadeite
Formula: Na(Al,Fe3+)Si2O6
Reference: No reference listed
Jamesonite
Formula: Pb4FeSb6S14
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Localities: Reported from at least 19 localities in this region.
Jeremejevite
Formula: Al6(BO3)5(F,OH)3
Johachidolite
Formula: CaAlB3O7
Reference: Dr. Marcus Origlieri specimens; Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Jordanite
Formula: Pb14(As,Sb)6S23
Jordisite
Formula: MoS2
'Joséite'
Formula: Bi4TeS2
Reference: Yuchuan Chen, Jianzhao Yin, Jianxiong Zhou, Jingwen Mao, Baichuan Yang, and Yaonan Luo (1994): Scientia Geologica Sinica 29(2), 165-167; Jingwen Mao, Yuchuan Chen, Yunfen Lei, Jianxiong Zhou, and Baichuan Yang (1995): Scientia Geologica Sinica 30(1), 47-52; Chunqi Wen, Zhimin Cao, Baohua Li, and Xiaojun Luo (2002): Journal of Chengdu University of Technology 29(5), 526-532; Caixia Feng, Jiajun Liu, and Shen Liu (2002): Mineral Deposits 21(suppl.), 812-815
Joséite-A
Formula: Bi4TeS2
Reference: Xinzhi Zhan, Guoxian Jiang, and Yongyi Yang (1995): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 15(4), 422-424
Kainite
Formula: KMg(SO4)Cl · 3H2O
Reference: Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
Kainosite-(Y)
Formula: Ca2(Y,Ce)2(Si4O12)(CO3) · H2O
Reference: Denghong Wang, Yuchuan Chen, Jue Xu, Jianmin Yang, Chunji Xue, and Shenghao Yan (2000): Acta Geologica Sinica 74(3), 478-484.
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Localities: Reported from at least 104 localities in this region.
Kashinite
Formula: (Ir,Rh)2S3
Reference: Wenji Bai, Shufeng Tao, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Nicheng Shi and Guowu Li (2007): Acta Petrologica et Mienralogica 26(5), 418-428
Katophorite
Formula: {Na}{CaNa}{Mg4Al}[(AlSi7)O22](OH)2
Description: In quartz-rich samples.
Reference: Eur. J. Mineral. , 1991, 3, pp. 613-618.
'K-cymrite'
Formula: KAlSi3O8 · H2O
Description: Raman spectra analysis showed this to be Kokchetavite
Reference: Zhang, R.Y., Liou, Y.G., Iizuka, Y., Yang, J.S. (2009): First record of K-cymrite in North Qaidam UHP eclogite, Western China. American Mineralogist: 94 (2-3): 222-228; DOI: 10.2138/am.2009.2983; Masami Kanzaki, Xianyu Xue, Julien Amalberti, Qian Zhang (2011) Raman spectroscopic characterization of K-cymrite (KAlSi3O8*H2O) and its anhydrous phase (kokchetavite). Abstracts for Annual Meeting of Japan Association of Mineralogical Sciences 2011 Session ID: T5-04
Kellyite
Formula: Mn2+2Al(AlSiO5)(OH)4
Reference: Yuchun Yang (1990): Geology and Prospecting 26(8), 20-23
Kermesite
Formula: Sb2S2O
Reference: Su Sun (1993): Gold Science and Technology 1(2), 4-10
Kernite
Formula: Na2[B4O6(OH)2] · 3H2O
Reference: Rathore, I.S. (2015) Exploration Potential and Economic Significance of Puga Valley Borax Deposit, Ladakh, India. International Journal for Scientific Research & Development 3:1, 191-195.
Kësterite
Formula: Cu2ZnSnS4
Habit: pseudo tetrahedral xls to over a cm, coated in mushistonite
Colour: Yellowish mushistonite, black on fresh break
Description: About a dozen or so of these specimens hit the market in two lots in 2001 and 2002. They were called a new mineral and labeled "pandaite" which had been used before and discredited. Then they chemically analysed as Kesterite.
Reference: Hedland, A. (2004): Das Scheelit-Beryll-Kassiterit-Fluorit-Vorkommen von Huya-Zibeisha bei Pingwu, Provinz Sichuan, China. Mineralien Welt 15 (6), 46-57.
'K Feldspar'
Localities: Reported from at least 81 localities in this region.
'K Feldspar var: Adularia'
Formula: KAlSi3O8
Localities: Reported from at least 20 localities in this region.
Kieserite
Formula: MgSO4 · H2O
Reference: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2013/pdf/1336.pdf
Kokchetavite
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Masami Kanzaki, Xianyu Xue, Julien Amalberti, Qian Zhang (2011) Raman spectroscopic characterization of K-cymrite (KAlSi3O8*H2O) and its anhydrous phase (kokchetavite). Abstracts for Annual Meeting of Japan Association of Mineralogical Sciences 2011 Session ID: T5-04
Kornerupine
Formula: Mg3Al6(Si,Al,B)5O21(OH)
Kotulskite
Formula: Pd(Te,Bi)
Description: Contains significant amounts of bismuth and nickel.
Reference: American Mineralogist (1979), 64, 464; Xiaoqiang Hu, Yunquan Li, and Dequan Shuai (2001): Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology 21(1), 14-18; Xiaoqiang Hu, Yunquan Li, and Dequan Shuai (2001): Journal of Chengdu University of Technology 28(1), 48-52
Krennerite
Formula: Au3AgTe8
Reference: Zhimin Cao (1991): Journal of Chengdu College of Technology 18(4), 26-36
Kullerudite
Formula: NiSe2
Kurgantaite
Formula: CaSr[B5O9]Cl · H2O
Reference: Anthony, J.W. et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy
Kurnakovite
Formula: MgB3O3(OH)5 · 5H2O
Kutnohorite
Formula: CaMn2+(CO3)2
Reference: Shengming Lu (1988): Geology and Prospecting 24(5), 7, 30-32
Kyanite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Localities: Reported from at least 24 localities in this region.
Kyawthuite (TL)
Formula: Bi3+Sb5+O4
Type Locality:
Reference: Kampf, A.R., Rosman, G.R., Ma, C. (2016): Kyawthuite, Bi3+Sb5+O4, a new gem mineral from Mogok, Burma (Myanmar). Mineralogical Magazine: 81: 477-484
Langbeinite
Formula: K2Mg2(SO4)3
Reference: Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
Laumontite
Formula: CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Reference: Dongan Wang (1986): Acta Sedimentologica Sinica 4(1)
Laurite
Formula: RuS2
Lautite
Formula: CuAsS
Lazulite
Formula: MgAl2(PO4)2(OH)2
'Lazurite' (FRL)
Formula: Na6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,S,S2,S3,Cl,OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Habit: Rhombic dodecahedrons modified with cube and octahedral forms
Colour: Ultramarine to midnight blue
Fluorescence: none,
Description: Since all 'lazurites' are sulfide rich hauynes, we restrict the name Lazurite to the blue mineral in Lapis Lazuli, which is opaque, non fluorescent, ultramarine to midnight blue with a bright blue streak
Reference: Mineralogical Record (2001) 32:253; Canadian Mineralogist (1979) 17:47-52 Moore, T.P.,Woodside, R.M.W. (2014): The Sar-e-Sang Lapis Mines, Kuran Wa Munjan district, Badakhshan Province, Afghanistan. Mineralogical Record 45 (3), 280-336
Lead
Formula: Pb
Leonite
Formula: K2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2O
Lepidocrocite
Formula: γ-Fe3+O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
'Lepidolite'
Localities: Reported from at least 23 localities in this region.
Leucite
Formula: K(AlSi2O6)
Leucoxene
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Lillianite
Formula: Pb3-2xAgxBi2+xS6
Reference: Jinhua Hao, Jingwu Yin, and Jianping Chen (2010): Journal of the Chinese Electron Microscopy Society 29(6)
'Lillianite Homologous Series'
Formula: PbN-1-2xBi2+xAgxSN+2
Reference: Zhou, H., Sun, X., Fu, Y., Lin, H., Jiang, L. (2016): Mineralogy and mineral chemistry of Bi-minerals: Constraints on ore genesis of the Beiya giant porphyry-skarn gold deposit, southwestern China. Ore Geology Reviews (in press); http://forum.amiminerals.it/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=12853 (2016)
Lime
Formula: CaO
Reference: http://www.ngu.no/FileArchive/165/2003_055.pdf Geological Survey of Norway / The Alice Wain Memorial West Norway Eclogite Field Symposium / Abstract Volume p. 8.
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Localities: Reported from at least 228 localities in this region.
Linarite
Formula: PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Reference: Dill, H. G., Weber, B., & Botz, R. (2013). Metalliferous duricrusts. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Abhandlungen: Journal of Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 190(2), 123-195.
Linnaeite
Formula: Co2+Co3+2S4
Linzhiite (TL)
Formula: FeSi2
Type Locality:
Reference: CNMNC Newsletter, June 2010,p.579. Min. Mag, 74,579; Li Guowu, Bai Wenji, Shi Nicheng, Fang Qinsong, Xiong Ming, Yang Jingsui, Ma Zhesheng, Rong He (2012): Linzhiite, FeSi2, a redefined and revalidated mineral species from Luobusha, Tibet, China. European Journal of Mineralogy, 24, 1047-1052.
Litharge
Formula: PbO
Reference: http://www.ngu.no/FileArchive/165/2003_055.pdf Geological Survey of Norway / The Alice Wain Memorial West Norway Eclogite Field Symposium / Abstract Volume p. 8.
'Lithian Muscovite'
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Chenghua Zhang and Guodong Ji (1983): Geology and Prospecting 19(4), 22-28
'Lithiomagnesite'
Formula: Li2Mg(CO3)2
Reference: Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
Livingstonite
Formula: HgSb4S6(S2)
Reference: Zhengjiang Ding, Fengyue Sun, Bile Li, Shijin Li, Junwei Zhao, Hui Zhao, and Li Wang (2010): Geology and Exploration 46(2), 198-206
Lizardite
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Löllingite
Formula: FeAs2
Löweite
Formula: Na12Mg7(SO4)13 · 15H2O
Reference: Mily Wang, Yijie Wang, Chenglin Liu, and Yongzhi Chen (1993): Acta Geoscientica Sinica 15(1)
Ludwigite
Formula: Mg2Fe3+(BO3)O2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Luobusaite (TL)
Formula: Fe0.84Si2
Reference: Wenji Bai, Nicheng Shi, Qingsong Fang, Guowu Li, Ming Xiong, Jingsui Yang, and He Rong (2006): Acta Geologica Sinica 80(5), 656-659; MinAbs MA 07M/0529 (abstract).
Mackinawite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)9S8
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Maghemite
Formula: (Fe3+0.670.33)Fe3+2O4
Magnesio-arfvedsonite
Formula: {Na}{Na2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Mian, I., & Le Bas, M. J. (1986). Sodic amphiboles in fenites from the Loe Shilman carbonatite complex, NW Pakistan. Mineral Magazine, 50, 187-197.
Magnesiochromite
Formula: MgCr2O4
Magnesioferrite
Formula: MgFe3+2O4
Reference: Merkel, S., Bräutigam, B., Klein, S., & Hauptmann, A. (2013). The Analysis of Slag from the Panjhır Mining Region, Afghanistan: An Investigation of (Medieval) Silver Production Technology. Archäologische Mitteilungen, 45, 231-250.
Magnesio-foitite
Formula: (□,Na)(Mg2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Description: confirmed by microprobe analysis at IGEM RAN, Russia
Reference: Pavel Kartashov data
Magnesio-hornblende
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Magnesio-riebeckite
Formula: ◻{Na2}{Mg3Fe3+2}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Magnesiotaaffeite-2N’2S
Formula: Mg3Al8BeO16
Reference: Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data, Sieghard Ellenberger specimens
Magnesite
Formula: MgCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 24 localities in this region.
Magnesite var: Ferroan Magnesite
Formula: (Mg,Fe)CO3
Magnesite var: Lithian Magnesite
Formula: (Mg,Li)CO3
Reference: Yuanyi Zhao, Mianping Zheng, Xingong Cai, Pingjia Zhao, Wen Zhao, Yunwu Wang, and Xu Ma (2004): Geological Bulletin of China 23(7), 680-685
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Localities: Reported from at least 227 localities in this region.
Magnetite var: Mushketovite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Magnetite var: Titaniferous Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 200 localities in this region.
Maldonite
Formula: Au2Bi
Reference: Zhou, H., Sun, X., Fu, Y., Lin, H., Jiang, L. (2016): Mineralogy and mineral chemistry of Bi-minerals: Constraints on ore genesis of the Beiya giant porphyry-skarn gold deposit, southwestern China. Ore Geology Reviews (in press); http://forum.amiminerals.it/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=12853 (2016)
'Manganese Oxides'
Reference: Zengqian Hou, Shihong Tian, Yuling Xie, Zhusen Yang, Zhongxin Yuan, Shuping Yin, Longsheng Yi, Hongcai Fei, Tianren Zou, Ge Bai, and Xiaoyu Li (2009): Ore Geology Reviews (in press)
Manganite
Formula: Mn3+O(OH)
Manganosite
Formula: MnO
Reference: Yuchun Yang (1990): Geology and Prospecting 26(8), 20-23
Mannardite
Formula: Ba(Ti4+6V3+2)O16
Reference: Fengyi Chen, Shiying Li, Zhikai Tang, Jixue Li, Yaozong Zhou, and Shuihe Mao (1984): Acta Petrologica, Mineralogica et Analytica 3(4), 337-339; Scott, J.D., and Peatfield, G.R. (1986): Canadian Mineralogist 24, 55-66; Qingmin Jin, Huaguang Xie, and Wenguang Wang (1992): Volcanology and Mineral Resources 13(2), 48-58
Mansfieldite
Formula: AlAsO4 · 2H2O
Reference: http://www.cicresources.com/PDF_REPORTS/Pingding_F1ReportFinal.pdf
Maoniupingite-(Ce) (TL)
Formula: (Ce,Ca)4(Fe3+,Ti,Fe2+,◻)(Ti,Fe3+,Fe2+,Nb)4(Si2O7)2O8
Reference: Yang, Z., Fleck, M., Smith, M., Tao, K., Song, R., Zhang, P. (2002) The crystal structure of natural Fe-rich chevkinite-(Ce). European Journal of Mineralogy, 14, 969-975.; Shen, G.-F., Yang, G., Xu, J. (2005) Maoniupingite-(Ce): a new rare-earth mineral from the Maoniuping rare-earth deposit in Mianning, Sichuan. Chenji yu Tetisi Dizhi (Sedimentary and Tethyan Geology), 25(1-2): 210-216.; Wilson, W.E. and Origlieri, M.J. (2007) Red wulfenite from the Kuruktag Mountains, Xinjiang Uygur, China. The Mineralogical Record 38, 67-71.
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Localities: Reported from at least 48 localities in this region.
Marcasite var: Lonchidite
Formula: Fe(S,As)2
Reference: Yu Xuehui, Mo Xuanzhi, Yuan Wanmen, Zeng Tao, and Gan Weidong (1999): Journal of China University of Geosciences 10(1).
Margarite
Formula: CaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Marialite
Formula: Na4Al3Si9O24Cl
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Maslovite
Formula: PtBiTe
Reference: Xiaoqiang Hu, Yunquan Li, and Dequan Shuai (2001): Journal of Chengdu University of Technology 28(1), 48-52
Massicot
Formula: PbO
Matildite
Formula: AgBiS2
Meionite
Formula: Ca4Al6Si6O24CO3
Melanterite
Formula: Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Reference: Jing Xue, Tagen Dai, and Chaozhuang Xi (2012): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 31(1), 28-38
'Melilite Group'
Formula: Ca2M(XSiO7)
'Melnikovite'
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Melonite
Formula: NiTe2
Melonite var: Palladoan Melonite
Formula: (Ni,Pd)Te2
Reference: Xiaoqiang Hu, Yunquan Li, and Dequan Shuai (2001): Journal of Chengdu University of Technology 28(1), 48-52
Mercury
Formula: Hg
Reference: Zhengjiang Ding, Fengyue Sun, Bile Li, Shijin Li, Junwei Zhao, Hui Zhao, and Li Wang (2010): Geology and Exploration 46(2), 198-206
Merenskyite
Formula: (Pd,Pt)(Te,Bi)2
Merrillite
Formula: Ca9NaMg(PO4)7
Reference: Merrill, G.P. (1915). On the Monticellite-like Mineral in Meteorites, and on Oldhamite as a meteoritic Constituent. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 1: 302-308.
Metacinnabar
Formula: HgS
Metacinnabar var: Onofrite
Formula: Hg(S,Se)
Reference: Su Sun (1993): Gold Science and Technology 1(2), 4-10
Mianningite (TL)
Formula: (◻,Pb,Ce,Na)(U4+,Mn,U6+)Fe3+2 (Ti,Fe3+)18O38
Type Locality:
Reference: Ge, X., Fan, G., Li, G., Shen, G., Chen, Z. and Ai, Y. (2015) Mianningite, IMA 2014-072. CNMNC Newsletter No. 23, February 2015, page 54; Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 51-58
Miargyrite
Formula: AgSbS2
Reference: Dianhao Huang and Shihua Hu (2000): Mineral Deposits 19(4), 363-375; Guangfu Zou, Shihua Hu, Dequan Shuai, Caijin Chen, Hongchang Jiang, and Quan Liu (2002): Mineral Deposits 21(suppl.), 804-807; Quan Liu (2003): Mineral Deposits 22(2), 121-128; Hanlong Ying, Denghong Wang, and Xiaofang Fu (2006): Mineral Deposits 25(2), 135-146; Guangfu Zou, Rongcai Zheng, Shihua Hu, Caijing Chen, Hongchang Jiang, and Hongbang Wu (2008): Journal of Chengdu University of Technology, Science & Technology Edition 35(1), 93-102; Li Dai, Dehui Zhang, Yongquan Li, Guilong Wan, Benjun Hou, Xun Liao, Jinliang Zhang, Guopeng Wang, and Chengjie Li (2013): Geology and Exploration 49(2), 236-249
'Mica Group'
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Michenerite
Formula: PdBiTe
Reference: American Mineralogist (1979), 64, 464; Xiaoqiang Hu, Yunquan Li, and Dequan Shuai (2001): Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology 21(1), 14-18; Xiaoqiang Hu, Yunquan Li, and Dequan Shuai (2001): Journal of Chengdu University of Technology 28(1), 48-52; Song, X. Y., Zhou, M. F., & Cao, Z. M. (2004): The Canadian Mineralogist 42(2), 469-483
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 97 localities in this region.
Microcline var: Amazonite
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Microcline var: Hyalophane
Formula: (K,Ba)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
'Microlite Group'
Formula: A2-mTa2X6-wZ-n
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Millerite
Formula: NiS
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Mimetite
Formula: Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Reference: Xiao'ou Zhao (1989): Geology and Prospecting 25(6), 1-8
Minium
Formula: Pb3O4
Mirabilite
Formula: Na2SO4 · 10H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 26 localities in this region.
Moissanite
Formula: SiC
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Localities: Reported from at least 81 localities in this region.
Molybdite
Formula: MoO3
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
'Monazite'
Localities: Reported from at least 18 localities in this region.
Monazite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce(PO4)
Moncheite
Formula: (Pt,Pd)(Te,Bi)2
Monetite
Formula: Ca(HPO4)
Reference: Xiyue Wang, Huimin Zhang, Sichao Wang, and Yuezhen Wu (1987): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 6(4), 296-306
Monohydrocalcite
Formula: CaCO3 · H2O
Reference: Minghui Li, Shichang Kang, Liping Zhu, Qinglong You, Qianggong Zhang, and Junbo Wang (2008): Quaternary International 187, 105-116.
Montebrasite
Formula: LiAl(PO4)(OH)
Monticellite
Formula: CaMgSiO4
Montmorillonite
Formula: (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Localities: Reported from at least 33 localities in this region.
Montroydite
Formula: HgO
Reference: Xiaoming Qu, Qiling Zhang, Zengqian Hou, Yuanping Xu, and Jinzhong Li (2001): Mineral Deposits 20(3), 199-207
'Moonstone'
Localities: Reported from at least 18 localities in this region.
Munirite (TL)
Formula: NaVO3 · 1.9H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: K.A. Butt, K. Mahmood: Mineralogical Magazine 47:391-392 (1983)
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 436 localities in this region.
Muscovite var: Fuchsite
Formula: K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Muscovite var: Illite
Formula: K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 59 localities in this region.
Muscovite var: Phengite
Formula: KAl1.5(Mg,Fe)0.5(Al0.5Si3.5O10)(OH)2
Muscovite var: Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 266 localities in this region.
Mushistonite
Formula: (Cu,Zn,Fe2+)[Sn(OH)6]
Reference: Hedland, A. (2004): Das Scheelit-Beryll-Kassiterit-Fluorit-Vorkommen von Huya-Zibeisha bei Pingwu, Provinz Sichuan, China. Mineralien Welt 15 (6), 46-57
Nahcolite
Formula: NaHCO3
Naldrettite
Formula: Pd2Sb
Reference: Xiaoqiang Hu, Yunquan Li, and Dequan Shuai (2001): Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology 21(1), 14-18; Xiaoqiang Hu, Yunquan Li, and Dequan Shuai (2001): Journal of Chengdu University of Technology 28(1), 48-52
Nanpingite
Formula: CsAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH,F)2
Reference: Gunnar Färber
Naquite (TL)
Formula: FeSi
Type Locality:
Reference: CNMNC Newsletter, June 2010,p.579. Min. Mag, 74,579; Shi, N., Li, G., Bai, W., Xiong, M., Yang, J., Fang, Q., Ma, Z., Rong, H. (2012): Naquite, FeSi, a New Mineral Species from Luobusha, Tibet, Western China. Acta Geologica Sinica, 86, 533-538.
Natroalunite
Formula: NaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: M. Qasim Jan, P.S.B. Colback & Masood Ahmad , (1985) Low-temperature Secondary Minerals from Tarbela. Geol. Bull. Univ. Peshawar, 18:189-197
Natrolite
Formula: Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Reference: Weerth, A. & Weiß, S. (2016): Neues aus der Grenzregion Pakistan/Afghanistan. Lapis, 41 (10), 30-39 (in German).
Natron
Formula: Na2CO3 · 10H2O
Neotocite
Formula: (Mn,Fe,Mg)SiO3 · H2O
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Nepheline
Formula: Na3K(Al4Si4O16)
'Nephrite var: Hetian Jade'
Reference: Yanling Tang, Dequan Liu, and Ruizhong Zhou (2002): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 21(s1), 13-21
'Nephrite var: Kunlun Jade'
Nesquehonite
Formula: MgCO3 · 3H2O
Reference: Xiyu Zheng and Shengsong Yu (1981): Scientia Geographica Sinica 1(1), 66-76; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
Nickel
Formula: Ni
Nickeline
Formula: NiAs
Reference: Xiaoqiang Hu, Yunquan Li, and Dequan Shuai (2001): Journal of Chengdu University of Technology 28(1), 48-52
Norbergite
Formula: Mg3(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Northupite
Formula: Na3Mg(CO3)2Cl
Nosean
Formula: Na8(Al6Si6O24)(SO4) · H2O
Nsutite
Formula: (Mn4+,Mn2+)(O,OH)2
Reference: Yuchun Yang (1990): Geology and Prospecting 26(8), 20-23
Olenite
Formula: Na(Al3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3(OH)
Reference: Andreas Ertl, John M. Hughes, Stefan Prowatke, Thomas Ludwig, Franz Brandstätter, Wilfried Körner, and M. Darby Dyar (2007): Tetrahedrally coordinated boron in Li-bearing olenite from “mushroom” tourmaline from Momeik, Myanmar. Can. Mineral. 45, 891-899.
Omeiite (TL)
Formula: (Os,Ru)As2
Type Locality:
Reference: Ren Yingxin, Hu Qinde, and Xu Jingao (1978): Acta Geologica Sinica 52(2), 163-167; Dunn, P.J., Chao, G.Y., Grice, J.D, Ferraiolo, J.A., Fleischer, M., Pabst, A., and Zilczer, J.A. (1985): American Mineralogist 69, 565-569; Xiaoqiang Hu, Yunquan Li, and Dequan Shuai (2001): Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology 21(1), 14-18; Song, X. Y., Zhou, M. F., & Cao, Z. M. (2004): The Canadian Mineralogist 42(2), 469-483
Omphacite
Formula: (NaaCabFe2+cMgd)(AleFe3+fFe2+gMgh)Si2O6
Opal
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Opal var: Hyalite
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Opal var: Opal-AN
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: Jose Zendrera specimen
Orpiment
Formula: As2S3
Localities: Reported from at least 32 localities in this region.
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 29 localities in this region.
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'
Osarsite
Formula: (Os,Ru)AsS
Reference: Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
Osbornite
Formula: TiN
Reference: Dobrzhinetskaya, L.F., Wirth, R., Yang, J., Green, H.W., Hutcheon, I.D., Weber, P.K. and Grew, E.S. (2014): Qingsongite, natural cubic boron nitride: The first boron mineral from the Earth’s mantle. American Mineralogist. 99, 764-772
Osmium
Formula: (Os,Ir,Ru)
Osmium var: Iridosmine
Formula: (Os,Ir)
Owyheeite
Formula: Ag3+xPb10-2xSb11+xS28, -0.13 < x > +0.20
Reference: Can. J. Earth Sci. 44: 479–492 (2007)
Painite (TL)
Formula: CaZrAl9(BO3)O15
Type Locality:
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine(1957) 31, 420-425; Amer.Min.(1976) 61, 88-94
Palladium
Formula: (Pd,Pt)
Palygorskite ?
Formula: (Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2O
Reference: Chang Xu (1985): Scientia Geologica Sinica 1(1), 87-96
Paragonite
Formula: NaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Garnier, V., Giuliani, G., Ohnenstetter, D., Fallick, A.E., Dubessy, J., Banks, D., Vinh, H.Q., Lhomme, T., Maluski, H., Pêcher, A., Bakhsh, K.A., Long, P.V., Trinh, P.T., and Schwarz, D. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 169-191.
Pargasite
Formula: {Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
'Pargasite Root Name'
Formula: (A)(Ca2){Z2+4 Al)(Al2Si6O22)(OH,F,Cl)2
Reference: Huiwen Liu, Xueping Wang, Ji Shao, Kesi Lu, Fanglian Tian, and Shuya Xiong (2014): Mineral Deposits 33(1), 87-103
'Parisite'
Reference: Jasun McAvoy collection
Parisite-(Ce)
Formula: CaCe2(CO3)3F2
Pavonite
Formula: AgBi3S5
Reference: Xiaoming Qu, Zengqian Hou, and Shugui Zhou (2001): Acta Geoscientia Sinica 23(1), 29-34
Pearceite
Formula: [Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
Reference: Chaoyang Li, Tiegeng Liu, Lin Ye, Weiguang Zhu, and Hailin Deng (2003): Science in China, Series D (Earth Sciences), 46, Supplement 1, 84-98.
Pectolite
Formula: NaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189
Pectolite var: Manganoan Pectolite
Formula: Na(Ca,Mn)2Si3O8(OH)
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189
Penfieldite
Formula: Pb2Cl3(OH)
Reference: Merkel, S., Bräutigam, B., Klein, S., & Hauptmann, A. (2013). The Analysis of Slag from the Panjhır Mining Region, Afghanistan: An Investigation of (Medieval) Silver Production Technology. Archäologische Mitteilungen, 45, 231-250.
Penroseite
Formula: (Ni,Co,Cu)Se2
Reference: Liu Jia-jun, Liu Xian-fan, Ling Hong-fei, Liu Jian-ming, and Lu Wen-quan (2000): Geological Journal of China Universities 6(2), 210-214.
Pentlandite
Formula: (FexNiy)Σ9S8
Localities: Reported from at least 23 localities in this region.
Pentlandite var: Argentian Pentlandite
Formula: (Ni,Fe,Ag)9S8
Reference: Xiaoqiang Hu, Yunquan Li, and Dequan Shuai (2001): Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology 21(1), 14-18
Perettiite-(Y) (TL)
Formula: Y2Mn4FeSi2B8O24
Type Locality:
Reference: Danisi, R.M., Armbruster, T., Wang, H., Günther, D., Nagashima, M., Reusser, E. and Bieri, W. (2015) Perettiite-(Y), IMA 2014-109. CNMNC Newsletter No. 25, June 2015, page 533; Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 529-535. ; Danisi, R.M., Armbruster, T., Wang, H., Günther, D., Nagashima, M., Reusser, E. and Bieri, W. (2015) Perettiite-(Y), IMA 2014-109. CNMNC Newsletter No. 25, June 2015, page 533; Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 529-535. ; Danisi, R.M., Armbruster, T., Libowitzky, E., Wang, Hao A.O., Günther, D. Nagashima, M. Reusser, E. and Bieri W. (2015): Perettiite-(Y), Y3+2Mn2+4Fe2+[Si2B8O24], a new mineral from Momeik, Myanmar. European Journal of Mineralogy. 27: 793-803
Periclase
Formula: MgO
Perovskite
Formula: CaTiO3
Petalite
Formula: LiAl(Si4O10)
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
'Petrified Wood'
Petzite
Formula: Ag3AuTe2
Pezzottaite
Formula: Cs(Be2Li)Al2(Si6O18)
Phenakite
Formula: Be2SiO4
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 46 localities in this region.
Pickeringite
Formula: MgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Reference: M. Qasim Jan, P.S.B. Colback & Masood Ahmad , (1985) Low-temperature Secondary Minerals from Tarbela. Geol. Bull. Univ. Peshawar, 18:189-197
Picromerite
Formula: K2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
Piemontite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Pigeonite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Reference: Wang, Y. & Hsu, W. (2009). Petrology and Mineralogy of the Ningqiang carbonaceous chondrite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science Vol. 44, #5, 763-780. (May 2009).
Pilsenite
Formula: Bi4Te3
Reference: Xiaogang Wang, Gen Chen, and Yunfeng Yan (2010): Modern Mining 11(11), 44-48
Pinnoite
Formula: Mg[B2O(OH)6]
Plagionite
Formula: Pb5Sb8S17
Platinum
Formula: Pt
Plumbojarosite
Formula: Pb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Polkanovite
Formula: Rh12As7
Reference: Wenji Bai, Shufeng Tao, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Nicheng Shi and Guowu Li (2007): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 26(5), 418-428
Pollucite
Formula: (Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 22 localities in this region.
Polybasite
Formula: [(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Polydymite
Formula: Ni2+Ni3+2S4
Polyhalite
Formula: K2Ca2Mg(SO4)4 · 2H2O
Potassic-fluoro-richterite ?
Formula: {K}{CaNa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(F,OH)2
Description: A Rob Lavisnky specimen from "Kokcha Valley" was later reclassified as winchite (pers. comm. of Rob Lavinsky to Olav Revheim). This does not preclude the occurrence of fluoro-potassicrichterite at Sar-e Sang, but indicates that proper analyses have to be carried out on each single amphibole specimen to reveal its true identity.
Reference: Tom Loomis specimen
Poudretteite
Formula: KNa2B3Si12O30
Prehnite
Formula: Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
'Psilomelane'
Formula: Mn, O
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
'Pumpellyite'
Reference: Zhenming Zhao, Shoujian Chen, Wenhua Ji, Xianfeng Zha, Haijun Zhang, and Yafei Liu (2013): Geology and Exploration 49(3), 417-428
Pyrargyrite
Formula: Ag3SbS3
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Localities: Reported from at least 495 localities in this region.
Pyrite var: Arsenian Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Pyrite var: Cobaltoan Pyrite
Formula: (Fe,Co)S2
'Pyrobitumen'
Reference: Su Sun (1993): Gold Science and Technology 1(2), 4-10
'Pyrochlore'
'Pyrochlore Group'
Formula: A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
'Pyrochlore Supergroup'
Formula: A2-mD2X6-wZ1-n
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189
'Pyrochlore Supergroup var: Betafite (of Hogarth 1977)'
Formula: A2-mD2X6-wZ1+w
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189
Pyrochroite
Formula: Mn(OH)2
Reference: Zhangxiang Peng (1990): Geology and Prospecting 26(10), 14-18
Pyrolusite
Formula: Mn4+O2
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Pyrolusite var: Polianite
Formula: morphological variety
Reference: Xingyu Yang (1989): Geology and Prospecting 25(8), 23-27
Pyromorphite
Formula: Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Reference: Wen Qi, Mantang Hou, and Genbao Wang (2006): Journal of Earth Sciences and Environment 28(2), 30-36; Bo Yuan, Jingwen Mao, Xinghu Yan, Yue Wu, Feng Zhang, and Liangliang Zhao (2014): Acta Petrologica Sinica 30(1), 209-220
Pyrope
Formula: Mg3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Shaoli Sha, Yaowu Xie, Yingming Chen, Lanjie Xiluo, Xuelong Liu, Na Zhang, and Chengxing Jiang (2009): Geology in China 36(6), 1302-1311
Pyrophyllite
Formula: Al2Si4O10(OH)2
'Pyroxene Group'
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Localities: Reported from at least 131 localities in this region.
Qingsongite (TL)
Formula: BN
Type Locality:
Description: As inclusions in coesite
Reference: Dobrzhinetskaya, L.F., Wirth, R., Yang, J., Green, H.W., Hutcheon, I.D., Weber, P.K. and Grew, E.S. (2013) Qingsongite, IMA 2013-030. CNMNC Newsletter No. 16, August 2013, page 2708; Mineralogical Magazine, 77, 2695.; Dobrzhinetskaya, L.F., Wirth, R., Yang, J., Green, H.W., Hutcheon, I.D., Weber, P.K. and Grew, E.S. (2014): Qingsongite, natural cubic boron nitride: The first boron mineral from the Earth’s mantle. American Mineralogist. 99, 764-772
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 650 localities in this region.
Quartz var: "Herkimer-style" Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Updated due to mindat nomenclature changes on 'herkimer-style' quartz
Quartz var: Amethyst
Formula: SiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Quartz var: Chalcedony
Formula: SiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 27 localities in this region.
Quartz var: Jasper
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Quartz var: Milky Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut)
Quartz var: Onyx
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Zhimin Cao (1991): Journal of Chengdu College of Technology 18(4), 26-36
Quartz var: Plasma
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Rucheng Wang, Fuyuan Wu, Lei Xie, Xiaochi Liu, Cheng Liu (2018) Pegmatites on the Mount Qomolangma, Tibet. in abstracts of the 22nd IMA Meeting Melbourne p 290
Quartz var: Prase
Formula: SiO2
Reference: António Manuel Ináçio Martins
Quartz var: Rock Crystal
Formula: SiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 17 localities in this region.
Quartz var: Rose Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Quartz var: Rutilated Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: [www.thamesvalleyminerals.com]
Quartz var: Sceptre Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Quartz var: Smoky Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 14 localities in this region.
Qusongite (TL)
Formula: WC
Reference: IMA website; American Mineralogist, Volume 94, pages 387–390, 2009
Rambergite
Formula: MnS
Reference: Wenji Bai, Shufeng Tao, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Nicheng Shi and Guowu Li (2007): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 26(5), 418-428
Ramdohrite
Formula: Pb5.9Fe0.1Mn0.1In0.1Cd0.2Ag2.8Sb10.8S24
Ranciéite
Formula: (Ca,Mn2+)0.2(Mn4+,Mn3+)O2 · 0.6H2O
Reference: Yuchun Yang (1990): Geology and Prospecting 26(8), 20-23
Realgar
Formula: As4S4
Localities: Reported from at least 39 localities in this region.
Reedmergnerite
Formula: NaBSi3O8
Description: Turned out to be pink albite.
Reference: Weerth, A. & Weiß, S. (2016): Neues aus der Grenzregion Pakistan/Afghanistan. Lapis, 41 (10), 30-39 (in German).
Reinerite ?
Formula: Zn3(AsO3)2
Description: The paper of Liu et al. reports "砷锌矿" which is the Chinese name of reinerite, but also means arsenic-zinc ores (the Chinese name of reinerite literally translates to arsenic-zinc ore). Since no analysis is given or referred to (which would be obligatory to confirm the presence of an exceedingly rare mineral like reinerite), this occurrence has to be cosnidered as questionable.
Reference: Yingchao Liu, Zengqian Hou, Yushuai Yu, Shihong Tian, Yulong Li, and Zhusen Yang (2013): Acta Petrologica Sinica 29(4), 1407-1426
Rhabdophane-(Ce)
Formula: Ce(PO4) · H2O
Reference: The Mineralogical Record, Volume 35 Number 3, p. 212
Rhodium
Formula: (Rh,Pt)
Reference: http://www.ngu.no/FileArchive/165/2003_055.pdf Geological Survey of Norway / The Alice Wain Memorial West Norway Eclogite Field Symposium / Abstract Volume p. 8.
Rhodochrosite
Formula: MnCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Rhodonite
Formula: Mn2+SiO3
Richterite
Formula: {Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Riebeckite
Formula: ◻[Na2][Fe2+3Fe3+2]Si8O22(OH)2
Robertsite
Formula: Ca2Mn3+3(PO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine 1988 52 : 505-508
Robinsonite
Formula: Pb4Sb6S13
Reference: Yao Tan, Xianwu Bi, Zhonglei Xin, Feilin Zhu, Minyang Liao, and Yubang Li (2011): Mineral Deposits 30(4), 599-615
Röntgenite-(Ce)
Formula: Ca2(Ce,La)3(CO3)5F3
Reference: Anthony, J.W. et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy
Rosasite
Formula: (Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Dill, H. G., Weber, B., & Botz, R. (2013). Metalliferous duricrusts. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Abhandlungen: Journal of Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 190(2), 123-195.
Ruarsite (TL)
Formula: (Ru,Os)AsS
Type Locality:
Description: In chromium ores from the Alpine-type ultramafic.
Reference: Yu Tsu-hsiang and Chou Hsueh-tsi (1979): Kexue Tongbao [Science Bulletin] 24(7), 310-316; Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
Ruthenarsenite
Formula: (Ru,Ni)As
Rutheniridosmine
Formula: (Ir,Os,Ru)
Reference: Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
Ruthenium
Formula: (Ru,Ir)
Ruthenium var: Iridrhodruthenium
Formula: (Ru,Rh,Ir)
Reference: Shuihe Mao and Xuecui Zhou (1989): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 9(2), 136-140
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 72 localities in this region.
Rutile var: Ilmenorutile
Formula: Fex(Nb,Ta)2x · 4Ti1-xO2
Reference: Rucheng Wang, Fuyuan Wu, Lei Xie, Xiaochi Liu, Cheng Liu (2018) Pegmatites on the Mount Qomolangma, Tibet. in abstracts of the 22nd IMA Meeting Melbourne p 290
Rutile var: Sagenite (of Saussure)
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Rob Woodside Collection
'Sagenite'
Reference: TVM Specimen
Samarskite-(Y)
Formula: YFe3+Nb2O8
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189
Sanidine
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Sapphirine
Formula: Mg4(Mg3Al9)O4[Si3Al9O36]
Sassolite
Formula: H3BO3
Reference: Walter Schumann (2008) Minerals of the World: Second Edition
'Saussurite'
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
'Scapolite'
Localities: Reported from at least 26 localities in this region.
'Scapolite Group'
Reference: Wilson, W. (2006): Minerals from Alchuri. Mineralogical Record. 37: 534-536
Schachnerite
Formula: Ag1.1Hg0.9
Reference: Kaixu Chen, Longqing He, Junqi Wei, Aiping Yang, Weiguang Yang, and Huilan Huang (2004): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 24(1), 61-67
Scheelite
Formula: Ca(WO4)
Localities: Reported from at least 66 localities in this region.
Scheelite var: Molybdoscheelite
Formula: Ca(WO4)
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Schorl
Formula: Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 76 localities in this region.
Scorodite
Formula: Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Scorzalite
Formula: Fe2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Sellaite
Formula: MgF2
Reference: Weifan Ding (1983): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 3(3), 193-197: Denghong Wang, Yuchuan Chen, Jue Xu, Jianmin Yang, Chunji Xue, and Shenghao Yan (2000): Acta Geologica Sinica 74(3), 478-484.
Senarmontite
Formula: Sb2O3
Reference: Jianfang Zhang, Youye Zheng, Gangyang Zhang, Shunbao Gao, Xianren Ye, Zhong Zhang, Minyuan Liu, and Jiqiu Li (2010): Earth Science - Journal of China University of Geosciences 35(6), 1000-1010; Yiyun Wang, Juxing Tang, Wenbao Zheng, Bin Lin, Qiufeng Leng, Wei Chen, Shuai Ding, Junlong Song, and Yunfeng Xu (2012): Acta Geoscientica Sinica 33(4), 681-692; Bin Lin, Juxing Tang, Wenbao Zheng, Qiufeng Leng, Yiyun Wang, MinYuan Liu, Huanhuan Yang, Shuai Ding, Lihua Zhang, and Hongzhang Yang (2013): Mineral Deposits 32(5), 899-914
Sepiolite
Formula: Mg4(Si6O15)(OH)2 · 6H2O
Serendibite
Formula: Ca4[Mg6Al6]O4[Si6B3Al3O36]
'Serpentine Subgroup'
Formula: D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Localities: Reported from at least 64 localities in this region.
'Serpentine Subgroup var: Serpentine Jade'
Formula: D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Reference: Anonymous (1992): East China Uranium Geology 1992(3), 14-46
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 64 localities in this region.
Siderite var: Pistomesite
Formula: (Fe,Mg)CO3
Reference: Changhua Huang, Chengjiang Zhang, and Zhiheng Liu (2010): Geoscience 24(1), 18-25
Siegenite
Formula: CoNi2S4
Silicon
Formula: Si
Sillénite
Formula: Bi12SiO20
Reference: Xiaoming Qu, Zengqian Hou, and Shugui Zhou (2001): Acta Geoscientia Sinica 23(1), 29-34
Sillimanite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Sillimanite var: Fibrolite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Silver
Formula: Ag
Localities: Reported from at least 34 localities in this region.
Silver var: Kongsbergite
Formula: (Ag,Hg)
Silver var: Küstelite
Formula: Ag
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Sinhalite
Formula: MgAl(BO4)
Skinnerite
Formula: Cu3SbS3
Skutterudite
Formula: CoAs3
'Smectite Group'
Formula: A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
Smithsonite
Formula: ZnCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 19 localities in this region.
Sodalite
Formula: Na8(Al6Si6O24)Cl2
Localities: Reported from at least 17 localities in this region.
'Sodalite Group'
Sperrylite
Formula: PtAs2
Spessartine
Formula: Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Localities: Reported from at least 22 localities in this region.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Localities: Reported from at least 286 localities in this region.
Sphalerite var: Marmatite
Formula: (Zn,Fe)S
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Sphalerite var: Mátraite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Wenji Bai, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Binggan Yan, and Zhongming Zhang (2001): Earth Science Frontiers 8(3), 111-121
Sphalerite var: Schalenblende
Description: Not mentioned by the authors, but the photo of one of the ore samples clearly shows schalenblende.
Reference: Yucai Song, Zengqian Hou, Tiannan Yang, Shijin Li, Fuchun Wang, Yongwang Gao, Xiugang Gong, Zhusen Yang, Hongrui Zhang, Liansong Li, Guiren Wang, Yuankui Wang, Qun Liu, and Hongda Hao (2013): Mineral Deposits 32(4), 744-756
Spinel
Formula: MgAl2O4
Localities: Reported from at least 57 localities in this region.
Spinel var: Pleonaste
Formula: (Mg,Fe)Al2O4
Reference: Zhi Zhang, Yuchuan Chen, Juxing Tang, Lin He, Xiaofeng Yao, Yi Yang, Zhenghua Hu, Hongxing Wang, and Junlong Song (2013): Mineral Deposits 32(5), 915-931
Spionkopite
Formula: Cu39S28
Reference: YANG, C., TANG, J., WANG, Y., YANG, H., WANG, Q., DING, S. and FANG, X. (2014), Minerals, Alteration and Fluid Basic Researchonthe First High Sulfidation Epithermal-Porphyry Cu (Au) Deposit (Southern Tiegelong Deposit) in Tibet, China. Acta Geologica Sinica, 88: 817–819.
Spodumene
Formula: LiAlSi2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 67 localities in this region.
Spodumene var: Kunzite
Formula: LiAlSi2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 14 localities in this region.
Stannite
Formula: Cu2FeSnS4
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Stannoidite
Formula: Cu+6Cu2+2(Fe2+,Zn)3Sn2S12
Starkeyite
Formula: MgSO4 · 4H2O
Staurolite
Formula: Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Stellerite
Formula: Ca4(Si28Al8)O72 · 28H2O
Reference: Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut); Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut); Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 36, Part 1, 1998, pp. 1-47.
Stephanite
Formula: Ag5SbS4
Reference: Yaoguo Hu, Zhaoyang Li, Hanjie Wen, and Zhilong Huang (2000): Bulletin of Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry 19(4), 318-320
'Stibiconite'
Formula: Sb3+Sb5+2O6(OH)
Stibiocolumbite
Formula: Sb(Nb,Ta)O4
Reference: Scovill, J. (2007): Lapis 32 (4), 40-42.
'Stibioenargite'
Formula: Cu3(Sb,As)S4
Stibiotantalite
Formula: Sb(Ta,Nb)O4
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Stibnite
Formula: Sb2S3
Localities: Reported from at least 115 localities in this region.
Stibnite var: Selenian Stibnite
Formula: Sb2(S,Se)3
Stromeyerite
Formula: AgCuS
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Strontianite
Formula: SrCO3
Stützite
Formula: Ag5-xTe3, x = 0.24-0.36
Sudburyite
Formula: (Pd,Ni)Sb
Reference: Dunn, P.J., Chao, G.Y., Grice, J.D, Ferraiolo, J.A., Fleischer, M., Pabst, A., and Zilczer, J.A. (1985): American Mineralogist 69, 565-569; American Mineralogist (1979), 64, 464; Xiaoqiang Hu, Yunquan Li, and Dequan Shuai (2001): Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology 21(1), 14-18; Song, X. Y., Zhou, M. F., & Cao, Z. M. (2004): The Canadian Mineralogist, 42(2), 469-483
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Localities: Reported from at least 19 localities in this region.
Sulvanite
Formula: Cu3VS4
Sulvanite var: Ge-Sn-Sulvanite
Formula: Cu3(V,Ge,Sn)S4
Svanbergite
Formula: SrAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: www.chinamining.org/Facts/2006-10-10/1160465903d1495.html
Sylvanite
Formula: (Au,Ag)2Te4
Reference: Bangguo Zhou, Shengwei Wang, Xiaoming Sun, Ming Lin, Zhenwen Liao, Yang Guo, Maojin Luo, and Zhanwu Sheng (2013): Geology and Exploration 49(5), 872-881
Sylvite
Formula: KCl
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
'Synchysite'
Reference: Congde Chen and Guangping Pu (1991): Geology and Prospecting 27(5), 18-23; Yang, Z., Smith, M.P., Henderson, P., Le Bas, M.J., Tao, K., and Zhang, P. (2000): Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie Monatshefte, ?(10), 466-480; Yuling Xie, Zengqian Hou, Jiuhua Xu, Zhongxin Yuan, Ge Bai, and Xiaoyu Li (2005): Science in China, Series D (Earth Sciences) 35(6), 572-577
Syngenite
Formula: K2Ca(SO4)2 · H2O
Taenite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)
Tainiolite
Formula: KLiMg2(Si4O10)F2
Reference: Daxian Zhao and Guangting Tang (1991): Acta Geologica Sinica 70(1), 42-57
Talc
Formula: Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 44 localities in this region.
Talc var: Steatite
Formula: Mg3(Si4O10)(OH)2
Reference: Neil Fraser, Anima Bhattacharya, Bimalendu Bhattachary (2001) Geography of a Himalayan kingdom: Bhutan
Tangdanite (TL)
Formula: Ca2Cu9(AsO4)4(SO4)0.5(OH)9 · 9H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: de Fourestier, J., Li, G., Poirier, G., Chukanov, N.V. and Ma, Z. (2012) Fuxiaotuite, IMA 2011-096. CNMNC Newsletter, 13(6), 808; Ma, Z., Li, G., Chukanov, N.V., Poirier, G., Shi, N. (2014): Tangdanite, a new mineral species from the Yunnan Province, China and the discreditation of of 'clinotyrolite'. Mineralogical Magazine 78, 559-569.
'Tantalite'
Formula: (Mn,Fe)(Ta,Nb)2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Tantalite-(Fe)
Formula: Fe2+Ta2O6
Tantalite-(Mn)
Formula: Mn2+Ta2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
'Tantalum'
Formula: Ta
Reference: Xiangzhen, X., Jingsui, Y., Songyong, C., Qingsong, F., Wenji, B., & Dengzhu, B. (2009). Unusual mantle mineral group from chromitite ore body Cr-11 in Luobusa ophiolite of Yarlung-Zangbo suture zone, Tibet. Journal of Earth Science, 20(2), 284-302.
'Tapiolite'
Formula: (Fe,Mn)(Ta,Nb)2O6
'Tapiolite Group'
Reference: Dudley Blauwet; Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains and Majesty, pag. 44; Lapis International, 2004
Tellurium
Formula: Te
Tellurobismuthite
Formula: Bi2Te3
Temagamite
Formula: Pd3HgTe3
Reference: Kausar, A. B. (1998). Platinum Group Elements (PGE) and Platinum Group MineraIs (PGM) Distribution and petrological evolution of southern Kohistan Arc, Northern Pakistan (Doctoral dissertation, Université Joseph-Fourier-Grenoble I).
Tennantite
Formula: Cu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2As4S12S
Localities: Reported from at least 24 localities in this region.
Tennantite var: Zincian Tennantite
Formula: Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Tenorite
Formula: CuO
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
'Testibiopalladite'
Formula: PdTe(Sb,Te)
Reference: Xieyan Song, Meifu Zhou, Zhimin Cao, Min Sun, and Yunliang Wang (2003): Mineralium Deposita 38, 831-843
Tetra-auricupride
Formula: AuCu
Reference: Miller, D., & Loucks, R. R. (1991). Platinum-group Element Mineralization in the Jijal Layered Ultramafic-mafic Complex, Pakistani Himalayas. Economic Geology, 86:1093-1102.
Tetradymite
Formula: Bi2Te2S
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Tetraferriphlogopite
Formula: KMg3(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH,F)2
Reference: Jinhua Hao, Jianping Chen, Yongge Tian, Yulong Li, and Jingwu Yin (2010): Geology and Exploration 46(3), 367-376
Tetrahedrite
Formula: Cu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2Sb4S12S
Localities: Reported from at least 76 localities in this region.
Tetrahedrite var: Argentian Tetrahedrite
Formula: (Cu,Ag)6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Localities: Reported from at least 17 localities in this region.
Tetrahedrite var: Bismuthian Tetrahedrite
Formula: Cu12(Sb,Bi)4S13
Reference: Lijuan Ying, Denghong Wang, Juxing Tang, Huan Wang, Zhenyu Chen, Wenbao Zheng, and Fengji Li (2010): Journal of Jilin University, Earth Science Edition 55(4),801-809
Tetrahedrite var: Zincian Tetrahedrite
Formula: Cu10Zn2Sb4S13
'Thénardite'
Formula: Na2SO4
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Thermonatrite
Formula: Na2CO3 · H2O
Thomsonite-Ca
Formula: NaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
Habit: alteration product
Colour: white
Description: Apparently the alteration that produces green Hauynes has continued with the gonnardite to produce mixtures of Gonnardite and Thompsonite. This Thompsonite is only known from the PXRD of Gonnardite with green Hauyne
Reference: RWMW Collection
Thorite
Formula: Th(SiO4)
Thorite var: Uranothorite
Formula: (Th,U)SiO4
Reference: Congde Chen and Guangping Pu (1991): Geology and Prospecting 27(5), 18-23
Tiemannite
Formula: HgSe
Tin
Formula: Sn
Tincalconite
Formula: Na2(B4O7) · 5H2O
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Localities: Reported from at least 73 localities in this region.
Titanium (TL)
Formula: Ti
Reference: Fang, Q.-S., Shi, N.-C., Li, G.-W., Bai, W.-J., Yang, J.-S., Xiong, M., Rong, H. and Ma, Z.-S. (2010) Titanium, IMA 2010-044. CNMNC Newsletter No. 7, February 2010, page 27; Mineralogical Magazine, 75, 27-31.; Fang, Q., Bai, W., Yang, J., Rong, He, Shi, N., Li, G., Xiong, M., Ma, Z. (2013): Titanium, Ti, A New Mineral Species from Luobusha, Tibet, China. Acta Geologica Sinica, 87, 1275-1280.
Todorokite
Formula: (Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Reference: Yuchun Yang (1990): Geology and Prospecting 26(8), 20-23
'Tongxinite'
Formula: Cu2Zn
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Topaz
Formula: Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 63 localities in this region.
Torbernite
Formula: Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Localities: Reported from at least 124 localities in this region.
'Tourmaline var: Achroite'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Natural History Museum Vienna collection
'Tourmaline var: Rubellite'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
'Tourmaline var: Verdelite'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Van King
Tremolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 61 localities in this region.
Triplite
Formula: Mn2+2(PO4)F
Tripuhyite
Formula: Fe3+Sb5+O4
Reference: Guozhong Chen, Zhilu Liang, Hongshun Ma, Yuanning Zhang, Jianlong Wang, and Pengbing Li (2013): Northwestern Geology 46(4), 173-181
Troilite
Formula: FeS
Trona
Formula: Na3H(CO3)2 · 2H2O
Trüstedtite
Formula: Ni3Se4
Reference: Anthony, J.W. et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy
Tschermakite
Formula: ☐(Ca2)(Mg3Al2)(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Reference: http://www.mindat.org/mesg-14-112462.html; DH&Z
'Tschermakite Root Name'
Formula: ☐(Ca2)(Z2+3Z3+2}(Al2Si6O22)(OH,F,Cl)2
Reference: Huiwen Liu, Xueping Wang, Ji Shao, Kesi Lu, Fanglian Tian, and Shuya Xiong (2014): Mineral Deposits 33(1), 87-103
Tsumoite
Formula: BiTe
Tungsten
Formula: W
Reference: Wenji Bai, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Binggan Yan, and Zhongming Zhang (2001): Earth Science Frontiers 8(3), 111-121
Tungstibite
Formula: Sb3+2WO6
Reference: http://webmineral.ru/minerals/image.php?id=3065
Tungstite
Formula: WO3 · H2O
Tusionite
Formula: Mn2+Sn4+[BO3]2
Reference: Danisi, R.M., Armbruster, T., Wang, H., Günther, D., Nagashima, M., Reusser, E. and Bieri, W. (2015) Perettiite-(Y), IMA 2014-109. CNMNC Newsletter No. 25, June 2015, page 533; Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 529-535.
Tychite
Formula: Na6Mg2(CO3)4(SO4)
Reference: Xiyu Zheng and Shengsong Yu (1981): Scientia Geographica Sinica 1(1), 66-76; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
Tyrolite
Formula: Ca2Cu9(AsO4)4(CO3)(OH)8 · 11H2O
Tyuyamunite
Formula: Ca(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 5-8H2O
Ulexite
Formula: NaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Ullmannite
Formula: NiSbS
Reference: Yuanfu Xiao, Yan Sun, Fahui Xiong, Gang Niu, Han Zhao, and Zhiqiang Zhao (2010): Geological Bulletin of China 29(7), 1031-1038
Ulvöspinel
Formula: TiFe2O4
Reference: Jianxiang Chen, Xinbin Wu, Haifeng Zhang, and Zhongdi Wei (2013): Northwestern Geology 46(2), 111-118
'UM1980-16-Te:Bi' ?
Formula: Bi2Te
Reference: Zhou, H., Sun, X., Fu, Y., Lin, H., Jiang, L. (2016): Mineralogy and mineral chemistry of Bi-minerals: Constraints on ore genesis of the Beiya giant porphyry-skarn gold deposit, southwestern China. Ore Geology Reviews (in press); http://forum.amiminerals.it/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=12853 (2016)
'UM1995-24-S:AsNiSe'
Formula: Ni3As3(S,Se)4
Reference: Liu, J., Zhang, M., Liu, J. (1995): Description of a possibly new Ni-As-S-Se mineral phase. Acta Mineral. Sinica: 15(4):425-427 (in Chinese, English abs.); in: Jambor, J.L., Grew, E.S., Roberts, A.C. (1996): New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 81: 1515
'UM1999-02-As:NiRh'
Formula: (Rh,Ni)7As4
Reference: Wenji Bai, Shufeng Tao, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Nicheng Shi and Guowu Li (2007): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 26(5), 418-428
'UM2000-60-Si:Fe'
Formula: Fe3Si7
Reference: Bai, W., Robinson, P.T., Fang, Q., Yang, J., Yan, B., Zhang, Z., Hu, X.-F., Zhou, M.-F., Malpas, J. (2000): The PGE and base-metal alloys in the podiform chromitites of the Luobusa ophiolite, southern Tibet. Can. Mineral.: 38: 585–598; in: Jambor, J.L., Roberts, A.C. (2001): New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 86: 199
'UM2007-01-As:CuPd'
Formula: (Pd,Cu)7As3
Reference: Wenji Bai, Shufeng Tao, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Nicheng Shi and Guowu Li (2007): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 26(5), 418-428
'UM2007-02-As:NiPd'
Formula: (Pd,Ni)7As4
Reference: Wenji Bai, Shufeng Tao, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Nicheng Shi and Guowu Li (2007): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 26(5), 418-428
'UM2007-03-As:NiRh'
Formula: Rh3Ni3.57As3
Reference: Wenji Bai, Shufeng Tao, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Nicheng Shi and Guowu Li (2007): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 26(5), 418-428
'UM2007-04-As:Pd'
Formula: Pd4As
Reference: Wenji Bai, Shufeng Tao, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Nicheng Shi and Guowu Li (2007): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 26(5), 418-428
'UM2007-05-As:PdTe'
Formula: Pd7(As,Te)2
Reference: Wenji Bai, Shufeng Tao, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Nicheng Shi and Guowu Li (2007): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 26(5), 418-428
'UM2007-06-As:Rh'
Formula: Rh7As3
Reference: Wenji Bai, Shufeng Tao, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Nicheng Shi and Guowu Li (2007): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 26(5), 418-428
'UM2007-16-N:Ti'
Formula: Ti7N3
Reference: Wenji Bai, Shufeng Tao, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Nicheng Shi and Guowu Li (2007): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 26(5), 418-428
'UM2007-21-S:AsIrRh'
Formula: (Rh,Ir)3(S,As)7
Reference: Wenji Bai, Shufeng Tao, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Nicheng Shi and Guowu Li (2007): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 26(5), 418-428
'UM2007-22-S:AsRu'
Formula: Ru3(S,As)7
Reference: Wenji Bai, Shufeng Tao, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Nicheng Shi and Guowu Li (2007): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 26(5), 418-428
'UM2007-26-S:CuFeIrNiPtRh'
Formula: (Ir,Cu,Ni,Pt,Rh,Fe)9S11
Reference: Wenji Bai, Shufeng Tao, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Nicheng Shi and Guowu Li (2007): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 26(5), 418-428
'UM2007-27-S:CuFeIrNiRh'
Formula: (Ni,Fe,Cu,Rh,Ir)11S9
Reference: Wenji Bai, Shufeng Tao, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Nicheng Shi and Guowu Li (2007): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 26(5), 418-428
'UM2007-28-S:CuFeIrNi'
Formula: (Ni,Ir,Fe,Cu)8S9
Reference: Wenji Bai, Shufeng Tao, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Nicheng Shi and Guowu Li (2007): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 26(5), 418-428
'UM2007-29-S:CuFeIrNi'
Formula: (Ir,Ni,Fe,Cu)8S9
Reference: Wenji Bai, Shufeng Tao, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Nicheng Shi and Guowu Li (2007): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 26(5), 418-428
'UM2007-30-S:Fe'
Formula: Fe3S2
Reference: Wenji Bai, Shufeng Tao, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Nicheng Shi and Guowu Li (2007): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 26(5), 418-428
'UM2007-31-S:Ti'
Formula: Ti7S3
Reference: Wenji Bai, Shufeng Tao, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Nicheng Shi and Guowu Li (2007): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 26(5), 418-428
'UM2007-33-Se:CuRhS'
Formula: (Rh,Cu)9(Se,S)11
Reference: Wenji Bai, Shufeng Tao, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Nicheng Shi and Guowu Li (2007): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 26(5), 418-428
'UM2007-42-Te:AsPd'
Formula: Pd7(Te,As)2
Reference: Wenji Bai, Shufeng Tao, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Nicheng Shi and Guowu Li (2007): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 26(5), 418-428
'UM2007-43-Te:Pd'
Formula: Pd5Te2
Reference: Wenji Bai, Shufeng Tao, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Nicheng Shi and Guowu Li (2007): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 26(5), 418-428
'UM2008-32-GeO:AlFSi'
Formula: Al9(Ge,Si)4O20F3
Reference: Lunwei Zhang, Zhilong Huang, and Xiaobiao Li (2008): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 28(1), 15-16
'Unnamed (Ag-Bi Telluride)'
Formula: Ag4Bi3Te3
Reference: Zhou, H., Sun, X., Fu, Y., Lin, H., Jiang, L. (2016): Mineralogy and mineral chemistry of Bi-minerals: Constraints on ore genesis of the Beiya giant porphyry-skarn gold deposit, southwestern China. Ore Geology Reviews (in press); http://forum.amiminerals.it/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=12853 (2016)
'Unnamed (Bi(Pb) Telluride Sulphide)'
Formula: (Bi,Pb)3(Te,S)4
Reference: Zhou, H., Sun, X., Fu, Y., Lin, H., Jiang, L. (2016): Mineralogy and mineral chemistry of Bi-minerals: Constraints on ore genesis of the Beiya giant porphyry-skarn gold deposit, southwestern China. Ore Geology Reviews (in press); http://forum.amiminerals.it/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=12853 (2016)
'Unnamed (Fe-Sn Oxide)'
Formula: Fe3+2Sn3O9
Reference: Rubo Zhang, Yuyu Zhang, and Xiasheng Gong (2005): Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology 26(2), 11-14
'Unnamed (Ni Arsenide Sulphide)'
Formula: Ni3As3(S,Se)4
'Unnamed (Pb-Cu Sulphide)'
Formula: PbCuS2
Reference: Shihui Yang, Yueying Lin, and Yi Wang (1996) An unnamed sulfide mineral - CuPbS2. Acta Mineralogica Sinica [Kuangwu Xuebao]: 16(3): 304-306 (in Chinese with English abstract).; Jambor, J.L. and Roberts, A.C. (1998) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 83: 400-403.
'Unnamed (Ruthenium Oxide)'
Formula: (Ru,Fe)2O3
Reference: Xuecui Zhou and Shuihe Mao (1989): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 9(3), 257-261
Uraninite
Formula: UO2
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Uraninite var: Pitchblende
Formula: UO2
'Uranpyrochlore (of Hogarth 1977)'
Formula: (Ca,U,Ce)2(Nb,Ti,Ta)2O6(OH,F)
Reference: Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data 2018, Sieghard Ellenberger specimen
Uvarovite
Formula: Ca3Cr2(SiO4)3
'Uvite Series'
Formula: Ca(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(F/OH)
Vaesite
Formula: NiS2
Valentinite
Formula: Sb2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Väyrynenite
Formula: Mn2+Be(PO4)(OH,F)
Vermiculite
Formula: Mg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
Vesuvianite
Formula: (Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Localities: Reported from at least 33 localities in this region.
Viitaniemiite
Formula: Na(Ca,Mn2+)Al(PO4)(F,OH)3
Violarite
Formula: Fe2+Ni3+2S4
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Vismirnovite
Formula: Zn[Sn(OH)6]
Reference: Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data (2014), Jiangbin material
Vonsenite
Formula: Fe2+2Fe3+(BO3)O2
Reference: Moore, T. (2004): What's New in Minerals. Costa Mesa Show 2003. Mineralogical Record. 35 (2), 143-145
'Vredenburgite'
Reference: Pavel M. Kartashov analythical data of 2015, Jiangbin material
Vulcanite
Formula: CuTe
Reference: Baohua Li, Zhimin Cao, Jingfu Jin, and Chunqi Wen (1999): Scientia Geologica Sinica 34(4), 463-472
'Wad'
Wairauite
Formula: CoFe
Reference: Xin, H., Eisenhour, D.D., and Buseck, P.R. (1995): Meteoritics 30(1), 106-109.
'Wehrlite (of Huot)'
Reference: Jingwen Mao, Yuchuan Chen, Yunfen Lei, Jianxiong Zhou, and Baichuan Yang (1995): Scientia Geologica Sinica 30(1), 47-52
Whitlockite
Formula: Ca9Mg(PO4)6(HPO4)
Reference: Wang, Y. & Hsu, W. (2009). Petrology and Mineralogy of the Ningqiang carbonaceous chondrite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science Vol. 44, #5, 763-780. (May 2009).
Willemite
Formula: Zn2SiO4
Winchite
Formula: ☐{CaNa}{Mg4Al}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Witherite
Formula: BaCO3
Wittichenite
Formula: Cu3BiS3
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Wodginite
Formula: Mn2+Sn4+Ta2O8
'Wolfachite'
Formula: Ni(As,Sb)S
Reference: Jun Wang, Jun Zhang, and Youye Zheng (2001): Gold Science and Technology 9(3), 5-11
'Wolframite'
Formula: (Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Wollastonite
Formula: CaSiO3
Localities: Reported from at least 32 localities in this region.
Wulfenite
Formula: Pb(MoO4)
Colour: yellow to red
Reference: Liu, G. (2006) Fine Minerals of China. AAA Minerals Ag, Zug, Switzerland.; Wilson, W.E. and Origlieri, M.J. (2007) Red wulfenite from the Kuruktag Mountains, Xinjiang Uygur, China. The Mineralogical Record 38, 67-71.; Zengqian Hou, Shihong Tian, Yuling Xie, Zhusen Yang, Zhongxin Yuan, Shuping Yin, Longsheng Yi, Hongcai Fei, Tianren Zou, Ge Bai, and Xiaoyu Li (2009) Ore Geology Reviews (in press).
Wurtzite
Formula: (Zn,Fe)S
Wüstite
Formula: FeO
'Xenotime'
Xenotime-(Y)
Formula: Y(PO4)
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Ximengite (TL)
Formula: Bi(PO4)
Type Locality:
Description: Ximengite was first described from an undisclosed tin mining area in Ximeng County (Shi, 1989). According to Zhao and Tang (1991), this tin mining area is in fact the Amo deposit.
Reference: Jiaxin Shi (1989): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 9(1), 15-19; Daxian Zhao and Guangting Tang (1991): Acta Geologica Sinica 70(1), 42-57
Yarlongite (TL)
Formula: Cr4Fe4NiC4
Reference: Shi Nicheng, Ma Zhesheng, Xiong Ming, Dai Mingquan, Bai Wenji, Fang Qingsong, Yan Binggang, and Yang Jingsui (2005): Science in China, Series D (Earth Sciences), 48(3), 338-345.
Zabuyelite (TL)
Formula: Li2CO3
Reference: Mianping Zheng and Wengao Liu (1987): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 7(3), 221-226; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10; Mianping Zheng, Heran Yuan, Junying Liu, Yanhe Li, Zhibang Ma, and Qing Sun (2007): Acta Geologica Sinica 81(12), 1608-1617
Zangboite (TL)
Formula: TiFeSi2
Type Locality:
Reference: Li, G., Fang, Q., Shi, N., Bai, W., Yang, J., Xiong, M., Ma, Z., Rogn, He (2009) Zangboite (TiFeSi2), a new mineral from Luobusha, Tibet, China. Canadian Mineralogist, 47, 1265-1274.
'Zeolite Group'
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Zinc
Formula: Zn
Reference: Wenji Bai, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Binggan Yan, and Zhongming Zhang (2001): Earth Science Frontiers 8(3), 111-121
Zincite
Formula: ZnO
Zinkenite
Formula: Pb9Sb22S42
'Zinnwaldite'
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Localities: Reported from at least 54 localities in this region.
Zircon var: Cyrtolite
Formula: Zr[(SiO4),(OH)4]
Reference: Chunhong Wang, Liangsheng Ge, and Xiaodong Guo (2006): Gold Science and Technology 14(6), 1-12
Zoisite
Formula: Ca2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 21 localities in this region.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Aluminium1.AA.05Al
Antimony1.CA.05Sb
var: Bismuthian Antimony1.CA.05(Sb,Bi)
Arsenic1.CA.05As
Awaruite1.AE.20Ni3Fe
Bismuth1.CA.05Bi
Chromferide1.AE.15Fe3Cr1-x (x=0.6)
Chromium (TL)1.AE.05Cr
Copper1.AA.05Cu
var: Stanniferous Copper1.AA.05(Cu,Sn)
Cuproauride ?1.AA.10aCu3Au
Danbaite (TL)1.AB.10bCuZn2
Diamond1.CB.10aC
'Electrum'1.AA.05(Au, Ag)
Gold1.AA.05Au
var: Argentian Mercurian Gold1.AA.05(Au,Ag,Hg)
Graphite1.CB.05aC
Iridium1.AF.10(Ir,Os,Ru)
var: Osmiridium1.AF.10(Ir,Os,Ru)
var: Rutheniridium1.AF.10(Ir,Ru)
var: Ruthenosmiridium1.AF.10(Ir,Os,Ru)
Iron1.AE.05Fe
var: Kamacite1.AE.05(Fe,Ni)
Isoferroplatinum1.AG.35Pt3Fe
Lead1.AA.05Pb
Linzhiite (TL)1.BB.20FeSi2
Luobusaite (TL)1.BB.25Fe0.84Si2
Mercury1.AD.05Hg
Moissanite1.DA.SiC
Naquite (TL)1.BB.15FeSi
Nickel1.AA.05Ni
Osbornite1.BC.15TiN
Osmium1.AF.05(Os,Ir,Ru)
var: Iridosmine1.AF.05(Os,Ir)
Palladium1.AF.10(Pd,Pt)
Platinum1.AF.10Pt
Qusongite (TL)1.BA.25WC
Rhodium1.AF.10(Rh,Pt)
Rutheniridosmine1.AF.05(Ir,Os,Ru)
Ruthenium1.AF.05(Ru,Ir)
var: Iridrhodruthenium1.AF.05(Ru,Rh,Ir)
Schachnerite1.AD.15aAg1.1Hg0.9
Silicon1.CB.15Si
Silver1.AA.05Ag
var: Kongsbergite1.AA.05(Ag,Hg)
var: Küstelite1.AA.05Ag
Sulphur1.CC.05S8
Taenite1.AE.10(Fe,Ni)
Tellurium1.CC.10Te
Tetra-auricupride1.AA.10bAuCu
Tin1.AC.10Sn
Titanium (TL)1.AB.05Ti
'Tongxinite'1.AB.10bCu2Zn
Tungsten1.AE.05W
'UM2007-16-N:Ti'1.BC.Ti7N3
Wairauite1.AE.15CoFe
Yarlongite (TL)1.BA.30Cr4Fe4NiC4
Zangboite (TL)1.BB.TiFeSi2
Zinc1.AB.05Zn
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Acanthite2.BA.35Ag2S
Aikinite2.HB.05aPbCuBiS3
Aktashite2.GA.30Cu6Hg3As4S12
Alabandite2.CD.10MnS
Altaite2.CD.10PbTe
Anduoite (TL)2.EB.15a(Ru,Os)As2
Antimonselite2.DB.05Sb2Se3
Arsenopyrite2.EB.20FeAsS
var: Danaite2.EB.20(Fe0.90Co0.10)AsS - (Fe0.65Co0.35)AsS
Atheneite2.AC.05aPd2As0.75Hg0.25
Aurostibite2.EB.05aAuSb2
Berthierite2.HA.20FeSb2S4
Berzelianite2.BA.20Cu2Se
Bismuthinite2.DB.05Bi2S3
Bornite2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
Borovskite2.LA.60Pd3SbTe4
Boulangerite2.HC.15Pb5Sb4S11
Bournonite2.GA.50PbCuSbS3
Breithauptite2.CC.05NiSb
'Bursaite'2.JB.40aPb5Bi4S11 (?)
Calaverite2.EA.10AuTe2
Canfieldite2.BA.70Ag8SnS6
Carrollite2.DA.05Cu(Co,Ni)2S4
Cattierite2.EB.05aCoS2
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Chalcostibite2.HA.05CuSbS2
Cinnabar2.CD.15aHgS
Clausthalite2.CD.10PbSe
Cobaltite2.EB.25CoAsS
Cobaltpentlandite2.BB.15(Co,Ni,Fe)9S8
Colusite2.CB.30Cu13VAs3S16
Cosalite2.JB.10Pb2Bi2S5
Covellite2.CA.05aCuS
var: Selenian Covellite2.CA.05aCu(S,Se)
Cubanite2.CB.55aCuFe2S3
Diaphorite ?2.JB.05Ag3Pb2Sb3S8
Digenite2.BA.10Cu9S5
Dyscrasite2.AA.35Ag3Sb
Emplectite2.HA.05CuBiS2
Enargite2.KA.05Cu3AsS4
Erlichmanite2.EB.05aOsS2
Famatinite2.KA.10Cu3SbS4
var: Seleniferous Famatinite2.KA.10Cu3Sb(S,Se)4
Ferroselite2.EB.10aFeSe2
Freibergite2.GB.05(Ag,Cu,◻)10Fe2+2Sb4S12
Galena2.CD.10PbS
var: Argentiferous Galena2.CD.10PbS
Galenobismutite2.JC.25ePbBi2S4
Geerite2.BA.05Cu8S5
Geocronite2.JB.30aPb14(Sb,As)6S23
Gersdorffite2.EB.25NiAsS
Getchellite2.FA.35AsSbS3
Giessenite2.HB.10bPb27Cu2(Bi,Sb)19S57
Gladite2.HB.05aPbCuBi5S9
Glaucodot2.EB.10c(Co0.50Fe0.50)AsS
Gratonite2.JB.55Pb9As4S15
Greenockite2.CB.45CdS
Gudmundite2.EB.20FeSbS
Heazlewoodite2.BB.05Ni3S2