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Grand Reef Mine (Aravaipa Mine; Lead Jewel; Joe Rubal Mine; Vivian Mine; Calistoga Mining & Development Co. Mine; Bringham Silver and Lead Mine), Laurel Canyon, Grand Reef Mountain, Klondyke, Santa Teresa Mts, Aravaipa District, Graham Co., Arizona, USA

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 32° 52' 57'' North , 110° 19' 3'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 32.88250,-110.31750
Other regions containing this locality:Sonoran Desert, North America
Köppen climate type:BSk : Cold semi-arid (steppe) climate

A former underground Pb-Cu-Ag-Zn-Au-Mo-V-Baryte-Fluorspar-Silica mine located in the E½ sec. 29, T6S, R20E (Cobre Grande Mountain 7.5 minute topo map), in Laurel Canyon, 4.6 miles SSE of Aravaipa, and about 4 road miles NE of Klondyke. The Aravaipa shaft is 1½ miles farther north. Discovered 1n 1890. Owned by the American Zinc, Lead, and Smelting Co. of St. Louis, MO (1950). First produced 1915. Also known as / designated: George H. Botts, John W. Mackay, and Patented claims MS 1760.

Mineralization is a tabular ore body hosted in Pinal Schist and limestone. The ore zone is 36.58 meters long, 9.14 meters wide, with a depth to bottom of 234.7 meters, striking N12W and dipping 85W. Associated rock units are the Horse Mountain volcanics and the Goodwin Canyon Quartz Monzonite. Ore control was breccia in the Grand Reef Fault within rhyolite porphyry which is intruded by granite. Alteration is silicification.

Area structures include the Grand Reef Fault and block faulting trending NNW. Regional trends: minor Pre-Cretaceous E- and NE

The Grand Reef lode occurs within iron-stained, silicified breccia cemented with quartz and other vein minerals. In Laurel Canyon the breccia forms a reef more than 100 feet wide and over 200 feet high. It strikes approximately N.12ºW. and dips from 70º. to almost vertical. Southward it separates into smaller branches such as the Silver Cable and Dog Water lodes (See the Silver Cable and Dog Water Mines). Below adit level the ore body was 40-50 feet long, 10-15 feet wide. Lead and zinc sulfides and oxides occur in fissure veins and replacement bodies in rhyolite and intensely brecciated limestone. The veins are in low-angle falut zones.

The reef occurs within rhyolite porphyry, which is a short distance father east, and is intruded by granite of the main batholith. In places diabase appears between the granite and rhyolite. A narrow belt of schist has been reported along the western border of the granite.

The main Grand Reef stope exhibits numerous fractures striking N.60ºE. and dipping about 80ºSE. A main break along its axis strikes slightly east of north and dips steeply east to vertically and steeply west downward to the adit level; associated with it is considerable iron stain as well as white clay alteration. Along the west wall of the stope is a vertical break trending approximately north. The southeast apex of the stope is along a fissure that strikes NE and dips 75ºSE; it is marked by considerable iron oxide, local copper stain, and white clay alteration.

Where exposed, the rhyolite in the hanging wall shows alteration to white clay minerals, intense for more than 50 feet and notable for 1,000 feet west of the Grand Reef stopes. Strong alteration of similar character appears on the west side of the Dog Water lode.

The outcrop over the Grand Reef stopes is marked by a grayish-brown color, in contrast to the darker brown tint that prevails immediately north of the ore shoot. Much of the reef south of Laurel Canyon is concealed by Tertiary gravels.

The principal known ore shoot, as stoped on and above the adit level, was 120 feet long and from 15 to more than 30 feet wide. Ore was found below these stopes, to the bottom of the winze. Smaller ore shoots were opened 10 feet west of the main shoot; 600 feet farther north, both on the ridge and in the adit; and south of the winze on the 200 level.

The ore is mainly breccia cemented with fine-grained quartz containing specks of fluorite and flakes of chlorite. Quartz also occurs as irregular bands of light grey chert, as drusy veinlets, and as white to pink vitreous masses. The most abundant sulphide is galena. It forms irregular fragments and bands and commonly includes tiny blebs of acanthite. A little sphalerite and chalcopyrite are assocated with the galena, but pyrite is scarce.

The ore is partly oxidized, and a mass of oxidized ore was reported to occur on te 300 level. Limonite, although not plentiful stains the outcrop.

This mine has a total more than 4,000 feet (1219.2 meters) of workings. The haulage level is an adit about 1,400 feet long, run northward beneath the main stopes. A winze extending 300 feet (91.44 meters) below the adit under the stopes area, has three levels of drifts at 100-foot intervals. Between 1890-1900 the mine was opened to a depth of 300 feet. The haulage level in 1950 was the 1400 foot long adit.

According to Ross 1,389 tons of shipping ore came from the Grand Reef mine during 1915-20 and of the concentrates, 2,613 tons were from te Grand Reef. Production years were 1907-1908, 1915-1920, and 1929-1931. Ranked as second producer of lead in 1931. Except during 191, the Grand Reef Mine yielded most of the output of the district during 1915-1920, 1929-31, and 1937-41. Assays (1915-1920): 2.83% Cu, 40.9% Pb, 1.4% Zn, 0.01 oz/ton Au, 20 oz/ton Ag, 2.4% Fe.

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.

Mineral List

58 valid minerals. 7 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on

Langhian - Chattian
13.82 - 28.1 Ma

ID: 2848158
Middle Miocene to Oligocene granitic rocks

Age: Cenozoic (13.82 - 28.1 Ma)

Description: Granite to diorite representing solidified magma chambers that were the likely source of overlying and nearby volcanic rocks of map unit Tv. The granitic rocks are typically equigranular and fine- to medium-grained. (14-26 Ma)

Lithology: Major:{granite,granodiorite,diorite}, Minor:{quartz diorite}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Data and map coding provided by, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

This page contains all mineral locality references listed on This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.


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Arizona Mining Journal (1920) August, 1920: 31.
Ross, C.P. (1925a), Geology and ore deposits of the Aravaipa and Stanley mining districts, Graham County, Arizona, USGS Bull. 763: 78-86.
Elsing and Heineman (1936) Arizona Metal Production. Arizona Bureau of Mines Bulletin 140: 93.
Flagg, A.G. (1942), Vanadium report, Book 2: 4 (Dog Water and Silver Cable claims file).
Denton, T.C. (1947) U.S Bureau of Mines Report of Investigation 4007.
Galbraith, F.W. (1947), Minerals of Arizona, Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 153: 15, 27.
Wilson, E.D., et al (1950), Arizona zinc and lead deposits, part I, Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 156: 60-62.
Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of Arizona: 43.
Simons, F.S. (1964) Geology of the Klondyke Quadrangle Graham and Pinal Counties. USGS Professional Paper 461: 146.
Van Alstine, R.E. and Moore, R.T. (1969) Fluorspar, in Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 180 (USGS Bull. 871): 352.
USGS & Arizona Bureau of Mines & U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Mineral and Water Resources of Arizona, Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 180 (USGS Bull.871): 235.
Elevatorski, E.A. (1971), Arizona Department of Mineral Resources (ADMR), Arizona Fluorspar: 19.
Anthony, et al (1977) Mineralogy of Arizona: 22.
Elevatorski, E.A. (1978), Arizona Industrial Minerals, Arizona Department of Mineral Resources, Minerals Report No. 2: 33.
Hicks, Clifford J. (1979) Molybdenum Occurrences in Arizona, Arizona Department of Mineral Resources: 17.
Jones, R.W. (1980), The Grand Reef mine, Graham County, Arizona, Mineralogical Record: 11: 219-225;
Besse, William W. (1981) Mineral Paragenesis of the Grand Reef mine, Aravaipa mining district Graham County, Arizona. M.S. thesis, Department of Geology, California State University, Los Angeles.
Phillips, K.A. (1987), Arizona Industrial Minerals, 2nd. Edition, Arizona Department of Mines & Minerals Mineral Report 4, 185 pp.
Kampf, A.R., et al (1989), Grandreefite, pseudograndreefite, laurelite, and aravaipaite: Four new minerals from the Grand Reef mine, Graham County, Arizona, American Mineralogist: 74: 927-933.
Peirce, H. Wesley (1990), Arizona Geological Survey Industrial Minerals card file.
Brown, S.D. (1993) Mineral Appraisal of the Coronado National Forest, Graham County, Arizona, U.S. Bureau of Mines Open File Report MLA 26-93: 40.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.: 100, 112, 118, 120-121, 144, 148, 153, 158, 192, 202, 223, 230, 238, 272, 274, 278, 299, 310, 316, 335, 336, 372, 392.
Kampf, A.R. & E.E. Foord (1995), Artroeite, PbAlF3(OH)2, a new mineral from the Grand Reef mine, Graham Co., AZ: Description and crystal structure, American Mineralogist: 80: 179-183.
Kampf, A.R. & E.E. Foord (1996), Calcioaravaipaite a new mineral and associated lead fluoride minerals from the Grand Reef Mine, Graham County, Arizona. Mineralogical Record: 27: 293-300.
Niemuth, N.J. & K.A. Phillips (1992), Copper Oxide Resources, Arizona Department of Mines & Mineral Resources Open File Report 92-10: 7 (Table 1).
Grant, Raymond W., Richard A. Bideaux & Sidney A. Williams (2006), Minerals Added to the Arizona List 1995 to 2005: 2, 3.
Arizona Department of Mineral Resources FAR Mining Resources file.
Arizona Department of Mineral Resources Aravaipa Mining District Geology file.
Arizona Department of Mineral Resources U file.
USGS Cobre Grande Mountain Quadrangle map.
U.S. Bureau of Land Management Mining District Sheet #753.
MRDS database Dep. ID #10039486, MRDS ID #M050152; and Dep. ID #10209872, MAS ID #0040090147; and Dep. ID #10210077, MRDS ID #D002184, MAS ID #0040090048 (Aravaipa shaft).

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