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United Verde Mine (The Big Hole; Big Hole property; Hull Mine; Hopewell tunnel; Patented claim 3480; Patented claim 2812; Patented claims 3348), Jerome, Verde District, Black Hills (Black Hill Range), Yavapai Co., Arizona, USA

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 34° 45' 0'' North , 112° 7' 20'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 34.75, -112.122222222

A former surface and underground Cu-Pb-Au-Ag-Zn mine located in the center sec. 22, T.16N., R.2E. (Clarkdale 7.5 minute topo map). Discovered 1875. Started about 1876. First produced 1883. Claims extend into the NW¼, the N½SW¼ and the W½W½NE¼ of sec. 22, and the S½SW¼ of sec. 15.

Mineralization is a steeply-dipping, cylindrical body approximately 700 to 800 feet (215 to 246 meters) in diameter, extending down to a depth of 2,400 feet (or 3,100 feet if calculated from the level of the Precambrian peneplain). This was perhaps the world's largest pyritic sulfide orebody.

This mine was the site of a sulfide ore mine fire in which the sulfide ores burned for several years (the fire started in 1894), forming a suite of new species (Lausen, 1928). Mining operations included various mechanisms to control the fire and its resulting fumes while the burning ore was mined.

Workings throughout the period the property was in operation totalled 81 miles of underground workings. Workings reached to the 3,515 level. The workings included a total of 8 shafts, of which 2 were the principal shafts, the No. 3 shaft collar was at about 5,509 feet of altitude and decended vertically to the 1950 foot level; the No. 4 shaft collar was at about 5,530 feet of altitude and went to the 1000 foot level. The 1000 foot level tunnel was the main haulage adit (Hopewell tunnel = 6,600 feet long). There was a 1,200 foot long adit at the 500 foot level. The No. 6 shaft went from the 500 foot level to the 1950 level. The No. 5 shaft went from the 800 level to the 2500 level. Production was 8,200,000 tons of ore to the end of 1918; or, 20,314,000 tons of ore (1880-1930). The ore yielded 1,959,098,900 pounds of Cu, 1,009,800 oz. Au and 34,586,000 oz. Ag.

Mineral List

58 valid minerals. 6 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Entries shown in red are rocks recorded for this region.

Note: this is a very new system on and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

The above list contains all mineral locality references listed on This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.


Wells, H.L. & S.L. Penfield (1885), Gerhardtite and artificial cupric nitrates, American Journal of Science: 30: 50-57.

Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York.: 1094.

Guild, F.N. (1910), The Mineralogy of Arizona, The Chemical Publishing Co., Easton, PA.

University of Arizona Bull. 41 (1916-17), Mineralogy of Useful Minerals in Arizona: 25, 27, 56.

Reber, L.E., Jr. (1922), Geology and ore deposits of Jerome district, in A.I.M.E. Transactions, Vol. 66: 3-26.

Fearing, J.L., Jr. (1926), Some notes on the geology of the Jerome district, Arizona, Economic Geology: 21: 757-773.

Lindgren, W. (1926), Ore deposits of the Jerome and Bradshaw Mountains quadrangles, Arizona, USGS Bull. 782: 26, 27, 28-29, 31, 32, 61-78.

Anderson, C.A. (1927), Voltaite from Jerome, Arizona, American Mineralogist: 12: 287-290.

Butler, G.M. (1928), Corrections to Volume 13, American Mineralogist: 13: 594.

Lausen, C. (1928), Hydrous sulphates formed under fumerolic conditions at the United Verde Mine. American Mineralogist: 13: 203-229.

Ingalls, W.R. (1931) World Survey of the Zinc Industry, Mining and Metallurgical Society of America, 128pp.

Palache, C. (1934), Contributions to crystallography: Claudetite, minasragite, samsonite, native selenium, iridium, American Mineralogist: 19: 194-205.

Reber, L.E., Jr. (1938), Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 145: 49.

Schwartz, G.M. (1938), Oxidized copper ores of the United Verde Extension Mine, Economic Geology: 33: 21-33.

Buerger, M.S. (1942), The unit cell and space group of claudetite As2O3 (abstract), American Mineralogist: 27: 216.

Harcourt, G.A. (1942), Tables for the identification of ore minerals by X-ray powder patterns, American Mineralogist: 27: 63-113.

Galbraith, F.W. (1947), Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 153, Minerals of Arizona: 9, 12, 15, 16, 20, 24.

Anderson, C.A. & S.C. Creasy (1958), Geology and ore deposits of the Jerome area, Yavapai County, Arizona, USGS PP 308: 91, 92, 93, 94, 101-130.

Galbraith, F.W. & Brennan (1959), Minerals of Arizona: 30, 45, 51, 56, 59, 60, 62, 63, 66, 67, 110.

Hutton, C.O. (1959a), Yavapaiite, an anhydrous potassium, ferric sulfate from Jerome, Arizona: American Mineralogist: 44: 1105-1114.

Cesbron, F. (1964), Contribution à la minéralogie des sulfates de fer hydraté, Bull. Soc. Franc. Min. Crist: 87:125-143.

Moxham, R.M., et al (1965), Gamma-ray spectrometer studies of hydrothermally altered rocks, Econ.Geol.: 60: 653-671.

Alenius, E.M.J. (1968) A Brief History of the United Verde Open Pit, Jerome, Arizona. Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 178: 33.

Laughon, R.B. (1970), New data on Guildite, American Mineralogist: 55: 502-505.

Wood, M.M. (1970), The crystal structure of ransomite, American Mineralogist: 55: 729-734.

Fanfani, L.A., et al (1971), The crystal structure of butlerite, American Mineralogist: 56: 751-757.

Graeber, E.J. & A. Rosenzweig (1971), The crystal structure of yavapaiite (KFe(SO4)2 and goldichite, KFe(SO4)2·4H2), American Mineralogist: 56: 1917-1933.

Anderson, C.A. and Nash, J.T. (1972) Geology of the Massive Sulfide Deposits at Jerome, Arizona – A Reinterpretation. Economic Geology: 67(7) (Nov, 1972): 845.

Anthony, J.W., et al (1972), The crystal structure of yavapaiite: A discussion, American Mineralogist: 57: 1546.

Economic Geology (1972): 67(7)[November, 1972].

Niemuth, N.J. (1987), Arizona Mineral Development 1984-1986, Arizona Department of Mines & Mineral Resources Directory 29, 46 pp.

Nickel & Nichols (1991), Mineral Reference Manual: 233.

Blair, Gerry (1992), The Rockhound's Guide to Arizona: Helena, MT, Falcon Press.

Niemuth, N.J. & K.A. Phillips (1992), Copper Oxide Resources, Arizona Department of Mines & Mineral Resources Open File Rept. 92-10: 18 (Table 1).

Sawyer, M.B., Gurmendi, A.C., Daley, M.R., and Howell, S.B. (1992) Principal Deposits of Strategic and Critical Minerals in Arizona, U.S. Bureau of Mines Special Publication, 334 pp.

Econ Geol. (1992) 87:29-49

Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 107, 120, 143, 147, 149, 161, 164, 167, 168, 170, 175, 177, 184, 186, 200, 204, 207, 230-231, 240, 242, 247, 249, 262, 272, 309, 341, 352, 356, 359, 366, 373, 378, 386, 391, 393, 416, 428-429.

Hansen, M.G. ( ) Diamond Drilling at the UV Mine, U.S. Bureau of Mines Information Circular 6708.

USGS Munds Draw Quadrangle map.

USGS Clarkdale Quadrangle map.

Arizona Department of Mineral Resources United Verde file.

U.S. Bureau of Land Management Mining District Sheets 54 & 56.

USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10109023, MRDS ID #M002664; and, file #10186256.

U.S. Bureau of Mines, Minerals Availability System (MAS) file ID #0040251537.

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