Siglo Veinte Mine (Siglo XX Mine; Llallagua Mine; Catavi), Llallagua, Rafael Bustillo Province (Bustillos Province), Potosí Department, Bolivia
|Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):||18° 25' 0'' South , 66° 37' 59'' West|
|Latitude & Longitude (decimal):||-18.41667,-66.63333|
|Köppen climate type:||BSk : Cold semi-arid (steppe) climate|
The name "Siglo Veinte", often also written "Siglo XX", means "Twentieth Century" and was given because serious mining of the tin ores began at the beginning of the century in 1901.
The mine is easily reached from Llallagua, a few minutes walk southwest from the city center.
111 valid minerals. 6 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals. 4 erroneous literature entries.
This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.
Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org
0 - 66 Ma
|Cenozoic mixed volcanic, volcaniclastic and sedimentary rocks|
Age: Cenozoic (0 - 66 Ma)
Reference: Geological Survey of Canada. Generalized geological map of the world and linked databases. doi:10.4095/195142. Open File 2915d. 
Samoyloff, V. (1934) The Llallagua-Uncia tin deposit. Economic Geology, vol.29, 481-499.
Gordon, S.G. (1939) Thorium-free monazite from Llallagua, Bolivia. In Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Notulae Naturae. The Academy of Natural Sciences: Philadelphia, PA, USA, vol. 2, pp. 1–7.
Gordon, S.G. (1939) Greenockite from Llallagua, Bolivia. In Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Notulae Naturae. The Academy of Natural Sciences: Philadelphia, PA, USA, vol. 1, 5 pages.
Gordon, S.G. (1944) The Mineralogy of the Tin Mines of Cerro de Llallagua, Bolivia. In Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Notulae Naturae. The Academy of Natural Sciences: Philadelphia, PA, USA, vol. 96, pp. 279-359.
Palache, C., Berman, H., and Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 938, 963, 972, 973, 975.
Smith, F.G., DasGupta, S.K., and Hill, V.G. (1957) Manganoan ferroan wurtzite from Llallagua, Bolivia (I). The Canadian Mineralogist, vol. 6, n° 1, p. 128-135.
Hurlbut, C.S. and Honea, R. (1962) Sigloite, a new mineral from Llallagua, Bolivia, American Mineralogist, vol. 47, N°s 1 and 2, p.1-8.
Kampf, A.R. (1982) Jeanbandyite: a New Member of the Stottite Group from Llallagua, Bolivia. Mineralogical Record 13 (4), 235-239.
Mining Annual Review (1985) 337.
Rodgers, K.A., Kobe, H.W., and Childs, C.W. (1993) Characterization of vivianite from Catavi, Llallagua Bolivia. Mineralogy and Petrology, volume 47, Issue 2-4, pp. 193-208.
Petrov, A., Smith, B., and Smith, C. (2001) A Guide to Mineral Localities in Bolivia. Mineralogical Record 32, 457-482 (p. 474).
Hyrsl, J. and Petrov, A. (2006) Famous mineral localities: Llallagua, Bolivia. Mineralogical Record 37, 117-162.
Rakovan, J. and Reeder, R.J. (1994) Differential incorporation of trace elements and dissymmetrization in apatite: The role of surface structure during growth. American Mineralogist, 79, 892-903.
Rakovan, J. and Reeder, R.J. (1996) Intracrystalline Rare Earth Element distributions in apatite: Surface structural influences on zoning during Growth. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 60, 22: pp. 4435-4445.
Rakovan, J., McDaniel, D.K., and Reeder, R.J. (1997) Use of surface-controlled REE sectoral zoning in apatite from Llallagua, Bolivia, to determine a single-crystal Sm-Nd age. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 146, Issues 1-2, pp. 329-336.
Rakovan, J., Newville, M., and Sutton, S. (2001) Evidence of heterovalent europium in zoned Llallagua apatite using wavelength dispersive XANES. American Mineralogist, vol. 86, 5-6, pp. 697-700.
Rakovan, J. (2003) Exceptional Apatites from the Siglo XX mine, Llallagua Bolivia. Tucson Mineralogical Symposium. Mineralogical Record 34, 117-118.
Raade, G., Grice, J.D., and Rowe, R. (2016) Ferrivauxite, a new phosphate mineral from Llallagua, Bolivia. Mineralogical Magazine, vol.80 (2), pp. 311-324.