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Ray Mine, Scott Mountain, Mineral Creek District (Ray District), Dripping Spring Mts, Pinal Co., Arizona, USA

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 33° 10' 39'' North , 110° 56' 44'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 33.17750,-110.94583
GeoHash:G#: 9tcherg8y
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:Csa : Hot-summer Mediterranean climate


A Cu-Ag-Au-Mo-Pb-Zn mine located in all of sec. 10, T3S, R13E (Sonora 7.5 minute topo map), about 2¾ miles SSW of Scott Mountain, about 3¾ miles S of Hot Tamale Peak, and about 4 miles NNW of Kelvin. Discovered 1846. First produced 1911. NOTE: This mine, named after the mining town of Ray, subhumed that town (which no longer exists). Residents were moved to the new mining company built town of Kearny; however, Kelvin is the nearest municipality to the mine.

Mineralisation is a porphyry copper deposit hosted in Pinal Schist, Granite Mountain Porphyry, Pioneer Shale of the Apache group, and Dripping Spring Quartzite. Ore control was the intersection of NW and NE fault zones, permeability & type of host rock. Ore concentration was secondary enrichment. Alteration is sericitic, propylitic, biotite-clay, chloritisation, and epidote. Area structures include the Broken Hill fault, West End fault, North End fault and numerous others, mostly normal.

Alternative Label Names

This is a list of additional names that have been recorded for mineral labels associated with this locality in the minID database. This may include previous versions of the locality name hierarchy from mindat.org, data entry errors, and it may also include unconfirmed sublocality names or other names that can only be matched to this level.

Ray Mine, Scott Mountain area, Mineral Creek District (Ray District), Dripping Spring Mts, Pinal Co., Arizona, USA
Ray Mine, Pinal Co. Arizona
Ray Mine, Pinal County, Arizona
Ray Mine, Scott Mountain area, Mineral Creek District, Dripping Spring Mts, Pinal Co., Arizona, USA
ray mine
Ray Mine, Scott Mountain area, Mineral Creek District (Ray District), Dripping Springs Mts., Pinal Co., Arizona, USA
Ray Mine, Scott Mountain area, Mineral Creek District (Ray District), Dripping Spring Mts., Pinal Co., Arizona, USA
Ray Mine, Pinal County, Arizona, USA
Ray Mine Pinal Co. AZ

Regions containing this locality

Sonoran Desert, North America

Desert - 1,135 mineral species & varietal names listed

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

54 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

'Allanite Group'
Formula: {A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Min.Rec.: 14(5): 311-322.
Alunite
Formula: KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Min.Rec.: 14(5): 311-322.
Andalusite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Reference: Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Min.Rec.: 14(5): 311-322.
Anhydrite
Formula: CaSO4
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID #10106863, MRDS ID #M000327.
'Apatite'
Reference: Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Min.Rec.: 14(5): 311-322.
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Reference: Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Min.Rec.: 14(5): 311-322.
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Min.Rec.: 14(5): 311-322.
Bementite
Formula: Mn7Si6O15(OH)8
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 132.
'Biotite'
Reference: Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Min.Rec.: 14(5): 311-322.
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Reference: Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Min.Rec.: 14(5): 311-322.
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Min.Rec.: 14(5): 311-322.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Min.Rec.: 14(5): 311-322.
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 163; Schwartz, G.M. (1947), Hydrothermal alteration in the 'porphyry copper' deposits, Econ.Geol.: 42: 319-352; Ransome, F.L. (1919), The copper deposits of Ray and Miami, AZ, USGS PP 115; Clarke, O.M., Jr. (1953), Geochemical prospectying for copper at Ray, AZ, Econ.Geol.: 48: 39-45; Lewis, D.V. (1955), Relationships of ore bodies to dikes and sills, Econ.Geol.: 50: 495-516; Metz, R.A. & A.W. Rose (1966), Geology of the Ray copper deposit, Ray, AZ, in S.R. Titley and C.L. Hicks (editors), Geology of the porphyry copper deposits, southwestern North America, Univ. AZ Press, Tucson: 177-188; Univ. AZ Bull. 41 (1916-17), Mineralogy of Useful Minerals in AZ: 28.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Univ. AZ Bull. 41 (1916-17), Mineralogy of Useful Minerals in AZ: 29.
Chlorargyrite
Formula: AgCl
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 170.
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Min.Rec.: 14(5): 311-322.
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 174; Schwartz, G.M. (1934), Paragenesis of the oxidized ores of copper, Econ.Geol.: 29: 55-75; Clarke, O.M., Jr. (1953), Geochemical prospectying for copper at Ray, AZ, Econ.Geol.: 48: 39-45; Stephens, J.D. & R.A. Metz (1967), The occurrence of copper-bearing clay minerals in oxidized portions of the disseminated copper deposit at Ray, AZ (abstract), Econ.Geol.: 62: 876-877; Throop, A.H. & P.R. Buseck (1971), Nature and origin of black chrysocolla at the Inspiration mine, AZ, Econ.Geol.: 66: 1168-1175; Wilson, W.E. (1977), What's new in minerals? (Ray chrysocolla), in.Rec.: 8: 58; Thompson, W. (1980), Chrysocolla pseudomorphs from Ray, AZ, Min.Rec.: 11: 248-250; Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Min.Rec.: 14: 311-322.
Copper
Formula: Cu
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 186; Ransome, F.L. (1919), The copper deposits of Ray and Miami, AZ, USGS PP 115; White, J.S., Jr. (1974), What's new in minerals?, Min.Rec.: 5: 233-236; Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Min.Rec.: 14: 311-322.
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID #10106863, MRDS ID #M000327.
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 197; Metz, R.A. & A.W. Rose (1966), Geology of the Ray copper deposit, Ray, AZ, in S.R. Titley and C.L. Hicks (editors), Geology of the porphyry copper deposits, southwestern North America, Univ. AZ Press, Tucson: 177-188.
Cuprite var: Chalcotrichite
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 197; Metz, R.A. & A.W. Rose (1966), Geology of the Ray copper deposit, Ray, AZ, in S.R. Titley and C.L. Hicks (editors), Geology of the porphyry copper deposits, southwestern North America, Univ. AZ Press, Tucson: 177-188.
Delafossite
Formula: CuFeO2
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 200; Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Min.Rec.: 14(5): 311-322.
Descloizite
Formula: PbZn(VO4)(OH)
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 201; Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Min.Rec.: 14(5): 311-322.
Dioptase
Formula: CuSiO3 · H2O
Reference: Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Min.Rec.: 14(5): 311-322.
'Dolerite'
Reference: USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10210616.
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Min.Rec.: 14(5): 311-322.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: D. Court collection
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Reference: Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Min.Rec.: 14(5): 311-322.
'Gem Silica'
Reference: Chris Boyd
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Min.Rec.: 14(5): 311-322.
Gold
Formula: Au
Reference: Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Min.Rec.: 14(5): 311-322.
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: No reference listed; Rob Lavinsky
Halite
Formula: NaCl
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 243.
'Halloysite'
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 174; Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Min.Rec.: 14(5): 311-322.
Halloysite-10Å
Formula: Al2Si2O5(OH)4 · 2H2O
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 213; Schwartz, G.M. (1934), Paragenesis of the oxidized ores of copper, Econ.Geol.: 29: 55-75; Schwartz, G.M. (1947), Hydrothermal alteration in the 'porphyry copper' deposits, Econ.Geol.: 42: 319-352; Stephens, J.D. & R.A. Metz (1967), The occurrence of copper-bearing clay minerals in oxidized portions of the disseminated copper deposit at Ray, AZ (abstract), Econ.Geol.: 62: 876-877.
Halotrichite
Formula: FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Reference: Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Min.Rec.: 14(5): 311-322.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 132.
'Heulandite subgroup'
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 174, 250; Throop, A.H. & P.R. Buseck (1971), Nature and origin of black chrysocolla at the Inspiration mine, AZ, Econ.Geol.: 66: 1168-1175; Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Min.Rec.: 14(5): 311-322.
'Hornblende'
Reference: Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Min.Rec.: 14(5): 311-322.
'Hydromuscovite'
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 213, 315; Schwartz, G.M. (1952), Chlorite-calcite pseudomorphs after orthoclase phenocrysts, Ray, Arizona, Econ.Geol.: 47: 665-672.
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Reference: Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Min.Rec.: 14(5): 311-322.
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Min.Rec.: 14(5): 311-322.
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 213; Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Min.Rec.: 14(5): 311-322.
Laumontite
Formula: CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Reference: D. Court collection
Libethenite
Formula: Cu2(PO4)(OH)
Reference: D. Court collection
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Min.Rec.: 14(5): 311-322.
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.: 174.
Metatorbernite
Formula: Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Reference: Steve Sorrell Collection
Mimetite
Formula: Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 299.
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 302; Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Min.Rec.: 14(5): 311-322; Univ. AZ Bull. 41 (1916-17), Mineralogy of Useful Minerals in AZ: 46.
'Monazite'
Reference: Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Min.Rec.: 14(5): 311-322.
Montmorillonite
Formula: (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Reference: Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Min.Rec.: 14(5): 311-322.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Min.Rec.: 14(5): 311-322.
Muscovite var: Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 213, 315; Schwartz, G.M. (1952), Chlorite-calcite pseudomorphs after orthoclase phenocrysts, Ray, Arizona, Econ.Geol.: 47: 665-672.
Neotocite
Formula: (Mn,Fe,Mg)SiO3 · H2O
Reference: Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Min.Rec.: 14(5): 311-322.
Nontronite
Formula: Na0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 315; Schwartz, G.M. (1952), Chlorite-calcite pseudomorphs after orthoclase phenocrysts, Ray, Arizona, Econ.Geol.: 47: 665-672; Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Min.Rec.: 14(5): 311-322.
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Mineralogical Record: 14: 311-322.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Mineralogical Record: 14: 311-322.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Min.Rec.: 14(5): 311-322.
Quartz var: Chalcedony
Formula: SiO2
Reference: No reference listed
'Quartz-monzonite'
Reference: USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10210616.
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Min.Rec.: 14(5): 311-322.
'Schist'
Reference: USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10210616.
Silver
Formula: Ag
Reference: Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Mineralogical Record: 14: 311-322.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: D. Court collection
Talc
Formula: Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Reference: Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Min.Rec.: 14(5): 311-322.
Tennantite
Formula: Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID #10210616, MAS ID #0040210006.
Tenorite
Formula: CuO
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 174; Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Min.Rec.: 14(5): 311-322.
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Reference: Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Min.Rec.: 14(5): 311-322.
Torbernite
Formula: Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
Reference: Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Min.Rec.: 14(5): 311-322.
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Min.Rec.: 14(5): 311-322.
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Reference: Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Min.Rec.: 14(5): 311-322.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Copper1.AA.05Cu
Gold1.AA.05Au
Silver1.AA.05Ag
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
'Bornite'2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Covellite2.CA.05aCuS
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Molybdenite2.EA.30MoS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Tennantite2.GB.05Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Group 3 - Halides
Chlorargyrite3.AA.15AgCl
Halite3.AA.20NaCl
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Cuprite4.AA.10Cu2O
var: Chalcotrichite4.AA.10Cu2O
Delafossite4.AB.15CuFeO2
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Ilmenite4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Chalcedony4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Tenorite4.AB.10CuO
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
'Azurite'5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
'Calcite'5.AB.05CaCO3
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
'Alunite'7.BC.10KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
'Anhydrite'7.AD.30CaSO4
'Baryte'7.AD.35BaSO4
'Brochantite'7.BB.25Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Halotrichite7.CB.85FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Jarosite7.BC.10KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Descloizite8.BH.40PbZn(VO4)(OH)
Libethenite8.BB.30Cu2(PO4)(OH)
Metatorbernite8.EB.10Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Mimetite8.BN.05Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Torbernite8.EB.05Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
'Andalusite'9.AF.10Al2(SiO4)O
'Bementite'9.EE.05Mn7Si6O15(OH)8
Chrysocolla9.ED.20Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Dioptase9.CJ.30CuSiO3 · H2O
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Halloysite9.ED.10Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Laumontite9.GB.10CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Montmorillonite9.EC.40(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Sericite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Neotocite9.ED.20(Mn,Fe,Mg)SiO3 · H2O
Nontronite9.EC.40Na0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Orthoclase9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Talc9.EC.05Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Allanite Group'-{A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
'Apatite'-
'Biotite'-
Chlorite Group-
Dolerite-
Garnet Group-X3Z2(SiO4)3
Gem Silica-
Halloysite-10Å-Al2Si2O5(OH)4 · 2H2O
Heulandite subgroup-
Hornblende-
Hydromuscovite-
Monazite-
Quartz-monzonite-
Schist-
Tourmaline-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Silver1.1.1.2Ag
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Molybdenite2.12.10.1MoS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
3 <ø < 4
Tennantite3.3.6.2Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
AX
Tenorite4.2.3.1CuO
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
AX2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
ABX2
Delafossite7.1.1.1CuFeO2
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX
Chlorargyrite9.1.4.1AgCl
Halite9.1.1.1NaCl
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anhydrite28.3.2.1CaSO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
AB2(XO4)4·H2O
Halotrichite29.7.3.2FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Brochantite30.1.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Alunite30.2.4.1KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Jarosite30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
AB2(XO4)2·xH2O, containing (UO2)2+
Metatorbernite40.2a.13.2Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Torbernite40.2a.13.1Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Descloizite41.5.2.1PbZn(VO4)(OH)
A2(XO4)Zq
Libethenite41.6.6.2Cu2(PO4)(OH)
A5(XO4)3Zq
Mimetite41.8.4.2Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and >[4] coordination
Andalusite52.2.2b.1Al2(SiO4)O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
Dioptase61.1.3.1CuSiO3 · H2O
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
'Halloysite'71.1.1.4Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Neotocite71.1.5.4(Mn,Fe,Mg)SiO3 · H2O
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Talc71.2.1.3Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 clays
Montmorillonite71.3.1a.2(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Nontronite71.3.1a.3Na0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Group 74 - PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
Modulated Layers with joined strips
Chrysocolla74.3.2.1Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Orthoclase76.1.1.1K(AlSi3O8)
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
Laumontite77.1.1.4CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Group 78 - Unclassified Silicates
Bementite78.5.2.1Mn7Si6O15(OH)8
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Allanite Group'-{A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
'Apatite'-
'Biotite'-
'Chlorite Group'-
Cuprite
var: Chalcotrichite
-Cu2O
'Dolerite'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Gem Silica'-
Halloysite-10Å-Al2Si2O5(OH)4 · 2H2O
'Heulandite subgroup'-
'Hornblende'-
'Hydromuscovite'-
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Monazite'-
Muscovite
var: Sericite
-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Quartz
var: Chalcedony
-SiO2
'Quartz-monzonite'-
'Schist'-
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Allanite Group{A12+REE3+}{M23+M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H BementiteMn7Si6O15(OH)8
H BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
H ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
H DescloizitePbZn(VO4)(OH)
H DioptaseCuSiO3 · H2O
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H Halloysite-10ÅAl2Si2O5(OH)4 · 2H2O
H HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
H LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H MetatorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 8H2O
H Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Neotocite(Mn,Fe,Mg)SiO3 · H2O
H NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
H Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
H TorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
BBoron
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
CCarbon
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
C CalciteCaCO3
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
OOxygen
O Allanite Group{A12+REE3+}{M23+M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
O AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)O
O AnhydriteCaSO4
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O BaryteBaSO4
O BementiteMn7Si6O15(OH)8
O BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
O CalciteCaCO3
O Quartz (var: Chalcedony)SiO2
O Cuprite (var: Chalcotrichite)Cu2O
O ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
O CupriteCu2O
O DelafossiteCuFeO2
O DescloizitePbZn(VO4)(OH)
O DioptaseCuSiO3 · H2O
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O Halloysite-10ÅAl2Si2O5(OH)4 · 2H2O
O HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
O HematiteFe2O3
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
O LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O MetatorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 8H2O
O MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
O Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Neotocite(Mn,Fe,Mg)SiO3 · H2O
O NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
O OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
O QuartzSiO2
O RutileTiO2
O Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
O TenoriteCuO
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O TorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
NaSodium
Na HaliteNaCl
Na Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Na NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
MgMagnesium
Mg Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Mg Neotocite(Mn,Fe,Mg)SiO3 · H2O
Mg TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Al AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)O
Al ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al Halloysite-10ÅAl2Si2O5(OH)4 · 2H2O
Al HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Al Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Al OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Al Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si Allanite Group{A12+REE3+}{M23+M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)O
Si BementiteMn7Si6O15(OH)8
Si Quartz (var: Chalcedony)SiO2
Si ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Si DioptaseCuSiO3 · H2O
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
Si HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si Halloysite-10ÅAl2Si2O5(OH)4 · 2H2O
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Si Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Neotocite(Mn,Fe,Mg)SiO3 · H2O
Si NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Si OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
PPhosphorus
P LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
P MetatorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 8H2O
P TorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
SSulfur
S AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
S AnhydriteCaSO4
S BaryteBaSO4
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
S ChalcociteCu2S
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S CovelliteCuS
S GalenaPbS
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
S MolybdeniteMoS2
S PyriteFeS2
S SphaleriteZnS
S TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
ClChlorine
Cl ChlorargyriteAgCl
Cl HaliteNaCl
Cl MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
KPotassium
K AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
K Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca AnhydriteCaSO4
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Ca Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
TiTitanium
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Ti RutileTiO2
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
VVanadium
V DescloizitePbZn(VO4)(OH)
MnManganese
Mn BementiteMn7Si6O15(OH)8
Mn Neotocite(Mn,Fe,Mg)SiO3 · H2O
FeIron
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe DelafossiteCuFeO2
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe Neotocite(Mn,Fe,Mg)SiO3 · H2O
Fe NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Fe PyriteFeS2
CuCopper
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu Cuprite (var: Chalcotrichite)Cu2O
Cu ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Cu CopperCu
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu DelafossiteCuFeO2
Cu DioptaseCuSiO3 · H2O
Cu LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu MetatorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Cu TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Cu TenoriteCuO
Cu TorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
ZnZinc
Zn DescloizitePbZn(VO4)(OH)
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AsArsenic
As MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
As TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
ZrZirconium
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)
MoMolybdenum
Mo MolybdeniteMoS2
AgSilver
Ag ChlorargyriteAgCl
Ag SilverAg
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
AuGold
Au GoldAu
PbLead
Pb DescloizitePbZn(VO4)(OH)
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
UUranium
U MetatorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 8H2O
U TorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Quaternary - Miocene
0 - 23.03 Ma



ID: 3185380
Cenozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Cenozoic (0 - 23.03 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Serpukhovian - Early Cambrian
323.2 - 541 Ma



ID: 2809121
Mississippian, Devonian, and Cambrian sedimentary rocks

Age: Paleozoic (323.2 - 541 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Tapeats Sandstone; Bright Angel Shale; Muav Limestone; Temple Butte Formation; Redwall Limestone; Bolsa Quartzite; Abrigo Formation; Martin Formation; Escabrosa Limestone

Description: Brown to dark gray sandstone grades upward into green and gray shale, overlain by light to medium gray or tan limestone and dolostone. This unit includes the Tapeats Sandstone, Bright Angel Shale, Muav Limestone, Temple Butte Formation and Redwall Limestone in northern Arizona, and the Bolsa Quartzite, Abrigo Formation, Martin Formation, and Escabrosa Limestone in southern Arizona. These rocks record intermittent sea-level rise and inundation in early Paleozoic time. (330-540 Ma)

Lithology: Major:{sandstone,shale,limestone}, Minor:{dolostone,quartzite}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
University of Arizona Bulletin 41 (1916-17) Mineralogy of Useful Minerals in Arizona: 28, 29, 46.
Ransome, F.L. (1919) The copper deposits of Ray and Miami, Arizona. USGS Professional Paper 115.
Parsons, A.B. (1933) Ray Consolidated Chief in the Porphyry Coppers. A.I.M.E., New York, 1st. edition: 184-203.
Schwartz, G.M. (1934) Paragenesis of the oxidized ores of copper. Economic Geology: 29: 55-75.
Schwartz, G.M. (1947) Hydrothermal alteration in the 'porphyry copper' deposits. Economic Geology: 42: 319-352.
Schwartz, G.M. (1952) Chlorite-calcite pseudomorphs after orthoclase phenocrysts, Ray, Arizona. Economic Geology: 47: 665-672.
Clarke, O.M., Jr. (1953) Geochemical prospecting for copper at Ray, Arizona. Economic Geology: 48: 39-45.
Lewis, D.V. (1955) Relationships of ore bodies to dikes and sills. Economic Geology: 50: 495-516.
Metz, R.A. and Rose, A.W. (1966) Geology of the Ray copper deposit, Ray, Arizona, in Titley, S.R. and Hicks, C.L. (eds.) Geology of the porphyry copper deposits, southwestern North America. University of Arizona Press, Tucson: 177-188.
Stephens, J.D. and Metz, R.A. (1967) The occurrence of copper-bearing clay minerals in oxidized portions of the disseminated copper deposit at Ray, Arizona (abstract). Economic Geology: 62: 876-877.
Cornwall et al. (1971) USGS Map GQ-1021.
Throop, A.H. and Buseck, P.R. (1971) Nature and origin of black chrysocolla at the Inspiration mine, Arizona. Economic Geology: 66: 1168-1175.
Phillips et al. (1974) Economic Geology: 69: 1237-1250.
White, J.S., Jr. (1974) What's new in minerals? Mineralogical Record: 5: 233-236.
Wilson, W.E. (1977) What's new in minerals? (Ray chrysocolla). Mineralogical Record: 8: 58.
Sundt, M.M. (1979) Constructing Plant for Kennecott's Ray Mines. Skillings Mining Review March 31, 1979: 6.
Mining (1980) E&MJ Kennecott's New SX Plant on Stream. June 1980: 35, 39.
Thompson, W. (1980) Chrysocolla pseudomorphs from Ray, Arizona. Mineralogical Record: 11: 248-250.
Arizona Department of Mines & Mineral Resources Primary Copper Industry of Arizona Special Reports n° 5 (1981).
Arizona Department of Mines & Mineral Resources Primary Copper Industry of Arizona Special Reports n° 6 (1982).
Banks, N.G. (1982) Sulfur and copper in magma and rocks: Ray porphyry copper deposit, Pinal County, Arizona. In: Advances in Geology of Porphyry Copper Deposits, Southwestern North America (S.R. Titley, editor). University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona (227-257).
Kennezonian, Summer (1977) (Exploration) Arizona Pay Dirt.
Kennecott Surprises Industry by Closing Ray, Chino Indefinitely (March 1982) Front cover and p. 4-5.
Arizona Pay Dirt (1983) Kennecott Reopening Ray Mine and Mill, Calling Back Workers. August 1983: 18A-19A.
Jones, R.W. and Wilson, W.E. (1983) The Ray mine. Mineralogical Record: 14: 311-322.
Walenga, Karen (1985) Kennecott's Ray Mines Division is having a Tough Time. Arizona Pay Dirt: June 1985: 3A.
Modifying Ray SX-EW to Treat Sulphide Leach. Southwestern Pay Dirt: February 1987: 4A-6A.
Dayton, S.H. (1988) ASARCO hits the Mark with Arizona Copper Expansion. Engineering and Mining Journal: 189(9): 30-50.
O'Neil, Tim (1989) ASARCO: Plant Expansions and Modernizations Continue Amidst Company Restructuring. Mining Engineering: 6/89: 430-434.
Walenga, Karen (1989) Mission, Ray Expansion to Assure Copper Feed. Southwestern Paydirt, March 1989: 4A-8A.
Phillips, K.A., Beard, R.R., Niemuth, N.J., and Bain, D.R. (1991) Active Mines in Arizona – 1992. Arizona Department of Mines and Mineral Resources Directory 39, 20 pp.
Dillard, Gary (1992) Expansion Doubles Production, Lowers Costs. Southwestern Pay Dirt No. 636: 6/92: 4A-11A.
Dillard, Gary (1992) Ray Greatly Expands Ore Reserves Without Drilling a Hole. Southwestern Pay Dirt: 9/92: 3A.
Kilburn, John (1992) Ray Expansion Boosts ASARCO Copper Output. Northern Miner: 11/23/92: 1 & 2.
Niemuth, N.J. and Phillips, K.A. (1992) Copper Oxide Resources. Arizona Department of Mines & Mineral Resources Open File Report 92-10: 15 (Table 1).
Sawyer, M.B., Gurmendi, A.C., Daley, M.R., and Howell, S.B. (1992) Principal Deposits of Strategic and Critical Minerals in Arizona, U.S. Bureau of Mines Special Publication, 334 pp.
Dillard, Gary (1993) Ray Complex is Hit Hardest by Rail link Washout. Southwestern Pay Dirt: 2/93: 4A-10A.
Anthony, J.W. et al. (1995) Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.: 132, 163, 170, 174, 186, 197, 200, 201, 213, 243, 250, 299, 302, 315.
USGS (2005) Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10106863 (MRDS ID M000327) & 10210616.
U.S. Bureau of Mines, Minerals Availability System (MAS) file ID #0040210006.
USGS 7.5 minute Hayden Quadrangle map.

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