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Mammoth-Saint Anthony Mine (Mammoth-St Anthony Mine; Mammoth Mine; St. Anthony Mine), St. Anthony deposit, Tiger, Mammoth District, Pinal Co., Arizona, USA

This page kindly sponsored by Marcus J. Origlieri, Ph.D.
Lock Map
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 32° 42' 23'' North , 110° 40' 59'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 32.70639,-110.68306
GeoHash:G#: 9tc616509
Other regions containing this locality:San Pedro river valley, Arizona/Sonora, USA/Mexico
Sonoran Desert, North America
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:BSk : Cold semi-arid (steppe) climate

A former Au-V-Pb-Zn-Mo-Cu-Ag-W-F (Fluorspar)-Ba (Baryte) mine located in the SW¼ sec. 26, T8S, R16E. (Mammoth 7.5 minute topo map), about 50 miles NNE of Tucson and 21 miles south of Winkleman, on the east slope of the Black Hills. First claims were located in 1879. Started in 1881 and closed in 1912 as the "Mammoth" mine. Later became the Mammoth-St Anthony mine and incorporated the Collins mine/vein. Worked 1916-1919 and 1935 to 1953. Owned by the Magma Copper Co. (1953 to end). Prior to that, it was owned by the Mammoth-St Anthony Mining, Ltd. (1935-1953). Additional names which apply to this property are Tiger property; Mammoth Gold Mines Ltd. property.

Mineralization in this district is a series of veins within shear zones that strike WNW-ward and dip steeply SW-ward. Their gangue consists of brecciated country rock cemented and replaced with quartz and calcite together with some baryte and fluorite. The quartz forms successive bands of which some of the latest generation show well-developed comb structure and are locally amethystine. Most of the gold occurs in an earlier generation of dense, greenish-yellow quartz. The gold tends to be fine-grained, but in places its particles are visible. Wall rock alteration along the veins consists mainly of chloritization and silicification. Such alteration, together with the texture and mineralogy of the veins, points to deposition in the epithermal zone.

The Mammoth ore body group run NW to SE (Mammoth, Mohawk & New Year), and appear to be one vein, termed the Mammoth vein. These veins dip steeply SW-ward. With approximately the same strike but steep NE-ward dip, the Mammoth fault comes to the surface near the Collins vein.

In the Mammoth mine, oxidation is complete to the 700-foot level. The ore on the 760-foot level is reported to be largely oxidized, with some residual bunches of galena. The galena is reported to contain 25 oz. Ag/T and 0.375 oz. Au/T. Apparently, there were 2 steeply SE-ward pitching ore shoots that diverged, branched, and became smaller upward. Between the 400-foot and 760-foot level, these shoots ranged from 45 to 150 feet apart, from 7 to 40 feet in width, and from $6.24 to $11.96 (period values) in gold per ton. The NW shoot ranged from 200 to 395 feet in length and the SE from 90 to 220 feet. The production of gold from the Mammoth and Collins mines through 1901 was over 150,000 ounces valued at more than $3,000,000 (period values). Total production of the Cap from 1881 thru 1947 was 1,889,375 tons of ore yielding 397,201 oz. Au, 983,918 oz. Ag, 3,456,121 lbs. Cu, 74,730,289 lbs. Pb, 48, 272,654 lbs. Zn, 6,314,822 lbs. MoO3, and 2,540,842 lbs. V2O5.

The camp was largely active from 1901 until 1915 when the wartime demand for molybdenum and vanadium resulted in reopening of the mines for a short period. In 1919 the metal prices fell, and the mines closed again.

The increase in the price of gold in 1933 caused renewed activity, and production of Au-V-Mo ores began in 1934 from the oxidized part of the veins. Mining continued until 1943 when the high prices and the need for base metals resulted in the development of the sulfide ore bodies below the 650 level of the Collins vein for Pb & Zn (galena & sphalerite).

The workings included a vertical shaft that was in the middle of the town of Tiger, which was later obliterated by the owners of the nearby San Manuel mining complex. The workings went to 1,125 feet deep. You may still stand on the rim of the pit resulting from the San Manuel mine operators desiring to kill 2 birds with one stone - use the high-silica rock for a smelter flux and recover the gold value; however, there proved to be too much lead in the mix and the effort was abandoned. The town is gone, the shaft is filled in and marked with four corner stakes of rebar at the bottom of the 20 to 30-foot deep pit. Look to the West and observe the cleft in the hill behind the former town as the caved area of the Collins vein. Look in the opposite direction to the East and observe the headframe of the former Mohawk mine outlined against the oxide ore leach heaps from the San Manuel oxide mine.

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Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities



'Albite-Anorthite Series'












Bideauxite (TL)


Bobmeyerite (TL)












var: Bromian Chlorargyrite

'Chlorite Group'

'Chromian Leadhillite'





Creaseyite (TL)



var: Chalcotrichite



var: Cuprian Descloizite










Georgerobinsonite (TL)




var: Specularite








'K Feldspar'

'var: Adularia'




Lepidocrocite ?



Macquartite (TL)



Mammothite (TL)









Murdochite (TL)


var: Sericite







Pinalite (TL)









var: Amethyst




'Serpentine Subgroup'
















Wherryite (TL)



var: Tungstenoan Wulfenite


Yedlinite (TL)

108 valid minerals. 10 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Quaternary - Miocene
0 - 23.03 Ma

ID: 3185380
Cenozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Cenozoic (0 - 23.03 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

1400 - 1600 Ma

ID: 2905688
Middle Proterozoic granitic rocks

Age: Calymmian (1400 - 1600 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Oracle Granite; Ruin Granite

Description: Mostly porphyritic biotite granite with large microcline phenocrysts, with local fine-grained border phases and aplite. Associated pegmatite and quartz veins are rare. This unit forms large plutons, including the Oracle Granite, Ruin Granite, granite in the Pinnacle Peak - Carefree area northeast of Phoenix, and several bodies west of Prescott. (1400-1450 Ma)

Comments: ~ 1.4 Ga

Lithology: Major:{granite}, Minor:{aplite}, Incidental:{pegmatite}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

Localities in this Region
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This page contains all mineral locality references listed on mindat.org. This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in mindat.org without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.


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Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York.: 991, 1094.
Guild, F.N. (1910) The mineralogy of Arizona, The Chemical Publishing Co., Easton, PA.
Guild, F.N. (1911) Mineralogische Notizen, Zeit. Krystal. und Mineral.: 49: 321-331.
University of Arizona Bulletin 41 (1916-17) Mineralogy of Useful Minerals in AZ: 34.
Tenny, J.B. (1927-1929) History of Mining in Arizona, Special Collection, University of Arizona Library & Arizona Bureau of Mines Library: 325-329.
Newhouse, W.H. (1934) The source of vanadium, molybdenum, tungsten and chromium in oxidized lead deposits. American Mineralogist: 19: 209-220.
Wilson, E.D., Cunningham, J.B., Butler, G.M. (1934) Arizona lode gold mines and gold mining. Arizona Bureau of Mines Bulletin 137: 171-173.
Peterson, N.P. (1938) Geology and Ore deposits of the Mammoth mining camp area, Pinal Co., Arizona. Arizona Bureau of Mines Bulletin 144, Geology series 11: 43.
Galbraith, F.W., Kuhn, T.H. (1940) A new occurrence of dioptase in Arizona. American Mineralogist: 25: 708-710.
Wilson, E.D. (1941) Tungsten Deposits of Arizona. Arizona Bureau of Mines Bulletin 148: 34.
Palache, C. (1941) Diaboleite from Mammoth mine, Tiger, Arizona. American Mineralogist: 26: 605-612.
Galbraith, F.W. (1947) Minerals of Arizona, Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 153: 18, 20, 21, 49.
Creasey, S.C. (1950) Arizona Zinc and Lead Deposits. Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 156: 63-84.
Fahey, J.J., Daggett, E.B., Gordon, S.G. (1950) Wherryite, a new mineral from the Mammoth mine, Arizona. American Mineralogist: 35: 93-98.
Palache, C. (1950) Paralaurionite. Mineralogical Magazine: 29: 341-345.
Wilson, E.D., et al (1950) Arizona zinc and lead deposits, part I, Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 156: 63-84.
US Atomic Energy Commission Preliminary Reconnaissance Report 172-488 (1953): 37.
Fahey, J.J. (1955) Murdochite, a new copper lead oxide mineral. American Mineralogist: 40: 905-906.
Dale, V.B. (1959) Tungsten Deposits of Yuma, Maricopa, Pinal, and Graham Counties, Arizona. U.S. Bureau of Mines Report of Investigation 5516: 41-42.
Fleischer, M. (1959) The geochemistry of rhenium, with special reference to its occurrence in molybdenite. Economic Geology: 54: 1406-1413.
Galbraith, F.W., Brennan, D.J. (1959) Minerals of Arizona: 27, 28, 32, 36, 44, 54, 57, 58, 63, 67, 72, 73, 80, 88, 96, 101.
Petersen, R.G., Hamilton, J.C., Myers, A.T. (1959) An occurrence of rhenium associated with uraninite in Coconino Co., Arizona. Economic Geology: 54: 254-267.
Bideaux, R.A., Williams, S.A. (1960) Some new occurrences of minerals of Arizona. Arizona Geological Society Digest: 3: 53-56.
Lemmon, D.M., Tweto, O.L. (1962) Tungsten in the U.S., USGS Map, MR-25.
Omori, K., Kerr, P.F. (1963) Infrared studies of saline sulfate minerals, Geological Society of America Bulletin: 74: 709-734.
Creasey, S.C. (1965) Geology of the San Manuel area, Pinal County, Arizona, USGS Professional Paper 471.
Wilson, E.D., Cunningham, J.B., Butler, G.M. (1934) Arizona Lode Gold Mines and Gold Mining (revised 1967), Arizona Bureau of Mines Bulletin: 137: 170-174.
Van Alstine, R.E., Moore, R.T. (1969) Fluorspar. Arizona Bureau of Mines Bulletin 180 (USGS Bull. 871): 353.
Williams, S.A. (1970) Bideauxite, a new Arizona mineral. Mineralogical Magazine: 37: 637-640.
Elevatorski, E.A. (1971) Arizona Department of Mineral Resources (ADMR), Arizona Fluorspar: 34-35.
McLean, W.J., Bideaux, R.A., Thomssen, R.W. (1974) Yedlinite, a new mineral from the Mammoth mine, Tiger, Arizona. American Mineralogist: 59: 1157-1159.
Wood, M.M., McLean, W.J., Laughon, R.B. (1974) The crystal structure and composition of yedlinite. American Mineralogist: 59: 1160-1165.
Williams, S.A., Bideaux, R.A. (1975) Creaseyite, Cu2Pb2(Fe,Al)2Si5O17·6H2O, a new mineral from Arizona and Sonora. Mineralogical Magazine: 40: 227-231.
Anthony, J.W., Williams, S.A., Bideaux, R.A. (1977) Mineralogy of Arizona: 17, 21.
Hicks, C.J. (1979) Molybdenum Occurrences in Arizona, Arizona Department of Mineral Resources: 22.
Bideaux, R.A. (1980) Famous Mineral Localities: Tiger, Arizona. Mineralogical Record: 11: 155-181.
Elevatorski, E.A. (1980) Arizona Industrial Minerals: 54.
Williams, S.A., Duggan, M. (1980) La macquartite: Un nouveau silico-chromate de Tiger, Arizona. Bulletin de Minéralogie: 103: 530-532.
Panczner, W.D. (1982) The Mammoth-St. Anthony Mine Tiger, Arizona. Rocks & Minerals: 57: 5-10.
Peacor, D.R., Dunn, P.J., Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Bideaux, R.A. (1985) Mammothite a new mineral from Tiger, Arizona and Laurium, Greece. The Mineralogical Record: 16: 117-120.
Phillips, K.A. (1987) Arizona Industrial Minerals, 2nd. Edition, Arizona Department of Mines & Minerals Mineral Report 4, 185 pp.
Dunn, P.J., Grice, J.D., Bideaux, R.A. (1989) Pinalite, a new lead tungsten chloride mineral from the Mammoth mine, Pinal County, Arizona. American Mineralogist: 74: 934-935.
Peirce, H.W. (1990) Arizona Geological Survey Industrial Minerals card file.
Niemuth, N.J., Phillips, K.A. (1992) Copper Oxide Resources, Arizona Department of Mines & Mineral Resources Open File Report 92-10: 14 (Table 1).
Sawyer, M.B., Gurmendi, A.C., Daley, M.R., Howell, S.B. (1992) Principal Deposits of Strategic and Critical Minerals in Arizona, U.S. Bureau of Mines Special Publication: 334 pp.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.: 100-101, 104, 108, 112, 121, 123, 126, 129, 131, 135, 141, 147, 161, 164, 174, 183, 191, 192, 197, 201, 202, 206, 212, 224, 225, 229, 235, 248, 250, 252, 259, 260, 275, 278, 282, 287, 291, 299, 300, 301, 307, 308, 319, 321, 329, 330, 332, 336, 344, 351, 368, 374, 378, 386, 391, 404, 411, 419, 421, 426, 427, 429.
Jones, B. (2004) Keeping the Tiger alive: Mineral keepsakes from a famous Arizona mine. Rock and Gem: 34(8): 20-25.
USGS (2005) Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10008541, MRDS ID #D000829 and Dep. ID #10039507, MRDS ID #M050189; and Dep. ID #10234741, MRDS ID #TC35378; and Dep. ID. 10210522.
Grant, R.W., Bideaux, R.A., Williams, S.A. (2006) Minerals Added to the Arizona List 1995-2005: 8.
Cook, R.B. (2010) Linarite Mammoth-St. Anthony Mine, Tiger, Pinal County, Arizona. Rocks & Minerals: 81: 208-213.
Kampf, A.R., Pluth, J.J., Chen, Y.-S., Roberts, A.C., Housley, R.M. (2012) Bobmeyerite, IMA 2012-019. CNMNC Newsletter No. 14, October 2012, page 1282.
Williams, P.A., Hatert, F., Pasero, M., Mills, S.J. (2012) New minerals and nomenclature modifications approved in 2012. Mineralogical Magazine: 76: 1281-1288.
U.S. Bureau of Mines, Minerals Availability System (MAS) file ID #0040210090 & #0040210663.
Arizona Department of Mineral Resources Magma Copper Co. Active File.
Arizona Department of Mineral Resources Mammoth-Tiger Extension Mining Corp. file.
Arizona Department of Mineral Resources St. Anthony Mining and Development Co. file.
Arizona Department of Mineral Resources Magma Copper Co. Active files.
USGS Mammoth Quadrangle map.

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