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Gams stratigraphic sections (Stratigraphic sections Gams 1-3; Gams section; Knappengraben section; Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary outcrops; K-T boundary outcrops), Gams bei Hieflau, Landl, Liezen District, Styria, Austriai
Regional Level Types
Gams stratigraphic sections (Stratigraphic sections Gams 1-3; Gams section; Knappengraben section; Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary outcrops; K-T boundary outcrops)Exposure
Gams bei HieflauVillage
LandlMunicipality
Liezen DistrictDistrict
StyriaState
AustriaCountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
47° 39' 47'' North , 14° 52' 59'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Palfau369 (2018)7.4km
Gams bei Hieflau517 (2018)7.5km
Wildalpen464 (2018)7.6km
Lassing169 (2018)7.8km
Mooslandl396 (2018)8.8km


In the upper course of the Gams river (Gamsbach), the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary follows more or less the base of the valley. Because of wide-spread Pleistocene deposits, a thick soil cover and the vegetation, rocks are generally outcropping along streams and in roadcuts. They are therefore temporary in most cases.


The material thoroughly studied by Grachev and coauthors (see references below) has been recovered from three outcrops:

- Outcrop Gams 1 or Knappengraben section (coordinates: 47°39.783' N, 14°52.982' E - see place marker on the map), located 700 m south of the abandoned farmhouse Kronsteiner at the crossing between the forest road and the Knappengraben stream. The outcrop is presently protected by a fenced shelter and is only accessible by permission. It exposes a section of the Nierental Formation across the K/T boundary. Beds are dipping at 40° towards SSE. The base is formed by pale grey, late Maastrichtian shaly limestones with a well-defined ichnofauna. The transitional boundary layer consists of dark grey plastic clay containing small mica particles. It is overlain by grey clays and thin, yellowish to brown fine-grained, sandstone layers;

- Outcrop Gams 2 (coordinates: 47°39.47' N, 14°52.05' E) located E of the old Haid sawmill. It is a river cut on the right (north) side of the Gamsbach, just above the alluvial flat. Nierental Formation with the K/T boundary is exposed at a length of approximately 10 m. The rocks dip at 15–30° towards SW. A neptunian dike extends into the Maastrichtian limestone from the top towards a depth of 1 m. Its infilling consists of clay with high mica content. Although it has been formed before the deposition of the transitional layer the composition of clays in virtually the same;

- Outcrop Gams 3 (coordinates: 47°39.79' N, 14°52.54' E) located on the left bank of the Gamsbach, 350 m W of the abandoned farm house Kronsteiner. The sequence is the same as in the previous outcrops. The rocks dip at 45° towards S.


The 2-cm-thick transitional layer at the K/T boundary shows a significant vertical geochemical zonation the from the bottom to the top. According to Grachev et al. (2008) and Grachev (2009), at the first stage (duration approximately 1500 years at conservative estimates of the sedimentation rate), the transitional layer formed under the influence of volcanic ash; it is marked by the presence of titaniferous magnetite, gold, copper, and sulfides (pyrite, arsenopyrite, galena, pentlandite, pyrrhotite, and sphalerite), as well as high concentrations of Ir, As, Zn, Cu, Cr, and other elements. At the second stage, the sedimentation pattern was influenced by the fall of an asteroid (meteorite), traces of which are recorded as pure nickel globules, awaruite, moissanite, and diamond crystals.


All minerals listed here have been found in the transitional clay layer at the K/T boundary. From a mineralogical point of view the following phases, found in in the ultraheavy fraction (ore minerals) of the lower part of the transitional layer, are particularly interesting:
- rhenium (Grachev et al., 2008 a; Grachev, 2009), as grains less than 30 μm in size from the Gams 2 section. Their composition is quite similar to that of pure rhenium with traces of Fe (0.07 wt.%);
- platinum not alloyed with other metals (Grachev, 2009). Native platinum has been discovered under the study of residue fraction of clay. After dissolution of 200 g of clay with HF and HCl, ten grains of platinum by total volume of 8×104μm3 in a residue of 16 mg by weight were found. The simple recalculation gives the content of Pt in clays about 10 ppb. Microprobe analyses of these Pt grains showed the existence of pure platinum not alloyed with other metals (seven grains). Such result is unusual because pure platinum is unknown in nature. Attention was paid to the specific morphology of such Pt grains: they have the irregular shape outlines with well-developed branching, tree-like and transverse-hummocky structures. Furthermore, extremely surprising is the occurrence of a thin film of Pt on the surface of a rounded zircon grain. In Grachev's opinion, it means that film of Pt has been formed in situ due to authigenic flux from sea water during the transitional layer deposition. Platinum was initially dispersed in sea water as a result of volcanic aerosol settling;
- silver and palladium-silver series (Grachev, 2009). Two different Ag-bearing phases were recognized in the lower part of transitional layer of Gams 2 section. The first one is native silver, whose composition corresponds to 98.7% of Ag. It occurs as twin crystals and its outline resembles the silver crystals formed in primary hydrothermal veins. The second one is represented by nugget plates, less than 20 μm in size, of a palladium-silver alloy of composition Ag47Pd53, i.e. Ag0.93Pd1.07. This phase is similar to UM1992-06-E:AgPd. However, palladium and silver are completely miscible and there is a complete solid solution between palladium and silver. According to the IMA–CNMNC rule of the dominant constituent, this alloy in which palladium predominates, although very rich in silver, is termed palladium;
- α-brass with composition Cu67Zn33, i.e.Cu2.71Zn1.29 (Grachev, 2009);
- unnamed (Ni-Cu-Zn-Sn alloys) with Ni in the range 52.33-82.44 wt.%, Cu 10.33-33.23 wt.%, Zn 0.00-19.77 wt.%, and Sn 0.00-30.61 wt.% (Grachev, 2009).

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Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


51 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Acanthite
Formula: Ag2S
Reference: Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Almandine
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
'α-Brass'
Formula: Cu3Zn
Reference: Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
'Amphibole Supergroup'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Reference: Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Anatase
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
'Apatite'
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Reference: Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Reference: Grachev, A.F., Borisovsky, S.E., and Grigor'eva, A.V. (2008) The first find of native rhenium in the transitional clay layer at the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary in the Gams section (Eastern Alps, Austria). Doklady Earth Sciences, 422(7), 1065-1067; Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Awaruite
Formula: Ni3Fe
Reference: Grachev, A.F., Borisovsky, S.E., and Grigor'eva, A.V. (2008) The first find of native rhenium in the transitional clay layer at the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary in the Gams section (Eastern Alps, Austria). Doklady Earth Sciences, 422(7), 1065-1067; Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
'Bravoite'
Formula: (Fe,Ni)S2
Reference: Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Brookite
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Chromite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Reference: Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Copper
Formula: Cu
Reference: Grachev, A.F., Borisovsky, S.E., and Grigor'eva, A.V. (2008) The first find of native rhenium in the transitional clay layer at the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary in the Gams section (Eastern Alps, Austria). Doklady Earth Sciences, 422(7), 1065-1067; Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Cordierite
Formula: (Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Reference: Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Corundum
Formula: Al2O3
Reference: Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Diamond
Formula: C
Reference: Grachev, A.F., Korchagin, O.A., Kollmann, H., Pechersky, D.M., and Tsel’movich, V.A. (2005) A new look at the nature of the transitional layer at the K/T boundary near Gams, Eastern Alps, Austria, and the problem of the mass extinction of the biota. Russian Journal of Earth Sciences, 7, 1–45, doi:10.2205/2005ES000189; Grachev, A.F., Borisovsky, S.E., and Grigor'eva, A.V. (2008) The first find of native rhenium in the transitional clay layer at the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary in the Gams section (Eastern Alps, Austria). Doklady Earth Sciences, 422(7), 1065-1067; Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Reference: Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Reference: Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Forsterite
Formula: Mg2SiO4
Reference: Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Grachev, A.F., Borisovsky, S.E., and Grigor'eva, A.V. (2008) The first find of native rhenium in the transitional clay layer at the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary in the Gams section (Eastern Alps, Austria). Doklady Earth Sciences, 422(7), 1065-1067; Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
'Glauconite'
Formula: (K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Reference: Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Gold
Formula: Au
Reference: Grachev, A.F., Borisovsky, S.E., and Grigor'eva, A.V. (2008) The first find of native rhenium in the transitional clay layer at the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary in the Gams section (Eastern Alps, Austria). Doklady Earth Sciences, 422(7), 1065-1067; Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Reference: Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Iridium
Formula: (Ir,Os,Ru)
Reference: Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Iridium var: Osmiridium
Formula: (Ir,Os,Ru)
Reference: Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Iron
Formula: Fe
Reference: Grachev, A.F., Borisovsky, S.E., and Grigor'eva, A.V. (2008) The first find of native rhenium in the transitional clay layer at the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary in the Gams section (Eastern Alps, Austria). Doklady Earth Sciences, 422(7), 1065-1067; Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Kyanite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Reference: Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Magnesite
Formula: MgCO3
Reference: Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Grachev, A.F., Borisovsky, S.E., and Grigor'eva, A.V. (2008) The first find of native rhenium in the transitional clay layer at the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary in the Gams section (Eastern Alps, Austria). Doklady Earth Sciences, 422(7), 1065-1067; Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Magnetite var: Titaniferous Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
Reference: Grachev, A.F., Borisovsky, S.E., and Grigor'eva, A.V. (2008) The first find of native rhenium in the transitional clay layer at the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary in the Gams section (Eastern Alps, Austria). Doklady Earth Sciences, 422(7), 1065-1067; Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Moissanite
Formula: SiC
Reference: Grachev, A.F., Borisovsky, S.E., and Grigor'eva, A.V. (2008) The first find of native rhenium in the transitional clay layer at the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary in the Gams section (Eastern Alps, Austria). Doklady Earth Sciences, 422(7), 1065-1067; Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Reference: Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Monazite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce(PO4)
Reference: Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Muscovite var: Illite
Formula: K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Reference: Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Nickel
Formula: Ni
Reference: Grachev, A.F., Tsel’movich, V. A., Korchagin, O. A., and Kollmann, H. (2007 b) Two spinel populations from Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary clay layer in the Gams stratigraphic sequence, Eastern Alps. Russian Journal of Earth Sciences, 9, ES2002, doi:10.2205/2007ES000297; Grachev, A.F., Borisovsky, S.E., and Grigor'eva, A.V. (2008) The first find of native rhenium in the transitional clay layer at the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary in the Gams section (Eastern Alps, Austria). Doklady Earth Sciences, 422(7), 1065-1067; Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Palladium
Formula: (Pd,Pt)
Description: Very rich in silver.
Reference: Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Pentlandite
Formula: (FexNiy)Σ9S8
Reference: Grachev, A.F., Borisovsky, S.E., and Grigor'eva, A.V. (2008) The first find of native rhenium in the transitional clay layer at the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary in the Gams section (Eastern Alps, Austria). Doklady Earth Sciences, 422(7), 1065-1067; Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Platinum
Formula: Pt
Reference: Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Grachev, A.F., Borisovsky, S.E., and Grigor'eva, A.V. (2008) The first find of native rhenium in the transitional clay layer at the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary in the Gams section (Eastern Alps, Austria). Doklady Earth Sciences, 422(7), 1065-1067; Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Reference: Grachev, A.F., Borisovsky, S.E., and Grigor'eva, A.V. (2008) The first find of native rhenium in the transitional clay layer at the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary in the Gams section (Eastern Alps, Austria). Doklady Earth Sciences, 422(7), 1065-1067; Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
'Rhenium'
Formula: Re
Reference: Grachev, A.F., Borisovsky, S.E., and Grigor'eva, A.V. (2008) The first find of native rhenium in the transitional clay layer at the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary in the Gams section (Eastern Alps, Austria). Doklady Earth Sciences, 422(7), 1065-1067; Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Silver
Formula: Ag
Reference: Grachev, A.F., Borisovsky, S.E., and Grigor'eva, A.V. (2008) The first find of native rhenium in the transitional clay layer at the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary in the Gams section (Eastern Alps, Austria). Doklady Earth Sciences, 422(7), 1065-1067; Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
'Smectite Group'
Formula: A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
Reference: Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Spessartine
Formula: Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Grachev, A.F., Borisovsky, S.E., and Grigor'eva, A.V. (2008) The first find of native rhenium in the transitional clay layer at the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary in the Gams section (Eastern Alps, Austria). Doklady Earth Sciences, 422(7), 1065-1067; Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Spinel
Formula: MgAl2O4
Reference: Grachev, A.F., Tsel’movich, V. A., Korchagin, O. A., and Kollmann, H. (2007 b) Two spinel populations from Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary clay layer in the Gams stratigraphic sequence, Eastern Alps. Russian Journal of Earth Sciences, 9, ES2002, doi:10.2205/2007ES000297; Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Reference: Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Violarite
Formula: Fe2+Ni3+2S4
Reference: Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Witherite
Formula: BaCO3
Reference: Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Xenotime-(Y)
Formula: Y(PO4)
Reference: Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Reference: Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Awaruite1.AE.20Ni3Fe
Copper1.AA.05Cu
Diamond1.CB.10aC
Gold1.AA.05Au
Iridium1.AF.10(Ir,Os,Ru)
var: Osmiridium1.AF.10(Ir,Os,Ru)
Iron1.AE.05Fe
Moissanite1.DA.SiC
Nickel1.AA.05Ni
Palladium1.AF.10(Pd,Pt)
Platinum1.AF.10Pt
'Rhenium'1.AB.05Re
Silver1.AA.05Ag
'α-Brass'1.AB.10aCu3Zn
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Acanthite2.BA.35Ag2S
Arsenopyrite2.EB.20FeAsS
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Molybdenite2.EA.30MoS2
Pentlandite2.BB.15(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Violarite2.DA.05Fe2+Ni3+2S4
Group 3 - Halides
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Anatase4.DD.05TiO2
Brookite4.DD.10TiO2
Chromite4.BB.05Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Corundum4.CB.05Al2O3
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Ilmenite4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
var: Titaniferous Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Spinel4.BB.05MgAl2O4
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Magnesite5.AB.05MgCO3
Witherite5.AB.15BaCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Monazite-(Ce)8.AD.50Ce(PO4)
Xenotime-(Y)8.AD.35Y(PO4)
Group 9 - Silicates
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Almandine9.AD.25Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Cordierite9.CJ.10(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Diopside9.DA.15CaMgSi2O6
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Forsterite9.AC.05Mg2SiO4
Kyanite9.AF.15Al2(SiO4)O
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Illite9.EC.15K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Orthoclase9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Spessartine9.AD.25Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Bravoite'-(Fe,Ni)S2
'Chlorite Group'-
'Glauconite'-(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
'Smectite Group'-A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Awaruite1.1.11.4Ni3Fe
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Nickel1.1.11.5Ni
Silver1.1.1.2Ag
Platinum Group Metals and Alloys
Iridium1.2.1.2(Ir,Os,Ru)
Palladium1.2.1.4(Pd,Pt)
Platinum1.2.1.1Pt
'Rhenium'1.2.2.4Re
Semi-metals and non-metals
Diamond1.3.6.1C
Moissanite1.3.8.1SiC
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Acanthite2.4.1.1Ag2S
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 9:8
Pentlandite2.7.1.1(FexNiy)Σ9S8
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:4
Violarite2.10.1.8Fe2+Ni3+2S4
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Molybdenite2.12.10.1MoS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Corundum4.3.1.1Al2O3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
AX2
Anatase4.4.4.1TiO2
Brookite4.4.5.1TiO2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Chromite7.2.3.3Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Spinel7.2.1.1MgAl2O4
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Magnesite14.1.1.2MgCO3
Witherite14.1.3.2BaCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 38 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, AND VANADATES
AXO4
Monazite-(Ce)38.4.3.1Ce(PO4)
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with all cations in octahedral [6] coordination
Forsterite51.3.1.2Mg2SiO4
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Almandine51.4.3a.2Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Spessartine51.4.3a.3Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and >[4] coordination
Kyanite52.2.2c.1Al2(SiO4)O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with Al substituted rings
Cordierite61.2.1.1(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Diopside65.1.3a.1CaMgSi2O6
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
'Glauconite'71.2.2a.5(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Illite71.2.2d.2K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Orthoclase76.1.1.1K(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Bravoite'-(Fe,Ni)S2
'Chlorite Group'-
Iridium
var: Osmiridium
-(Ir,Os,Ru)
Iron-Fe
Magnetite
var: Titaniferous Magnetite
-Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
'Smectite Group'-A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Xenotime-(Y)-Y(PO4)
'α-Brass'-Cu3Zn

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
H Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
H Glauconite(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Smectite GroupA0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
H Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
BBoron
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
CCarbon
C MoissaniteSiC
C DiamondC
C CalciteCaCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C MagnesiteMgCO3
C WitheriteBaCO3
OOxygen
O Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)
O Magnetite (var: Titaniferous Magnetite)Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O AnataseTiO2
O BrookiteTiO2
O ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
O CorundumAl2O3
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O HematiteFe2O3
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O RutileTiO2
O SpinelMgAl2O4
O CalciteCaCO3
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O MagnesiteMgCO3
O WitheriteBaCO3
O BaryteBaSO4
O ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
O Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
O Glauconite(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
O Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
O DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O QuartzSiO2
O AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
O SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
O KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O ForsteriteMg2SiO4
O OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O Smectite GroupA0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
O Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
FFluorine
F FluoriteCaF2
F ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
F Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na Glauconite(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
MgMagnesium
Mg SpinelMgAl2O4
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg MagnesiteMgCO3
Mg Glauconite(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Mg Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Mg DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Mg ForsteriteMg2SiO4
AlAluminium
Al CorundumAl2O3
Al SpinelMgAl2O4
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Al Glauconite(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Al Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Al Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
SiSilicon
Si MoissaniteSiC
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Si Glauconite(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Si Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Si DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si QuartzSiO2
Si AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si ForsteriteMg2SiO4
Si OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
Si TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Si Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
PPhosphorus
P Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)
P ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
P Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)
SSulfur
S PyriteFeS2
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S GalenaPbS
S Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S SphaleriteZnS
S AcanthiteAg2S
S Bravoite(Fe,Ni)S2
S MolybdeniteMoS2
S ViolariteFe2+Ni23+S4
S BaryteBaSO4
ClChlorine
Cl ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Cl Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
KPotassium
K Glauconite(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
K Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Ca DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
TiTitanium
Ti Magnetite (var: Titaniferous Magnetite)Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
Ti AnataseTiO2
Ti BrookiteTiO2
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Ti RutileTiO2
Ti Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
CrChromium
Cr ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
MnManganese
Mn SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
FeIron
Fe Magnetite (var: Titaniferous Magnetite)Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe AwaruiteNi3Fe
Fe IronFe
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe Bravoite(Fe,Ni)S2
Fe ViolariteFe2+Ni23+S4
Fe ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Fe Glauconite(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Fe Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
NiNickel
Ni Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Ni NickelNi
Ni AwaruiteNi3Fe
Ni Bravoite(Fe,Ni)S2
Ni ViolariteFe2+Ni23+S4
CuCopper
Cu CopperCu
Cu α-BrassCu3Zn
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn α-BrassCu3Zn
AsArsenic
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
YYttrium
Y Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)
ZrZirconium
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)
MoMolybdenum
Mo MolybdeniteMoS2
RuRuthenium
Ru Iridium (var: Osmiridium)(Ir,Os,Ru)
PdPalladium
Pd Palladium(Pd,Pt)
AgSilver
Ag SilverAg
Ag AcanthiteAg2S
BaBarium
Ba WitheriteBaCO3
Ba BaryteBaSO4
CeCerium
Ce Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)
ReRhenium
Re RheniumRe
OsOsmium
Os Iridium (var: Osmiridium)(Ir,Os,Ru)
IrIridium
Ir Iridium (var: Osmiridium)(Ir,Os,Ru)
Ir Iridium(Ir,Os,Ru)
PtPlatinum
Pt PlatinumPt
AuGold
Au GoldAu
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS

References

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Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Lahodynsky, R. (1988) Geology of the K/T boundary site at Knappengraben creek (Gams, Styria). IGCP Project 199, Rare events in geology, Abstracts. Berichte der Geologischen Bundesanstalt, 15, 33–36.
Grachev, A.F., Korchagin, O.A., Kollmann, H., Pechersky, D.M., and Tsel’movich, V.A. (2005) A new look at the nature of the transitional layer at the K/T boundary near Gams, Eastern Alps, Austria, and the problem of the mass extinction of the biota. Russian Journal of Earth Sciences, 7, 1–45, doi:10.2205/2005ES000189.
Pechersky, D.M., Grachev, A.F., Nourgaliev ,D.K., Tsel’movich, V.A., and Sharonova, Z.V. (2006), Magnetolithologic and magnetomineralogical characteristics of deposits at the Mesozoic/Cenozoic boundary: Gams section (Austria). Russian Journal of Earth Sciences, 8(3), ES3001, doi:10.2205/2006ES000204.
Grachev, A.F., Kamensky, I.L., Korchagin, O. A., and Kollmann, H. (2007 a) First data on He isotopic signatures in the Cretaceous-Paleogene clay boundary layer at Gams, Eastern Alps. Izvestiya, Physics of Solid Earth, 43(9), 7.
Grachev, A.F., Tsel’movich, V. A., Korchagin, O. A., and Kollmann, H. (2007 b) Two spinel populations from Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary clay layer in the Gams stratigraphic sequence, Eastern Alps. Russian Journal of Earth Sciences, 9, ES2002, doi:10.2205/2007ES000297.
Grachev, A.F., Borisovsky, S.E., and Grigor'eva, A.V. (2008 a) The first find of native rhenium in the transitional clay layer at the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary in the Gams section (Eastern Alps, Austria). Doklady Earth Sciences, 422(7), 1065-1067.
Grachev, A.F., Korchagin, O.A., Tsel’movich, V.A., and Kollmann, H. (2008 b) Cosmic dust and micrometeorites in the transitional clay layer at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary int he Gams section (Eastern Alps): morphology and chemical composition. Izvestiya, Physics of the Solid Earth, 44,(7), 555–569.
Grachev, A.F., Pechersky, D.M., Borisovsky, S.E., and Tsel’movich, V.A. (2008 c) Magnetic minerals in sediments at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary (the Gams section, Eastern Alps). Izvestiya, Physics of the Solid Earth, 44(10), 789–803.
Pechersky, D.M., Grachev, A.F., Nourgaliev, D.K., and Sharonova, Z.V. (2008) Petromagnetic properties of sediments at the K/T boundary (Gams section, Austria). Izvestiya, Physics of the Solid Earth, 44(5), 55–74.
Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).

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