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World's Fair Mine (Henry Ford Mine; Bonnie Carrie Mine), Alum Gulch, Harshaw District, Patagonia Mts, Santa Cruz Co., Arizona, USA

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 31° 28' 46'' North , 110° 44' 16'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 31.47944,-110.73778
Other regions containing this locality:Sonoran Desert, North America

‡Ref.: Schrader, F.C. & J.M. Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, Arizona, USGS Bull. 582: 248-251.

Arizona Mining Journal (1920) Worlds Fair: 4(5): 10.

Tenney, J.B. (1927-1929) History of Mining in Arizona, Special Collection, University of Arizona Library & Arizona Bureau of Mines Library: 301-303.

Blanchard, R. & P.F. Boswell (1930), Limonite types derived from bornite and tetrahedrite, Econ.Geol. 25: 557-580.

Kartchner, W.E. (1944) The geology and ore deposits of a portion of the Harshaw district, Patagonia Mountains, Arizona: Tucson, University of Arizona, Ph.D. dissertation, 100 p.

Galbraith, F.W. (1947), Minerals of Arizona, Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 153: 9.

Simons, F.S. (1974) Geologic map and sections of the Nogales and Lochiel quadrangles, Santa Cruz County, Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-762, 9 p., 1 sheet, scale 1:48,000.

Keith, Stanton B. (1975), Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 191, Index of Mining Properties in Santa Cruz County Arizona: 60 (Table 4).

Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.: 104, 259, 323, 373, 393.

U.S. Bureau of Mines - Arizona Bureau of Geology and Mineral Technology file data.

Arizona Bureau of Mines file data.

MRDS database Dep. ID file #10109888, MRDS ID #M899917; and, Dep. ID #10283913, MAS ID #0040230413.

A former small surface and underground Ag-Pb-Cu-Zn-Au-Sb mine located on 8 claims (19 unpatented lode claims ?) in West-central (S½NW¼) sec. 32, T.22S., R.16E., near the center of the western part of the district, 2 miles west of Harshaw, and ½ mile N or the Trench Mine and mill, on Alum Gulch, at an elevation of about 4,680 feet, on National Forest land. It was located in 1879 by Mr. McNamee, who reportedly abandoned it in 1881. It was relocated in 1883 by Mr. William Moran, who sold it to Frank Powers in 1884 who still held it circa 1915. Produced 1879-1954. Also owned at times, or in part, by the World's Fair Development Co.; World's Fair Mining Co. (1909); Zero Mining Co. (1928); and the Trench Mining Co. (1929). Owned and operated by the Platoro Corp. (1964). Owners and operators also included Mr. McNamee (1879-1881); Mr. W. Moran (1883-1884); Mr. Frank Powers (1884-1904); Phelps Dodge Co. (1912); the Commonwealth Development Co. of Pearce (1917-1918); the Bachman-Merritt Metals Co.; Mr. L.L. Ferry; Mr. C. Scheler; Mr. M. Hogan (1923-1926); Richey, Mr. Max Drachman, the Gold Canyon Mining Co. (1936); Mr. J.C. Schell (1937-1941); A. Griffith and Kramer, the American Smelting and Refining Co. (ASARCO)(1952); and, Kelsey (1954).

Mineralization is narrow fissure veins with rich argentiferous cerussite in the oxidized zone and argentiferous galena and other sulfides & sulfosalts and silver antimonides, with quartz and barite in depth. The veins are along the contact between Cretaceous andesite and Laramide rhyolitic volcanics containing some limestone blocks. The ore zone is 4.27 meters wide, with a depth to bottom of 304.8 meters, striking NNW and dipping 45-80 WSW. Wall rocks are strongly propylitized and pyritized. Some antimonial silver ore rich in gold. Strong pyrite gossan. Disseminated silver values in the wall rocks. Some native silver. An associated rock unit is the Josephine Canyon Diorite.

Chalcopyrite and pyrite are finely disseminated in wall rock; ores are rich and spotty. The N-S-trending vein developed on two slips that converge and diverge, forming pinch and swell structures. Swells are wholely or partially mineralized. The pinch and swell structures succeed each other at intervals usually under 50 feet. Vein croppings extend 660 feet or more to the south of the mine. Vein deposits have a known vertical range of 1000 feet, 400 feet of which is seen in croppings and 600 feet seen in the mine. Croppings average 10-14 feet wide while the vein in the mine is about 6 feet wide.

The country rock is a small area of diorite which forms the northward continuation of the Harshaw belt, but which at the mine is almost surrounded, overlain, and intruded by rhyolite and is more or less pyritic and mineralized. The rhyolite, which is also considerably mineralized and altered, seems to be similar to that at Red Mountain, with which it is apparently connected. Just across the canyon east of the mine the surface is underlain by a purple altered andesitic volcanic rock composed almost wholly of oligoclase-andesine and a little biotite or altered hornblende.

The deposits are apparently about all on or associated with the contact of the rhyolite intruded into the diorite. The workings trend NNW and the deposits seem to dip about 80º WSW, into the mountain, but in the mine the dip is reportedly about 45º. The deposits have a known vertical range of about 1,000 feet. The croppings are irregular and in places difficult to identify and follow.
The cropping range from 10 to 14 feet in width, and the average width of the vein in the mine is reported to be about 6 feet (2 meters). The metalliferous minerals are said to occur mostly in the rhyolite or hanging wall side of the contact.

In the upper workings the ores, it is said, were mostly rich lead-silver sulphides, but below water level, in the unoxidized zone, they carry besides galena consioderable copper, mostly in the form of tetrahedrite, with some chalcocite and antimonial silver, in places rich in gold. There is also a sprinkling of finely disseminated chalcopyrite and pyrite.

The vein is cut off by a flat-dipping fault at the south end of the tunnel. The upper fault block is probably moved east but no exploration has been done in order to locate the offset upper portion of the vein beyond the flat fault. Ore minerals along the contact concentrate mainly in rhyolite or the hanging wall side of the contact. Baryte forms seams, blades, and plates filling fractures and cavities (indicating late or post-vein age). Hydrothermal alteration and limonite mineralization appear to extend beyond the limits of narrow veins on the property.

Tectonic elements include the Meadow Valley Trachyandesite flow; thick lava flows of the Harshaw-Trench Camp area.

Workings include extensive tunnel and shaft operations with development to the 600 level (182.8 meters)(circa 1915). It contained about 15,000 feet (4572 meters) of drifts, tunnels, stopes, shafts, and winzes. The main entrance is a crosscut tunnel at an elevation of 4,680 feet. A winze was sunk a reported 600 feet from this tunnel, with drifting 1,000 feet each way from the winze on the vein at levels spaced 100 feet apart. Shallow openings to the south of the mine are along N-S rhyolite dike cutting diorite. A 10-stamp mill was erected on the property, Worked from the early 1880's to 1954 and produced some 13,000 tons of ore averaging about 58 oz. Ag/T, 6.6% Pb, 0.7% Cu, and minor Au and Zn.

Mineral List

14 valid minerals.

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on

Ypresian - Campanian
47.8 - 83.6 Ma
Early Tertiary to Late Cretaceous volcanic rocks

Age: Phanerozoic (47.8 - 83.6 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Williamson Canyon Volcanics

Description: Rhyolite to andesite and closely associated sedimentary and near-surface intrusive rocks; commonly dark gray to dark greenish gray or greenish brown. In the ranges west of Tucson, this unit includes thick welded ash-flow tuffs. Volcanic rocks of this unit are inferred to be derived from vents and volcanoes above magma chambers that solidified to form the granitic rocks of map unit TKg. These rocks are restricted to southeastern Arizona except for a small outcrop near Bagdad. (50-82 Ma)

Comments: Related, broadly, to unit TKg

Lithology: Major:{rhyolite,dacite,andesite}, Minor:{clastic}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Data and map coding provided by, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

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