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Union Carbide Mine, Wilson Springs (Potash Sulfur Springs), Garland Co., Arkansas, USA

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 34° 28' 44'' North , 92° 58' 0'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 34.47902,-92.96688
Köppen climate type:Cfa : Humid subtropical climate

A vanadium mine owned by Union Carbide Corp. Explored in the 1960's. Opened 1966 and closed 1985.
Mineralization is an igneous complex with vanadium ore in adjacent, altered rocks. Workings feature 4 large open pit mines, including the E. & N. Wilson Pit, T Orebody & Spaulding Pit.

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

59 valid minerals. 2 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on

Early Mississippian - Late Devonian
346.7 - 382.7 Ma

ID: 2684338
Arkansas Novaculite

Age: Paleozoic (346.7 - 382.7 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Arkansas Novaculite

Description: Three informal divisions of the Arkansas Novaculite are recognized: The lower division is white to dark-gray cryptocrystalline quartz. Fine-grained novaculite is translucent on thin edges and is harder and denser than opaque coarser-grained novaculite. Bedding is massive, 4 to 30 feet (1.2-9.1 m) thick, with interbedded gray shales, minor amounts of sandstone and conglomerate near the base. Bedding planes are locally very flat and can be confused with joint planes. A hummocky surface was also common. On Glazypeau Mountain the lower novaculite pinches out, and when present, sandstone is encountered at the base. The lower division is a prominent ridge former, is approximately 275 feet (84 m) thick in Hot Springs and thickens in the Trap Mountains to 450 feet (137 m). The middle division is typically dark-gray to black siliceous shale interbedded with numerous thin beds of dark novaculite and chert. In the Zigzag Mountains the novaculite and chert beds are generally less than two inches thick, but in the Trap Mountains they range from 2 to 4 inches (5-10 cm) thick. Thin- to thick-bedded quartz arenite sandstone resembling the Hot Springs Sandstone is present in the Trap Mountains in Lake Catherine State Park. This division reaches a maximum thickness of 80 feet (0-24 m) in the Zigzag Mountains and 100 to 300 feet (30-91 m) in the Trap Mountains. The contact with the lower division is sharp. Locally this division is totally or partially replaced by conglomerate. The upper division is white, thin- bedded novaculite interbedded with soft, white shale and is typically calcareous and tripolitic. Thicker beds of novaculite at the top of this division resemble the lower member with beds are up to 4 feet thick. This unit becomes thin-bedded in the Glazypeau Mountain area and resembles the Bigfork Chert. Thickness of the upper division reaches a maximum of 160 feet (0-49 m) in Hot Springs and 100 feet (0-30 m) in the Trap Mountains. The contact with the Stanley Shale and/or Hot Springs Sandstone is unconformable. Locally, the upper and/or middle divisions are eroded and replaced by conglomerate. Grain size of the novaculite averages about 5 microns (Holbrook and Stone, 1978). Conglomerates with novaculite clasts occur at various intervals in the formation and are deposited by granular-grain flows that form beds several inches thick to boulder-clast flows several feet thick. The novaculites are 99 percent silica with the remaining one percent predominantly pyrite and/or FeMn-bearing calcite (J.M. Howard, per. comm., 2010). Many quartz veins occur within the novaculite, but are too small to observe in outcrop. This unit and the Hot Springs Sandstone compose the backbone of the Zigzag Mountains in the Hot Springs area. The estimated total thickness of the Arkansas Novaculite in the Hot Springs area is 400 feet (122 m) and reaches 600 feet (183 m) in the Trap Mountains. Flow indicators include ripples marks, distributary channel features and thickening to the south. The contact with the middle division of the Arkansas Novaculite is unconformable and often marked by a conglomerate or breccia. GRI Source Map ID 75565 (Arkansas Geological Survey DGM-HSR-003)

Reference: Adapted from Arkansas Geological Survey Digital Geologic Quadrangle Map by Johnson and Hanson (2011). Unpublished Interim Digital Geologic Map of Hot Springs National Park and Vicinity, Arkansas, . National Park Service Geologic Resources Inventory program. [119]

419.2 - 443.8 Ma

ID: 3026843
Missouri Mountain Shale and Baylock Sandstone

Age: Silurian (419.2 - 443.8 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Missouri Mountain Shale; Baylock Sandstone

Description: The Baylock Sandstone is present only in the Cross, Cossatot, and Trap Mountains. Missouri Mountain Shale is mapped with Polk Creek Shale and Bigfork Chert in the area between Paron, Saline County, and Little Rock.

Comments: Missouri Mtn. Shale-argillitic shale with minor sandstone and conglomerate (250 ft.); Baylock Sandstone-sandstone with minor siltstone and shale (1000 ft.) Approximatly 1250 ft. maximum thickness. Summary- 75% sandstone, 20% shale, 5% other

Lithology: Major:{sandstone}, Minor:{shale}, Incidental:{conglomerate, siltstone}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Data and map coding provided by, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

Localities in this Region


This page contains all mineral locality references listed on This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.


Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
- Rocks & Minerals: 63: 108
- Rocks & Minerals: 64: 296
- Stone et al. (1982)
- Evans et al. (1984), Mineralogical Magazine 48: 289
- Smith, Art, Collecting Arkansas Minerals
- Rocks & Minerals (1995): 70: 154-170.

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